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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782304/role-of-in-vivo-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-in-the-analysis-of-melanocytic-lesions
#1
Elena-Daniela Serban, Francesca Farnetani, Giovanni Pellacani, Maria Magdalena Constantin
Worldwide melanoma incidence and mortality are increasing (1). Despite the ongoing research, advanced melanoma is still incurable; therefore, the most appropriate solution seems to be early detection combined with complete surgical excision (2). Since the diagnostic protocol of suspicious lesions includes a complete excision with safety margins (2), the problem of unnecessary scarring is significant. The real challenge in this case is to have a properly formulated diagnosis before acquiring a biopsy. Currently available non-invasive techniques are coherence tomography, digital dermoscopy, and reflectance confocal microscopy...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780659/confocal-microscopy-in-skin-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Verena Ahlgrimm-Siess, Martin Laimer, Harold S Rabinovitz, Margaret Oliviero, Rainer Hofmann-Wellenhof, Ashfaq A Marghoob, Alon Scope
Purpose of Review: Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) enables imaging of skin lesions at cellular level resolution at the bedside (in vivo) or in freshly excised tissue (ex vivo). This article provides an overview of strengths and limitations of non-invasive RCM in skin cancer diagnosis. Recent Findings: RCM features of common melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin neoplasms such as melanoma, actinic keratosis/squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and nevi have been well defined and show good correlation with dermoscopic and histopathologic findings...
2018: Current Dermatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780233/spinal-meningeal-melanocytoma-in-a-5-year-old-child-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#3
Ahmed M Salah El-Din, Hashem M Aboul-Ela, Mohamed F Alsawy, Ahmed Koheil, Ahmed H Ashry
Background: Meningeal melanocytoma is considered a rare lesion arising from leptomeningeal melanocytes. Nearly two thirds of meningeal melanocytomas were reported in the intracranial compartment and the remaining one third in the spine. Spinal melanocytomas can be extradural or intradural, with extradural variant being more common, and the majority of cases have been single reports. Methods: A 5-year-old male presented with a 4-month history of non-radiating low back pain persistent at rest, with otherwise non-remarkable medical history...
2018: Egypt J Neurol Psychiatr Neurosurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779219/immunohistochemical-and-molecular-analysis-of-spitzoid-neoplasms-with-pulverocyte-subclones
#4
S M Amin, A M Haugh, J A Bubley, A E Verzì, E A Merkel, C Y Lee, V L Quan, E M Garfield, L M Sholl, B Zhang, P Gerami
BACKGROUND: Clonal naevi are characterized by a focal proliferation of pigmented melanocytes in an otherwise banal naevus. These subclones are often composed of aggregates of larger, epithelioid melanocytes with nuclear atypia and dusty-grey cytoplasmic pigmentation, which are referred to as 'pulverocytes', and this finding may lead to a misdiagnosis of malignant melanoma (MM). AIM: To characterize the significance of subclones of dusty-grey pigmented epithelioid melanocytes within spitzoid neoplasms...
May 20, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776637/an-update-regarding-the-molecular-genetics-of-melanocytic-neoplasms-and-the-current-applications-of-molecular-genetic-technologies-in-their-diagnosis-and-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Katrin Kiavash, Martin H Bluth, Andrew David Thompson
Molecular genetic technologies are used to aid in diagnosis and treatment of borderline melanocytic tumors as an adjuvant to the gold standard histopathologic evaluation. A specific set of fluorescence in situ hybridization probes is widely used to aid in diagnosing challenging melanocytic lesions. New melanoma probe cocktails have revealed increased sensitivity and specificity in ambiguous melanocytic cases. Array comparative genomic hybridization is a more complex technology used for the work-up of diagnostically problematic Spitzoid melanocytic proliferations...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774360/histologic-mimics-of-malignant-melanoma
#6
Caroline Bsirini, Bruce R Smoller
Although spongiotic (eczematous), psoriatic and cutaneous skin infections are among the most common dermatology consultations, melanocytic lesions - including the different types of nevi and melanomas - are among those that cause a great deal of concern and stress to patients and their clinicians. A diagnosis of benign melanocytic nevus carries a very good prognosis. However, a diagnosis of melanoma might imply more aggressive treatment, lifelong surveillance and a worse prognosis. Differentiating between these conditions is not always a straightforward process for clinicians and pathologists...
May 18, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773427/microphthalmia-associated-transcription-factor-mitf-promiscuous-staining-patterns-in-fibrohistiocytic-lesions-is-a-potential-pitfall
#7
Sambit K Mohanty, Shivani Sharma, Dinesh Pradhan, Shivani R Kandukuri, Navid Farahani, Catherine Barry, Julie M Wu, David Frishberg, Bonnie Balzer
Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF) is used as a marker of melanocytic differentiation. However, MiTF immunoexpression has also been observed in histiocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, which raise the concern of fibrohistiocytic (FH) lesions being misdiagnosed as melanoma based on MiTF immunoreactivity. MiTF has been known to be positive in FH tumors, but this is the first study evaluating ninety-three fibrohistiocytic neoplasms to understand and delineate the staining pattern of MiTF in these tumors...
