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N Mojibi, M Rasouli
OBJECTIVE: The glycogen is extracted from animal tissues with or without homogenization using cold perchloric acid. Three methods were compared for determination of glycogen in rat muscle at different physiological states. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two groups of five rats were kept at rest or 45 minutes muscular activity. The glycogen fractions were extracted and measured by using three methods. RESULTS: The data of homogenization method shows that total glycogen decreased following 45 min physical activity and the change occurred entirely in acid soluble glycogen (ASG), while AIG did not change significantly...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Xizhong Cui, Leisha D Nolen, Junfeng Sun, Malcolm Booth, Lindsay Donaldson, Conrad P Quinn, Anne E Boyer, Katherine Hendricks, Sean Shadomy, Pieter Bothma, Owen Judd, Paul McConnell, William A Bower, Peter Q Eichacker
We studied anthrax immune globulin intravenous (AIG-IV) use from a 2009-2010 outbreak of Bacillus anthracis soft tissue infection in injection drug users in Scotland, UK, and we compared findings from 15 AIG-IV recipients with findings from 28 nonrecipients. Death rates did not differ significantly between recipients and nonrecipients (33% vs. 21%). However, whereas only 8 (27%) of 30 patients at low risk for death (admission sequential organ failure assessment score of 0-5) received AIG-IV, 7 (54%) of the 13 patients at high risk for death (sequential organ failure assessment score of 6-11) received treatment...
January 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Z Ghafouri, M Rasouli
OBJECTIVE: Extraction of animal tissues with cold water or perchloric acid yields less glycogen than is obtained with hot-alkaline. Extraction with acid and alkaline gives two fractions, acid soluble (ASG) and insoluble glycogen (AIG). The aim of this work is to examine the hypothesis that not all liver glycogen is extractable by Tris-buffer using current techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat liver was homogenized with Tris-buffer pH 8.3 and extracted for the glycogen fractions, ASG and AIG...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Angeliki Balasopoulou, Biljana Stanković, Angeliki Panagiotara, Gordana Nikčevic, Brock A Peters, Anne John, Effrosyni Mendrinou, Apostolos Stratopoulos, Aigli Ioanna Legaki, Vasiliki Stathakopoulou, Aristoniki Tsolia, Nikolaos Govaris, Sofia Govari, Zoi Zagoriti, Konstantinos Poulas, Maria Kanariou, Nikki Constantinidou, Maro Krini, Kleopatra Spanou, Nedeljko Radlovic, Bassam R Ali, Joseph Borg, Radoje Drmanac, George Chrousos, Sonja Pavlovic, Eleftheria Roma, Branka Zukic, George P Patrinos, Theodora Katsila
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is a complex chronic immune-mediated disorder of the small intestine. Today, the pathobiology of the disease is unclear, perplexing differential diagnosis, patient stratification, and decision-making in the clinic. METHODS: Herein, we adopted a next-generation sequencing approach in a celiac disease trio of Greek descent to identify all genomic variants with the potential of celiac disease predisposition. RESULTS: Analysis revealed six genomic variants of prime interest: SLC9A4 c...
October 24, 2016: Human Genomics
H Shokri-Afra, A Ostovar-Ravari, M Rasouli
OBJECTIVE: Acid digestion of animal tissues yields two fractions of glycogen, acid soluble (ASG) and insoluble (AIG). The current study was performed to improve the assay method for glycogen fractions in rat liver in different physiological states. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All steps of the assay were manipulated and optimized to measure the content of ASG and AIG in fed and starved rat liver. RESULTS: In postmortem liver tissue, total glycogen was decreased slowly at 4°C and rapidly at 25°C but was well stabilized at -20°C and -70°C...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Norah K Alajaji, David Bardwell, Matthew Finkelman, Ala Ali
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the marginal and internal adaptation of CAD/CAM lithium-disilicate inlay restorations fabricated by two milling systems (Five and Three-axis), and a traditional heat-press technique. METHODS: Fifteen premolar teeth with an MOD cavity preparation were fabricated. Lithium-disilicate inlay restorations were obtained by three fabrication techniques and fitted to their dies (n = 15/gp) as follows: Group-1, three-axis milling system, Group-2, five-axis milling system, Group-3, conventional heat-press technique...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
Xinbo Zhang, Anna Dastiridou, Brian A Francis, Ou Tan, Rohit Varma, David S Greenfield, Joel S Schuman, Mitra Sehi, Vikas Chopra, David Huang
PURPOSE: To identify baseline structural parameters that predict the progression of visual field (VF) loss in patients with open-angle glaucoma. DESIGN: Multicenter cohort study. METHODS: Participants from the Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma (AIG) study were enrolled and followed up. VF progression is defined as either a confirmed progression event on Humphrey Progression Analysis or a significant (P < .05) negative slope for VF index (VFI)...
