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Melanocytic lesions

Ibrahim Sayed-Ahmed, Juan Carlos Murillo, Pedro Monsalve, Jan Paul Ulloa, Maria P Fernandez, James Wong, George Elgart, Anat Galor, Sander R Dubovy, Carol L Karp
PURPOSE: Blue nevus is a melanocytic tumor that is commonly found in the skin. Extracutaneous presentations, including the ocular surface, are rare. As such, the purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical features and clinical course of congenital melanocytic tumor (blue nevus) of the conjunctiva. DESIGN: Retrospective, noncomparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-one patients with 23 blue nevi of the ocular surface that were excised surgically between 2000 and 2016...
March 15, 2018: Ophthalmology
Oscar W Nevares-Pomales, Osward Y Carrasquillo, Marely Santiago-Vazquez, Francisco Colon-Fontanez
Spitz nevus is a type of melanocytic nevus that can arise as a solitary lesion or as multiple lesions either disseminated or agminated (grouped) in different skin backgrounds (eg, grossly normal, hyperpigmented, or hypopigmented). Agminated Spitz nevi have been rarely reported and are even rarer in a background of hypopigmented skin. We present the case of a 2-month-old girl with multiple, grouped, dome-shaped, red papules arising on a hypopigmented patch with a segmental distribution. Biopsy of 2 lesions showed findings characteristic of Spitz nevus, confirming the diagnosis...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Isidro Machado, Carlos Santonja, Victoria Huerta, Julia Cruz, Celia Requena, Luis Requena, Antonio Llombart-Bosch
Neuroendocrine differentiation or aberrant expression of neuroendocrine markers is very uncommon in angiosarcomas (AS) and creates a challenging differential diagnosis with other superficial or soft tissue tumors. Herein, we report a new case of superficial AS presenting as a tumor lesion on the little finger of the right hand of a 52-year-old man. The tumor displayed CD56, chromogranin-A, and synaptophysin immunoreactivity. Tumor cells were positive for vascular markers (CD31, FLI1, ERG, D2-40, VE-cadherin, VEGR1,2, and 3), CD99, and EMA, but were negative for S100, CK (AE1/AE3), CK20, polyomavirus, and myogenic (desmin and myogenin) and melanocyte markers (melan-A and HMB45)...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Deren Özcan, Deniz Seçkin, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: The incidence and mortality of melanoma are increased in organ transplant recipients. Multiple acquired common and dysplastic nevi are risk factors for melanoma. A new or changing nevus may suggest melanoma. Strategies used by transplant dermatologists to monitor nevi are unknown. Herein, we aimed to assess the methods used by transplant dermatologists for monitoring multiple acquired common nevi, dysplastic nevi, and new or changing nevi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was e-mailed to 63 members of the Skin Care in Organ Transplant Patients, Europe...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Abbas Albayati, Burak Ozkan, Atilla Adnan Eyuboglu, Ahmet Cagri Uysal, Nilgun Markal Ertas, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: Skin cancers are one of the most common malignancies in solid-organ transplant recipients. Increased age and immunosuppressive drug use are risk factors for posttransplant skin malignancies. We evaluated nonmelanocytic skin cancer incidence and development time in transplant patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 1833 patients who received kidney, liver, and heart grafts between 1996 and 2016 at Baskent University. We excluded melanocytic skin cancers, premalignant lesions, and benign skin tumors...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Xinying Cong, Jin Zhang, Xiaojuan Xu, Miaomiao Zhang, Yan Chen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze MR imaging features of renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma (EAML). METHODS: This study included 17 patients with histopathologically confirmed renal EAML who underwent renal MRI scanning before radical or partial nephrectomy. MR images were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with pathological findings. RESULT: Fifteen lesions (88.2%) appeared as round or oval. The tumor-kidney interface was round in 14 lesions (82...