May 11, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771688/plexiform-atypical-spitz-tumor-with-rosette-like-giant-cells-a-histologic-and-immunohistochemical-study-on-a-case-suggesting-ganglioneuroblastic-differentiation-review-of-the-literature-and-considerations-on-histogenesis
#8
Elena Castelli, Elisabetta Orlando, Giuseppe Pistone, Maria R Bongiorno
Spitz nevi, atypical Spitz tumors and Spitzoid melanoma, the three clinicopathologic forms that constitute the spectrum of the Spitz-type melanocytic lesions, share a histologic picture characterized by large spindle and/or epithelioid ganglion-like cells, with various admixtures of multinucleate bizarre cells. This remarkable cytology has always been interpreted as an unusual, as well as unexplained form of atypia. We report a case of atypical Spitz tumor with Homer Wright-like rosettes, a feature characteristic of ganglioneuroblastic proliferation...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768520/clinical-and-immunohistochemical-study-of-melanotic-neuroectodermal-tumor-of-infancy-in-the-maxilla
#9
Hellen Bandeira de Pontes Santos, Aníbal Henrique Barbosa de Luna, Pedro Everton Marques Goes, Alexander Tadeu Sverzut, Cassiano Francisco Weege Nonaka, Pollianna Muniz Alves
Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is a rare and fast-growing neoplasm. In this study, we describe the case of a 6-month-old female patient, who presented swelling in the anterior maxilla. Tomographic reconstruction showed an unilocular hypodense and expansive area associated with the upper right central primary incisor. The presumptive diagnoses were dentigerous cyst, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy and rhabdomyosarcoma, and an incisional biopsy was performed...
May 14, 2018: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761315/hair-detection-and-lesion-segmentation-in-dermoscopic-images-using-domain-knowledge
#10
Sameena Pathan, K Gopalakrishna Prabhu, P C Siddalingaswamy
Automated segmentation and dermoscopic hair detection are one of the significant challenges in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of melanocytic lesions. Additionally, due to the presence of artifacts and variation in skin texture and smooth lesion boundaries, the accuracy of such methods gets hampered. The objective of this research is to develop an automated hair detection and lesion segmentation algorithm using lesion-specific properties to improve the accuracy. The aforementioned objective is achieved in two ways...
May 15, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760713/human-leukocyte-antigen-class-i-alleles-and-the-autoreactive-t-cell-response-in-psoriasis-pathogenesis
#11
REVIEW
Jörg Christoph Prinz
Psoriasis is a complex immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease characterized by T-cell-driven epidermal hyperplasia. It occurs on a strong genetic predisposition. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-class I allele HLA-C*06:02 on psoriasis susceptibility locus 1 (PSORS1 on 6p21.3) is the main psoriasis risk gene. Other HLA-class I alleles encoding HLA molecules presenting overlapping peptide repertoires show associations with psoriasis as well. Outside the major histocompatibility complex region, genome-wide association studies identified more than 60 psoriasis-associated common gene variants exerting only modest individual effects...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753057/histomorphologic-spectrum-of-germline-related-and-sporadic-bap-1-inactivated-melanocytic-tumors
#12
Erin M Garfield, Kara E Walton, Victor L Quan, Timothy VandenBoom, Bin Zhang, Betty Y Kong, Maria Cristina Isales, Elnaz Panah, Gene Kim, Pedram Gerami
BACKGROUND: BAP-1 inactivated melanocytic tumors (BIMTs) are often the earliest sign of the BAP-1 tumor predisposition syndrome. Identification of BIMTs and selection of patients for germline testing impacts the lives of patients with germline BAP-1 mutations. OBJECTIVE: We describe the spectrum of histomorphologic findings in BAP-1 inactivated melanocytic lesions to improve their recognition. We determined the frequency of sporadic versus germline cases in our cohort, assessing whether any features were statistically linked to germline status...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752733/the-difficulty-in-interpreting-gene-expression-profiling-in-bap1-negative-melanocytic-tumors
#13
Andrew S Fischer, Whitney A High
BACKGROUND: BAP1 negative melanocytic tumors were unrecognized in the medical literature until 2011. While the clinical significance of these tumors is poorly understood, there is concern such lesions represent processes in transition, and malignant degeneration is a concern. We investigated use of a 23-gene expression profiling (23-GEP) test for distinction from melanoma with the aim of better characterizing the biologic potential of such tumors. METHODS: Twenty BAP1 negative melanocytic tumors, subjected to 23-GEP (Myriad Genetic Laboratories, Inc...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741410/management-of-resistant-halo-nevi
#14
Sherif S Awad, Rasha Ta Abdel Aziz, Sahar S Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Halo nevus (HN) is a rare dermatologic disorder characterized by typical whitish rim surrounding an existing melanocytic nevus resembling halo. It is a cosmetic problem that may be linked to vitiligo, and it is advised to remove these nevi in order to avoid development of vitiligo. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the cosmetic outcome after nevus removal and leukoderma dermabrasion with epithelial graft followed by narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) phototherapy as management of resistant halo nevi and avoidance of development of vitiligo...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729115/tissue-expression-of-aquaporine-3-in-different-sites-of-vitiligo-an-immunohistochemical-study
#15
S M Esmat, O A Zeid, D M Abdel Halim, M T Fawzy, M Abdel Latif, V Lazarova, M Assaf
The role of epidermal keratinocytes in the pathogenesis of vitiligo has been ignored despite the fact that both melanocytes and keratinocytes form one functional and structural unit. Aquaporin3 (AQP3), a glycerol water channel expressed in epithelial tissue, is involved in the regulation of keratinocyte proliferation, cell migration, and has a potential role in hypopigmentation in vitiligo. Normally, acral skin differs significantly from non-acral skin. Acral skin shows significantly lower hair follicle density, melanocyte density, Langerhans cell (LC) density, epidermal MHCII expression...