December 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Behroz Atashbar, Naser Agh, Ramin Manaffar, Gilbert Van Stappen, Ali Mohamadyari, Johan Mertens, Lynda Beladjal
Branchinecta orientalis is a fairy shrimp endemic to the Palearctic region, from Mongolia to Spain. The patchy nature of its habitat is thought to result in a high degree of subdivision among populations, potentially promoting speciation. We combined morphometric characteristics with molecular phylogeny of cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) to test whether B. orientalis could be a species complex and whether there is any correlation between the genetic variation, morphometric characteristics and geographical variables...
May 5, 2016: Zootaxa
Jessica Harakal, Claudia Rival, Hui Qiao, Kenneth S Tung
Pernicious anemia and gastric carcinoma are serious sequelae of autoimmune gastritis (AIG). Our study indicates that in adult C57BL/6-DEREG mice expressing a transgenic diphtheria toxin receptor under the Foxp3 promoter, transient regulatory T cell (Treg) depletion results in long-lasting AIG associated with both H(+)K(+)ATPase and intrinsic factor autoantibody responses. Although functional Tregs emerge over time during AIG occurrence, the effector T cells rapidly become less susceptible to Treg-mediated suppression...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Marybeth Anderson, Raoud Marayati, Richard Moffitt, Jen Jen Yeh
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a KRAS-driven cancer with a high incidence of metastasis and an overall poor prognosis. Previous work in a genetically engineered mouse model of PDAC showed glucose metabolism to be important for maintaining tumor growth. Multiple glycolytic enzymes, including hexokinase 2 (HK2), were upregulated in primary PDAC patient tumors, supporting a role for glycolysis in promoting human disease. HK2 was most highly expressed in PDAC metastases, suggesting a link between HK2 and aggressive tumor biology...
June 1, 2016: Oncotarget
Nadine Nickel, Astrid Cleven, Vitalij Enders, Dmitrij Lisak, Lars Schneider, Axel Methner
Androgen-induced gene 1 (AIG1) is a transmembrane protein implicated with survival (its expression level was shown to correlate with the survival of patients suffering from hepatocellular carcinoma) and Ca(2+) signaling (over-expression of AIG1 increased transcription mediated by the Ca(2+)-dependent nuclear factor of activated T cells). We aimed to shed light on this less-studied protein and investigated its tissue expression, genomic organization, intracellular localization and membrane topology as well as its effects on cell death susceptibility and the Ca(2+) content of the endoplasmic reticulum...
July 15, 2016: Gene
Yuya Taguchi, Daisuke Fujinami, Daisuke Kohda
The glycosylation of asparagine residues is the predominant protein modification in all three domains of life. An oligosaccharide chain is preassembled on a lipid-phospho carrier and transferred onto asparagine residues by the action of a membrane-bound enzyme, oligosaccharyltransferase. The oligosaccharide donor for the oligosaccharyl transfer reaction is dolichol-diphosphate-oligosaccharide in Eukaryota and polyprenol-diphosphate-oligosaccharide in Eubacteria. The donor in some archaeal species was reportedly dolichol-monophosphate-oligosaccharide...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Debra Pugh, Andre De Champlain, Mark Gierl, Hollis Lai, Claire Touchie
With the recent interest in competency-based education, educators are being challenged to develop more assessment opportunities. As such, there is increased demand for exam content development, which can be a very labor-intense process. An innovative solution to this challenge has been the use of automatic item generation (AIG) to develop multiple-choice questions (MCQs). In AIG, computer technology is used to generate test items from cognitive models (i.e. representations of the knowledge and skills that are required to solve a problem)...
