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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092363/mouse-models-of-uv-induced-melanoma-genetics-pathology-and-clinical-relevance
#1
Chi-Ping Day, Rachel Marchalik, Glenn Merlino, Helen Michael
Melanocytes, a neural crest cell derivative, produce pigment to protect keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Although melanocytic lesions such as nevi and cutaneous malignant melanomas are known to be associated with sun exposure, the role of UVR in oncogenesis is complex and has yet to be clearly elucidated. UVR appears to have a direct mutational role in inducing or promoting melanoma formation as well as an indirect role through microenvironmental changes. Recent advances in the modeling of human melanoma in animals have built platforms upon which prospective studies can begin to investigate these questions...
January 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090415/non-melanoma-associated-dyschromia-of-the-proximal-nail-fold
#2
Nicole C DeMartinis, Philip R Cohen
Subungual melanoma with pigmentation beneath the nail that extends to involve the proximal nail fold is referred to as Hutchinson's sign. Black or brown subungual discoloration involving the proximal nail fold secondary to other etiologies has been referred to as pseudo-Hutchinson's sign. Three patients with nail discoloration and concurrent dyschromia of the proximal nail fold are described: a female with a chronic subungual hematoma and pseudo-Hutchinson's sign, a male with culture-confirmed Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P...
December 9, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078437/senescence-in-the-lesional-fibroblasts-of-non-segmental-vitiligo-patients
#3
Seema Rani, Supriya Bhardwaj, Niharika Srivastava, Vijay Lakshmi Sharma, Davinder Parsad, Ravinder Kumar
Dermal fibroblasts secrete various growth factors which are important for skin pigmentation. Imbalance in the synchronization of epidermal and dermal cells in the skin can play vital role in the pathogenesis of pigmentary disorder vitiligo. Therefore, our objective was to check the lesional fibroblasts for any abnormality and senescence in non-segmental vitiligo patients (NSV). Skin punch biopsies were taken from NSV patients and healthy controls. Explant culture of fibroblast from lesional dermis, non-lesional dermis, and control was analyzed...
January 11, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067428/hotair-role-in-melanoma-progression-and-its-identification-in-the-blood-of-patients-with-advanced-disease
#4
Monica Cantile, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Laura Marra, Gabriella Aquino, Chiara Botti, Maria Rosaria Falcone, Maria Gabriella Malzone, Giuseppina Liguori, Maurizio Di Bonito, Renato Franco, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Gerardo Botti
OBJECTIVES: The molecular mechanisms responsible for the metastatic progression of melanoma have not been fully defined yet. We have recently shown that an important role in this process is certainly played by HOX genes, whose regulation is under control of particular non-coding RNAs, some of which are present within the HOX locus. HOTAIR is the most studied among them, whose aberrant expression is associated with the metastatic progression of many malignancies. The aim of this study was to verify the role played by HOTAIR in metastatic progression of melanoma and to evaluate the circulating levels of HOTAIR in the blood of patients with metastatic melanoma...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045755/nevus-spilus-speckled-lentiginous-nevus-in-the-oral-cavity-report-of-a-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Karen G Torres, Laura Carle, Michael Royer
The congenital melanocytic nevus is a pigmented melanocytic lesion that presents at birth or shortly thereafter. It is commonly described on the skin, usually on the trunk and extremities. Only five intraoral cases of congenital melanocytic nevi have been described in the English literature. A nevus spilus (speckled lentiginous nevus) is a clinical variant of congenital melanocytic nevus. The authors present the case of a 19-year-old male with an intraoral nevus spilus. The anterior mandibular gingiva exhibited multiple speckled, pigmented papules and macules on a thickened, hyperplastic macular background...