March 10, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
David E Elder, Mike Piepkorn, Raymond L Barnhill, Gary M Longton, Heidi D Nelson, Stevan R Knezevich, Margaret S Pepe, Patricia A Carney, Linda J Titus, Tracy Onega, Anna N A Tosteson, Martin A Weinstock, Joann G Elmore
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic interpretations of melanocytic skin lesions vary widely among pathologists, yet the underlying reasons remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: Identify pathologist characteristics associated with rates of accuracy and reproducibility. METHODS: Pathologists independently interpreted the same set of biopsies of melanocytic lesions on two occasions. Diagnoses were categorized into one of five classes according to the MPATH-Dx© system...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Seema Rani, Ravinder Kumar, Prasad Kumarasinghe, Supriya Bhardwaj, Niharika Srivastava, Aaisha Madaan, Davinder Parsad
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis (IGH) is a pigmentary disorder of unknown pathogenesis characterized by small discrete white macules. In the skin, epidermal melanin unit between melanocytes and keratinocytes is responsible for melanin synthesis and equal distribution of melanin pigment. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, this study was designed to check the role of melanocytes in the pathogenesis of IGH. METHODS: For this study, six IGH patients and six controls were enrolled...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Lauren A Dalvin, Diva R Salomão, Sanjay V Patel
AIM: To determine population-based incidence of conjunctival tumours in Olmsted County, Minnesota. METHODS: The Rochester Epidemiology Project medical record linkage system was used to identify patients with conjunctival tumours in Olmsted County (1 January 1980 to 31 December 2015). Records were reviewed for demographics, types of tumours, histopathology, treatment and clinical course. Incidence rate of all tumours was calculated per 1 000 000 person-years. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess changes in incidence over time...
March 6, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Zhongyi Xu, Li Chen, Min Jiang, Qianqian Wang, Chengfeng Zhang, Leihong Flora Xiang
Fibroblast-derived melanogenic paracrine mediators are known to play a role in melanogenesis. To investigate the effect of CCN1 (also called CYR61, cysteine-rich 61) on melanogenesis, normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEMs) were treated with recombinant CCN1 protein. Our findings reveal that CCN1 activates melanogenesis through promoting melanosome maturation and upregulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) and tyrosinase via integrin α6β1, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Amanda R Moore, Leili Ran, Youxin Guan, Jessica J Sher, Tyler D Hitchman, Jenny Q Zhang, Catalina Hwang, Edward G Walzak, Alexander N Shoushtari, Sébastien Monette, Rajmohan Murali, Thomas Wiesner, Klaus G Griewank, Ping Chi, Yu Chen
Uveal melanoma (UM) is characterized by mutually exclusive activating mutations in GNAQ, GNA11, CYSLTR2, and PLCB4, four genes in a linear pathway to activation of PLCβ in almost all tumors and loss of BAP1 in the aggressive subset. We generated mice with melanocyte-specific expression of GNA11Q209L with and without homozygous Bap1 loss. The GNA11Q209L mice recapitulated human Gq-associated melanomas, and they developed pigmented neoplastic lesions from melanocytes of the skin and non-cutaneous organs, including the eye and leptomeninges, as well as at atypical sites, including the lymph nodes and lungs...
February 27, 2018: Cell Reports
Carolina Martinez Ciarpaglini, Jose Gonzalez, Beatriz Sanchez, Jaime Agusti, Lara Navarro, Gema Nieto, Carlos Monteagudo
AIMS: The risk assessment of spitzoid lesions is one of the most difficult challenges in dermatopathology practice. In this regard, the loss of p16 expression and the homozygous deletion of CDKN2A, have been pointed in the literature as reliable indicators of high risk. However, these findings are poorly reproducible, and the molecular bases underlying the loss of p16 expression remain unclear. We aimed to identify the underlying events causing loss of CDKN2A/p16 in spitzoid tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of p16, and the presence of CDKN2A genetic alterations detected through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), in a series of 130 Spitz nevi, 20 atypical spitzoid tumors, and 11 spitzoid melanoma...
February 27, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Matthew Dinehart, Mallory S Abate, Thomas Jennings, Jennifer R Kaley, Sara C Shalin
Biphasic lesions comprised of melanocytic and epithelial components are rare entities believed to arise either as a collision of two histologically distinct lesions in the same anatomic location or as a singular progenitor tumor differentiating along two differing lineages. Regardless of mechanism of origin, these tumors present unique challenges in pathologic interpretation and in determining appropriate measurements, which assigns subsequent prognosis to the patient. We present 4 tumors of melanoma co-existing with basal cell carcinoma and discuss relevant literature regarding these biphasic entities...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Georgi Tchernev, Anastasiya Atanasova Chokoeva, Ivan Terziev, Yavor Grigorov, Torello Lotti, Uwe Wollina, José Carlos Cardoso, Irina Yungareva, Ilia Lozev, Georgi Konstantinov Maximov
Small pigmented lesions in children can represent a significant diagnostic challenge. If the diagnostic features and therapeutic approach are relatively well established in large and giant nevi, there is still much controversy regarding small and intermediate-sized congenital pigmented lesions that can lead to significant diagnostic challenges, both clinically and dermoscopically, and consequently to difficulty in defining the optimal approach in such cases. Although dermoscopy can be useful in the diagnosis of pigmented lesions, the diversity of clinical and dermoscopic features of pigmented nevi in children usually hinder the differentiation between them and melanoma...