August 2016: Medical Teacher
Xu Han, Sufang Hou, Aige Yang
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus a common metabolic disorder with hyperglycemia, is caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Approximately 12~20% of diabetic patients have risk of colorectal cancer. Recent studies revealed that the insulin-like growth factor system (IGFs) plays an important role in tumor occurrence. This study thus investigated the relationship between IGFs-related proteins in diabetic patients and the incidence of colorectal carcinoma. MATERIAL/METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in a total of 206 individuals, including 85 diagnosed with diabetes...
March 15, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Xinbo Zhang, Brian A Francis, Anna Dastiridou, Vikas Chopra, Ou Tan, Rohit Varma, David S Greenfield, Joel S Schuman, David Huang
PURPOSE: We studied the effects of age and intraocular pressure (IOP) on retinal nerve fiber layer (NFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness in normal eyes. METHODS: Data from subjects from the multicenter Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study (AIGS) were analyzed. The data included yearly visits from the normal subjects in the AIGS study. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) was used to measure retinal NFL and macular GCC on each visit...
March 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Hollis Lai, Mark J Gierl, B Ellen Byrne, Andrew I Spielman, David M Waldschmidt
Test items created for dentistry examinations are often individually written by content experts. This approach to item development is expensive because it requires the time and effort of many content experts but yields relatively few items. The aim of this study was to describe and illustrate how items can be generated using a systematic approach. Automatic item generation (AIG) is an alternative method that allows a small number of content experts to produce large numbers of items by integrating their domain expertise with computer technology...
March 2016: Journal of Dental Education
Hollis Lai, Mark J Gierl, Claire Touchie, Debra Pugh, André-Philippe Boulais, André De Champlain
UNLABELLED: CONSTRUCT: Automatic item generation (AIG) is an alternative method for producing large numbers of test items that integrate cognitive modeling with computer technology to systematically generate multiple-choice questions (MCQs). The purpose of our study is to describe and validate a method of generating plausible but incorrect distractors. Initial applications of AIG demonstrated its effectiveness in producing test items. However, expert review of the initial items identified a key limitation where the generation of implausible incorrect options, or distractors, might limit the applicability of items in real testing situations...
2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Tsubasa Saito, Satoru Suenaga, Masato Fujii, Yoshihiro Kushida, Yusuke Kawauchi, Kenji Suzuki, Maki Touma, Masamichi Hosono
The autoantibodies (auto-Abs) that are a hallmark of neonatally thymectomized (NTx) mice with autoimmune gastritis (AIG) have been poorly explored. We investigated their immune significance using B cell-deficient (B(-)) mice and found that B(-) mice are totally resistant to AIG but become susceptible to AIG after receiving bone marrow cells from B(+) mice. This susceptibility is most likely caused by the production of auto-Abs by B cells because B(-) pups also became susceptible to AIG when nourished by an AIG dam producing auto-Abs of the IgG class during the suckling period...
February 2016: Cellular Immunology
Marino Venerito, Mariya Varbanova, Friedrich-Wilhelm Röhl, Dirk Reinhold, Katrin Frauenschläger, Doerthe Jechorek, Jochen Weigt, Alexander Link, Peter Malfertheiner
AIM: To assess characteristics of oxyntic gastric atrophy (OGA) in autoimmune gastritis (AIG) compared with OGA as a consequence of Helicobacter pylori infection. METHODS: Patients undergoing oesophagogastroduodenoscopy from July 2011 to October 2014 were prospectively included (N=452). Gastric biopsies were obtained for histology and H. pylori testing. Serum gastrin-17 (G17), pepsinogen (PG) I, PGII and antibodies against H. pylori and cytotoxin-associated gene A protein were determined in all patients...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Çağdaş Kalkan, Irfan Soykan, Çiğdem Soydal, Elgin Özkan, Emra Kalkan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Symptoms of patients with autoimmune gastritis are not specific, and some patients may present symptoms suggestive of delayed gastric emptying. This study aims to investigate whether any delay in gastric emptying of solid food exists in patients with autoimmune gastritis and, if so, to identify the factors that might affect delayed gastric emptying. METHODS: A total of 165 patients (106 women) diagnosed as having autoimmune gastritis were analyzed by means of a gastric emptying test...
June 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
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