January 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038710/differentiated-squamous-intraepithelial-lesion-dsil-like-changes-in-the-epidermis-overlying-anogenital-melanocytic-nevi-a-diagnostic-pitfall
#6
Kvetoslava Michalova, Dmitry V Kazakov, Michael Michal, Ladislav Hadravsky, Denisa Kacerovska, Boris Rychly, Marketa Miesbauerova, Michal Michal
BACKGROUND: Differentiated squamous intraepithelial lesion (dSIL) is morphologically and immunohistochemically analogous in the whole anogenital region. dSIL is a premalignant lesion frequently misinterpreted histopathologically as a benign dermatosis. The authors describe a peculiar change in the basal cell layer of the epidermis/epithelium overlying anogenital melanocytic nevi that may histopathologically imitate dSIL. The aim of this study is to familiarize the pathologists with this pitfall to avoid its possible overdiagnosis as dysplasia...
February 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028116/measures-of-completeness-and-accuracy-of-clinical-information-in-skin-biopsy-requisition-forms-an-analysis-of-249-cases
#7
Ryan C Romano, Paul J Novotny, Jeff A Sloan, Nneka I Comfere
OBJECTIVES: To define indices of completeness and accuracy of clinical information in the skin biopsy requisition form (RF) and correlate them with health care delivery outcomes and pathology service utilization. METHODS: RFs in our pathology information system were reviewed and assessed for the presence of 10 clinical elements considered critical for dermatopathologic diagnosis. Accuracy was determined by reviewing corresponding clinical notes. RESULTS: In total, 249 RFs were reviewed...
December 27, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026045/differentiating-regressed-melanoma-from-regressed-lichenoid-keratosis
#8
Aegean H Chan, Kenneth Shulman, Bonnie A Lee
BACKGROUND: Distinguishing regressed lichen planus-like keratosis (LPLK) from regressed melanoma can be difficult on histopathologic examination, potentially resulting in mismanagement of patients. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify histopathologic features by which regressed melanoma can be differentiated from regressed LPLK. METHODS: 20 actively inflamed LPLK, 12 LPLK with regression, and 15 melanomas with regression were compared and evaluated by H&E staining as well as Melan-A, MiTF, and cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) immunostaining...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024114/evaluation-of-tubulin-%C3%AE-3-as-a-novel-senescence-associated-gene-in-melanocytic-malignant-transformation
#9
Kyriakos Orfanidis, Petra Wäster, Katarzyna Lundmark, Inger Rosdahl, Karin Öllinger
Malignant melanoma might develop from melanocytic nevi in which the growth-arrested state has been broken. We analyzed the gene expression of young and senescent human melanocytes in culture and compared the gene expression data with a dataset from nevi and melanomas. A concordant altered gene expression was identified in 84 genes when comparing the growth-arrested samples with proliferating samples. TUBB3, which encodes the microtubule protein tubulin β-3, showed a decreased expression in senescent melanocytes and nevi and was selected for further studies...
December 26, 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012237/sporadic-melanotic-schwannoma-with-overlapping-features-of-melanocytoma-bearing-a-gna11-mutation-in-an-adolescent-girl
#10
Christina Tatsi, Flora Bacopoulou, Charalampos Lyssikatos, Elena Belyavskaya, Fabio R Faucz, Constantine A Stratakis
Melanotic schwannoma (MS) is a soft tissue neoplasm that shares histologic features with melanocytic tumors and schwannomas. A type of MS, called psammomatous MS (PMS), is associated with Carney complex (CNC), which is caused by PRKAR1A mutations. Other pigmented neoplasms, such as uveal melanomas and melanocytomas (MCs), are associated with genetic defects in other genes including GNA11. We report an adolescent female with a large sporadic mesenteric MS with complex histologic findings reminiscent of both PMS and MC...