May 5, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723362/sclerodermiform-basal-cell-carcinoma-how-much-can-we-rely-on-dermatoscopy-to-differentiate-from-non-aggressive-basal-cell-carcinomas-analysis-of-1256-cases
#16
Husein Husein-ElAhmed
BACKGROUND: The behaviour of each basal cell carcinoma is known to be different according to the histological growth pattern. Among these aggressive lesions, sclerodermiform basal cell carcinomas are the most common type. This is a challenging-to-treat lesion due to its deep tissue invasion, rapid growth, risk of metastasis and overall poor prognosis if not diagnosed in early stages. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if sclerodermiform basal cell carcinomas are diagnosed later compared to non-sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma Method: All lesions excised from 2000 to 2010 were included...
March 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722000/review-of-diagnostic-prognostic-and-predictive-biomarkers-in-melanoma
#17
REVIEW
Jacob S Ankeny, Brian Labadie, Jason Luke, Eddy Hsueh, Jane Messina, Jonathan S Zager
Melanoma is an aggressive cutaneous malignancy with rapidly rising incidence. Diagnosis of controversial melanocytic lesions, correct prognostication of patients, selection of appropriate adjuvant and systemic therapies, and prediction of response to a given therapy remain very real challenges. Despite these challenges, multiple high throughput, nucleic-acid based biomarkers have been developed that can be assayed from histologic tissue specimens. FISH, CGH, Decision-Dx, and other multi-marker assays have been combined to improve overall predictability...
May 2, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709592/the-skin-immune-response-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-walbaum-associated-with-puffy-skin-disease-psd
#18
Lyndsay Christie, Ronny van Aerle, Richard K Paley, David W Verner-Jeffreys, Hannah Tidbury, Matthew Green, Stephen W Feist, Irene Cano
Puffy skin disease (PSD) is an emerging skin condition which affects rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). The transmission pattern of PSD suggests an infectious aetiology, however, the actual causative infectious agent(s) remain(s) unknown. In the present study, the rainbow trout epidermal immune response to PSD was characterised. Skin samples from infected fish were analysed and classified as mild, moderate or severe PSD by gross pathology and histological assessment. The level of expression of 26 immune-associated genes including cytokines, immunoglobulins and cell markers were examined by TaqMan qPCR assays...
April 27, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707138/enhanced-intratumoral-expression-of-rnf2-is-a-favorable-prognostic-factor-for-patients-with-cutaneous-melanoma
#19
Łukasz Kuźbicki, Dariusz Lange, Agata Stanek-Widera, Agnieszka Glińska, Barbara W Chwirot
Recent studies involving melanoma cell lines suggest that enhanced expression of epigenetic regulator RNF2 supports proliferation and promotes metastasis. However, it is not clear to what extent those data apply to disease progression and prognosis for melanoma patients. Therefore the aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic power of RNF2 intratumoral expression by melanoma cells. RNF2 was detected immunohistochemically in standard formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of 9 benign nevi, 60 melanomas and 24 nodal metastases...
April 3, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703880/intradermal-naevi-of-external-auditory-canal-unusual-location-with-a-unique-presentation
#20
S L Yatiee, M D Mohd Khairi, M S Md Salzihan, H B Ikmal
The incidence of intradermal nevus in the external auditory canal is uncommon. We herein are describing a case of 60-year-old lady who presented with foreign body sensation in the right external ear canal (EAC) with mild discomfort and ear bleed during ear picking. Otoscopic examination revealed hyperpigmented mass on the floor of the outer two third of EAC. Complete excisional biopsy of the mass resulted in histopathology findings of intradermal nevus. Despite the fact that the disease is not alarming, the possibilities of benign melanocytic nevi transformation into malignant lesions such as melanoma need to be ruled out...
April 2018: Medical Journal of Malaysia
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