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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091794/the-impact-of-liver-disorders-on-perioperative-management-of-reoperative-cardiac-surgery-a-retrospective-study-in-adult-congenital-heart-disease-patients
#1
Koko Adachi, Hiroaki Toyama, Yu Kaiho, Osamu Adachi, Hiroto Hudeta, Masanori Yamauchi
PURPOSE: We evaluated the preoperative prevalence of risk factors for liver disorders and the relationship between the liver disorders and perioperative outcomes in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients. METHODS: This retrospective study included 32 ACHD patients who underwent reoperative cardiac surgery. RESULTS: Preoperatively, 38% of the study patients had risk factors, including congestive liver (CL) due to right heart failure (31%), chronic hepatitis C (HC) (22%), and both CL and HC (16%)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078862/a-placebo-controlled-trial-of-a-proprietary-lipid-lowering-nutraceutical-supplement-in-the-management-of-dyslipidemia
#2
M Houston, R Rountree, J Lamb, S Phipps, S Meng, B Zhang
There is an ever growing emergence in the popularity of patient-driven care. As this health and wellness model grows, inquiries into diet, lifestyle, and supplemental approaches will continue to become a focal point for the healthcare consumer. Because of this, the aim of this study is to determine the tolerability, and overall effectiveness of a proprietary multi-ingredient lipid-lowering supplement in subjects with dyslipidemia. Forty participants were recruited for a single-center, double-blind randomized, placebocontrolled trial...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056568/in-vitro-metabolite-formation-in-human-hepatocytes-and-cardiomyocytes-and-metabolism-and-tissue-distribution-in-monkeys-of-the-2-c-methylguanosine-prodrug-bms-986094
#3
Wenying Li, Kevin J Trouba, Li Ma, Jae Kwagh, Christopher Storck, Yongxin Zhu, Oliver Flint, William G Humphreys, Jian Wang, Ang Liu, Bonnie Wang, Michael J Graziano, Marc H Davies, Thomas P Sanderson
BMS-986094, a 2'-C-methylguanosine prodrug for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection, was withdrawn from phase 2 clinical trials because of unexpected cardiac and renal toxicities. To better understand these toxicities, the in vitro metabolism of BMS-986094 in human hepatocytes (HHs) and human cardiomyocytes (HCMs) and the measurement of BMS-986094 and selected metabolites in monkey plasma and tissues were assessed. BMS-986094 was extensively metabolized by HHs and HCMs, resulting in more efficient formation and accumulation of the active triphosphorylated metabolite, INX-09114, and less efficient efflux of metabolites in HCMs...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055049/clinical-outcomes-of-metformin-use-in-populations-with-chronic-kidney-disease-congestive-heart-failure-or-chronic-liver-disease-a-systematic-review
#4
Matthew J Crowley, Clarissa J Diamantidis, Jennifer R McDuffie, C Blake Cameron, John W Stanifer, Clare K Mock, Xianwei Wang, Shuang Tang, Avishek Nagi, Andrzej S Kosinski, John W Williams
Background: Recent changes to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration boxed warning for metformin will increase its use in persons with historical contraindications or precautions. Prescribers must understand the clinical outcomes of metformin use in these populations. Purpose: To synthesize data addressing outcomes of metformin use in populations with type 2 diabetes and moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD), congestive heart failure (CHF), or chronic liver disease (CLD) with hepatic impairment...
January 3, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029208/pulmonary-and-tricuspid-valvuloplasty-in-carcinoid-heart-disease
#5
Ashkan Karimi, Negiin Pourafshar, James C Fudge
A 26-year-old female with carcinoid heart disease consisting of severe pulmonary and tricuspid valve stenosis was admitted with line associated sepsis. She recovered from sepsis with antibiotics and aggressive fluid resuscitation but became grossly volume overloaded with evidence of tense ascites and lower extremity edema. She developed worsening renal and hepatic function due to congestive nephropathy and hepatopathy, which did not respond to intravenous diuretics, and she was deemed too sick for surgical pulmonary and tricuspid valve replacement...
December 28, 2016: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974712/outcome-of-combination-therapy-with-sofosbuvir-and-ledipasvir-for-chronic-type-c-liver-disease
#6
Satoru Hagiwara, Naoshi Nishida, Tomohiro Watanabe, Toshiharu Sakurai, Hiroshi Ida, Yasunori Minami, Masahiro Takita, Tomohiro Minami, Mina Iwanishi, Hirokazu Chishina, Kazuomi Ueshima, Yoriaki Komeda, Tadaaki Arizumi, Masatoshi Kudo
INTRODUCTION: Recently, the treatment of chronic hepatitis C has markedly advanced. A phase III clinical study of combination therapy with sofosbuvir (SOF) and ledipasvir (LDV) was conducted in Japan, and the additive therapeutic effects were reported. In this study, we report the results of treatment in our hospital. METHODS: Of 147 patients with chronic type C liver disease who had consulted our hospital since September 2015 and received SOF/LDV therapy, in 91 subjects a sustained virological response of 12 weeks (SVR12) could be evaluated...