December 24, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009605/melanotic-pecoma-of-the-sinonasal-mucosa-with-nono-tfe3-fusion-an-elusive-mimic-of-sinonasal-melanoma
#11
Stephanie M McGregor, Mir B Alikhan, Rahel A John, Howard Kotler, Julia A Bridge, Ibro Mujacic, Sabah Kadri, Jeremy Segal, Thomas Krausz
Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComas) are a family of mesenchymal tumors with features of both smooth muscle and melanocytic differentiation, with or without true melanin pigment. The highly variable morphology of PEComas results in a broad differential diagnosis that is also dependent on anatomic site. A subset demonstrates rearrangements involving the TFE3 (Xp11) locus, which can be used in diagnostically difficult cases. Here we describe a case of a melanotic PEComa with NONO-TFE3 fusion occurring in the sinonasal mucosa, as demonstrated by both next-generation sequencing and molecular cytogenetic studies...
December 22, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009131/comparative-study-of-presurgical-skin-infiltration-depth-measurements-of-melanocytic-lesions-with-oct-and-high-frequency-ultrasound
#12
Arthur Varkentin, Mikhail Mazurenka, Elias Blumenröther, Merve Meinhardt-Wollweber, Maik Rahlves, Sigrid M C Broekaert, Susanne Schäd-Trcka, Steffen Emmertinst, Uwe Morgner, Bernhard Roth
A reliable, fast, and non-invasive determination of melanoma thickness in vivo is highly desirable for clinical dermatology as it may facilitate the identification of surgical melanoma margins, determine if a sentinel node biopsy should be performed or not, and reduce the number of surgical interventions for patients. In this work, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high frequency ultrasound (HFUS) are evaluated for quantitative in vivo preoperative assessment of the skin infiltration depth of melanocytic tissue...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005621/the-ram-relaxation-technique-a-painless-biopsy-method-a-shave-biopsy-approach-without-injectable-anesthesia-or-needles
#13
Jacquiline R Habashy, Benjamin Ghiam, Ramin Ram
BACKGROUND: Shave skin biopsies are essential procedures wherein physicians diagnose dermatologic lesions. The protocol for skin biopsies entails a lidocaine/epinephrine injection. This study suggests an alternative, novel method of performing a shave biopsy that avoids pain, needles, and injectable anesthesia, termed the Ram Relaxation Technique (RRT). OBJECTIVE: To present a new technique that physicians may chose to form when faced with dermatological biopsies that are painless and needle free...
December 21, 2016: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003381/il-23-inhibits-melanoma-development-by-augmenting-dna-repair-and-modulating-t-cell-subpopulations
#14
Tahseen H Nasti, J Barry Cochran, Raj V Vachhani, Kristopher McKay, Yuko Tsuruta, Mohammad Athar, Laura Timares, Craig A Elmets
In animal models, IL-12 and IL-23 participate in the development of malignant neoplasms of keratinocytes. However, the role of these cytokines in pigmented lesion development and their progression to melanoma has received little attention. IL-12p35, IL-23p19, and IL-12/IL-23p40 knockout mice on a C3H/HeN background, subjected to a melanomagenesis protocol, demonstrated profound differences in susceptibility to nevus initiation, transformation, tumorigenicity, and metastatic potential. IL-23 was found to be essential for melanocyte homeostasis, whereas IL-12 supported nevus development...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997116/cross-linked-fluorescent-supramolecular-nanoparticles-as-finite-tattoo-pigments-with-controllable-intradermal-retention-times
#15
Jin-Sil Choi, Yazhen Zhu, Hongsheng Li, Parham Peyda, Thuy Tien Nguyen, Mo Yuan Shen, Yang Michael Yang, Jingyi Zhu, Mei Liu, Mandy M Lee, Shih-Sheng Sun, Yang Yang, Hsiao-Hua Yu, Kai Chen, Gary S Chuang, Hsian-Rong Tseng
Tattooing has been utilized by the medical community for precisely demarcating anatomic landmarks. This practice is especially important for identifying biopsy sites of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to the long interval (i.e., up to 3 months) between the initial diagnostic biopsy and surgical treatment. Commercially available tattoo pigments possess several issues, which include causing poor cosmesis, being mistaken for a melanocytic lesion, requiring additional removal procedures when no longer desired, and potentially inducing inflammatory responses...