January 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Georgi Tchernev, Gabriela Atanasova Dzhelyatova, Uwe Wollina, Ilia Lozev, Torello Lotti
BACKGROUND: Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are pigmented skin lesions usually present at birth. Rare varieties can develop and become clinically very large. Although they are benign nevomelanocytic neoplasms, all CMN may be precursors of the melanoma, regardless of their size. Individual risk of malignant transformation of melanocyte is determined by simultaneous action of exogenous and endogenous factors. The major exogenous risk factor is ultraviolet radiation. Leading roles among the endogenous factors are attributed to skin phenotype, gene mutation, sex hormones and their significance...
January 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Serena Gianfaldoni, Georgi Tchernev, Uwe Wollina, Maria Grazia Roccia, Massimo Fioranelli, Jacopo Lotti, Miriam Rovesti, Francesca Satolli, Yan Valle, Andy Goren, Michael Tirant, Mirna Situm, Maja Kovacevic, Katlein França, Torello Lotti
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary cutaneous disease, characterised by the progressive loss of melanocytes, resulting in hypopigmented skin areas which progressively become amelanotic. Classically, vitiligo treatments are unsatisfactory and challenging. Despite the continuous introduction of new therapies, phototherapy is still the mainstay for vitiligo repigmentation. AIM: The aim of this multicenter observational retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the nb - UVB micro - phototherapy (BIOSKIN EVOLUTION®), used alone or in associations with an oral Janus kinase inhibitor (Tofacitinib citrate), in the treatment of stable or active forms of localised vitiligo...
January 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Shan Jiang, Yan Chen, Taylor E Hinchliffe, Tianfu Wu, Tyring Stephen
Kissing nevus is a very rare congenital melanocytic nevus. Here, we describe one case of kissing nevus on the penis. A 15-year boy presented with asymptomatic black to dark brown color patches on his penis. Histopathological findings showed that there were nests and cords of nevus cells in upper dermis. No significant cytologic atypia and mitoses were noted. Immunohistochemical stains revealed a partial positive for HMB-45 only in upper dermis and a stronger positivity for S-100 in almost all nevus cells. We diagnosed the lesion as kissing nevus of penis...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Maurizio Zizzo, Lara Ugoletti, David Tumiati, Carolina Castro Ruiz, Stefano Bonacini, Michele Panebianco, Giuliana Sereni, Antonio Manenti, Filippo Lococo, Gabriele Carlinfante, Claudio Pedrazzoli
BACKGROUND: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare mesenchymal tumor, with distinctive morphology and expression of myo-melanocytic markers. Current scientific literature reported just 24 cases of pancreatic PEComas. With our systematic review, we aimed at improving our understanding of the disease, focusing on the knowledge gained on epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. METHODS: Based on the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic research was carried out on PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, and EBSCO using the search terms: ("perivascular epithelioid cell tumor" OR ″PEComa") and ("pancreas "OR″ pancreatic")...
February 19, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
Shosuke Ito, Misa Agata, Kotono Okochi, Kazumasa Wakamatsu
RS-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol (rhododendrol, RD), a skin-whitening agent, is known to induce leukoderma in some consumers. To explore the mechanism underlying this effect, we previously showed that the oxidation of RD with mushroom or human tyrosinase produces cytotoxic quinone oxidation products and RD-eumelanin exerts a potent pro-oxidant activity. Cellular antioxidants were oxidized by RD-eumelanin with a concomitant production of H2 O2 . In this study, we examined whether this pro-oxidant activity of RD-eumelanin is enhanced by ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation because most RD-induced leukoderma lesions are found in sun-exposed areas...
February 23, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Emily Nc Ryder, Nicolas Turnball, Patrick O Emanuel
Perineuriomatous differentiation in solitary cutaneous melanocytic nevi has been described. We present a possibly unique case of a patient with multiple such perineuriomatous nevi. This presentation raises the possibility of a germline mutation may be responsible for the pathogenesis of these unusual lesions.
February 22, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
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