December 20, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993903/study-protocol-for-a-prospective-non-controlled-multicentre-clinical-study-to-evaluate-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-a-stepwise-two-photon-excited-melanin-fluorescence-in-pigmented-lesions-suspicious-for-melanoma-flimma-study
#16
Christine Fink, Maja Hofmann, Agata Jagoda, Iris Spaenkuch, Andrea Forschner, Ioanna Tampouri, Diana Lomberg, Dieter Leupold, Claus Garbe, Holger A Haenssle
INTRODUCTION: Non-invasive, nanosecond, stepwise two-photon laser excitation of skin tissue was shown to induce melanin fluorescence spectra that allow for the differentiation of melanocytic nevi from cutaneous melanoma. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This prospective, non-controlled, multicentre clinical study is performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the stepwise two-photon excited melanin fluorescence in the detection of cutaneous melanoma. The comparator will be the histopathological diagnosis...
December 19, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992083/melanocyte-protective-effect-of-afzelin-is-mediated-by-the-nrf2-are-signaling-pathway-via-gsk-3%C3%AE-inactivation
#17
Eunsun Jung, Jin Hee Kim, Mi Ok Kim, Sang Yeol Lee, Jongsung Lee
Vitiligo is an acquired condition characterized by depigmented, cutaneous lesions that result from the death of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes. The occurrence of oxidative stress has been proposed as a pathogenetic mechanism for melanocyte degeneration in vitiligo. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of afzelin against oxidative stress and its mechanism of action in human epidermal melanocytes. We found that afzelin significantly inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death, cellular reactive oxygen species production, and lipid peroxidation in melanocytes...
December 19, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986395/a-clinical-histologic-and-follow-up-study-of-genital-melanosis-in-men-and-women
#18
Alexandra M Haugh, Emily A Merkel, Bin Zhang, Jeffrey A Bubley, Anna Elisa Verzì, Christina Y Lee, Pedram Gerami
BACKGROUND: Genital melanosis may clinically mimic melanoma. Little is known about the potential risk for genital and nongenital melanoma in these patients. OBJECTIVE: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed clinical and histologic data from patients with genital melanosis to better characterize these lesions and the risk they confer for genital and nongenital melanoma. METHODS: In all, 41 patients were identified for a retrospective chart review and histologic analysis...
December 13, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979335/non-lymphoid-lesions-that-may-mimic-cutaneous-hematopoietic-neoplasms-histologically
#19
Mark R Wick, Daniel J Santa Cruz, Alejandro A Gru
This review considers neoplastic lesions that originate in the skin, and which have the potential to imitate hematopoietic proliferations at a histological level. They include lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, benign lymphadenoma, pseudolymphomatous angiosarcoma, lymphadenoid dermatofibroma, lymphomatoid atypical fibroxanthoma, histiocytoid (epithelioid) hemangioma, and inflamed melanocytic lesions. The clinical and pathological features of those tumors are considered.
November 29, 2016: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955842/sox10-regulates-skin-melanocyte-proliferation-by-activating-the-dna-replication-licensing-factor-mcm5
#20
Zhongyuan Su, Xiaozi Zheng, Xiaobo Zhang, Yipin Wang, Shanpu Zhu, Fan Lu, Jia Qu, Ling Hou
BACKGROUND: The control of cell proliferation is a fundamental aspect of tissue formation in development and regeneration. A cell type that illustrates this point particularly well is the neural crest-derived melanocyte, the pigment cell of vertebrates, as melanocytes can be followed easily during development and their pigment is directly visible in the integument of the adult. In mammals, melanocytes undergo physiological cycles of loss and proliferative regeneration during the hair cycle, and their proliferation is also critical during wound healing, repigmentation of depigmented lesions, and in melanoma formation and progression...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
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