December 15, 2016: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923809/role-of-autonomic-nervous-system-in-chronic-cns-mediated-antidiabetic-action-of-leptin
#7
Alexandre A da Silva, John E Hall, Sydney P Moak, Jackson Browning, Haley J Houghton, Giovana C Micheloni, Jussara M do Carmo
This study tested whether chronic ganglionic blockade or hepatic vagotomy attenuates the chronic CNS-mediated antidiabetic and cardiovascular effects of leptin. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with telemetry probes and arterial and venous catheters for determination of blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), blood sampling and intravenous (IV) infusions. An intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula was placed into the brain lateral ventricle for infusion of leptin or vehicle. After control measurements, streptozotocin (STZ) was injected IV (50 mg/kg) to induce diabetes and 5 days later leptin (n=6) or saline vehicle (n=5) was infused ICV for 12 days via osmotic pumps...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909278/-surgical-treatment-of-right-atrial-malignant-tumor-thrombus-under-deep-hypothermia-with-intermittent-circulatory-arrest-report-of-two-cases
#8
Akira Fujita, Toshiro Kobayashi, Hideharu Hironaka, Mitsutaka Jinbou, Naomasa Uesugi, Satoshi Saito, Tsuyoshi Takahashi, Hidenori Gohra
Right atrial tumor thrombus is rare in patients with visceral malignant tumors and can cause right heart failure or sudden death. We present 2 cases of right atrial tumor thrombus treated under deep hypothermic intermittent circulatory arrest (DHICA). A 45-year-old man with right heart failure was diagnosed with right renal cancer extending to the right atrium. Computed tomography revealed no metastasis. He underwent right nephrectomy and tumor thrombus resection under DHICA. He was discharged on postoperative day 11 in good clinical course...
December 2016: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907194/preservation-of-multiple-mammalian-tissues-to-maximize-science-return-from-ground-based-and-spaceflight-experiments
#9
Sungshin Choi, Hami E Ray, San-Huei Lai, Joshua S Alwood, Ruth K Globus
BACKGROUND: Even with recent scientific advancements, challenges posed by limited resources and capabilities at the time of sample dissection continue to limit the collection of high quality tissues from experiments that can be conducted only infrequently and at high cost, such as in space. The resources and time it takes to harvest tissues post-euthanasia, and the methods and duration of long duration storage, potentially have negative impacts on sample quantity and quality, thereby limiting the scientific outcome that can be achieved...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906824/selection-of-patients-for-initial-clinical-trials-of-solid-organ-xenotransplantation
#10
David K C Cooper, Martin Wijkstrom, Sundaram Hariharan, Joshua L Chan, Avneesh Singh, Keith Horvath, Muhammad Mohiuddin, Arielle Cimeno, Rolf N Barth, John C LaMattina, Richard N Pierson
Several groups have reported extended survival of genetically-engineered pig organs in nonhuman primates, varying from almost 10 months for life-supporting kidney grafts and >2 years for nonlife-supporting heart grafts to less than 1 month for life-supporting liver and lung grafts. We have attempted to define groups of patients who may not have an option to wait for an allograft. These include kidney, heart, and lung candidates who are highly-allosensitized. In addition, some kidney candidates (who have previously lost at least 2 allografts from rapid recurrence of native kidney disease) have a high risk of further recurrence and will not be offered a repeat allotransplant...
December 1, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903390/-current-status-of-antiarrhythmic-drug-use-and-safety-assessment-in-chinese-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#11
R He, X Du, S W Liu, L J Sun, Y Li, H Zeng, Y Y Li, C Sun, Y Zhang, C S Ma, W Gao
Objective: To investigate the current status of antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) use in Chinese patients with atrial fibrillation(AF) and assess the safety of AADs in this patient cohort. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2013, a total of 4 008 AF patients treated with AADs was enrolled in this study and patients were followed up for 24 months. Detailed information of prescribed drug, the causes of drug discontinuation and side effects were recorded. Results: Amiodarone was prescribed to 64.3%(2 579 cases) and propafenone to 31...
November 24, 2016: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889753/renal-denervation-attenuates-multi-organ-fibrosis-and-improves-vascular-remodeling-in-rats-with-transverse-aortic-constriction-induced-cardiomyopathy
#12
Kai Wang, Dasheng Lu, Bin Zhang, Shengchan Wang, Qian Liu, Qi Zhang, Jie Geng, Qijun Shan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the effects of renal denervation (RDN) on multi-organ fibrosis and vascular remodeling in cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Five weeks later, 28 surviving TAC rats were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) RDN, (2) Sham, (3) Carvedilol. Six male Sham TAC rats served as the Control. Ten weeks after TAC, samples were collected. RESULTS: TAC rats showed an increased diastolic interventricular septal thickness at week 5...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888503/anti-hypercholesterolemic-influence-of-the-spice-cardamom-elettaria-cardamomum-in-experimental-rats
#13
Shamarao Nagashree, Kottangada K Archana, Pullabhatla Srinivas, Krishnapura Srinivasan, Halagur B Sowbhagya
BACKGROUND: Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) is an aromatic seed spice grown extensively in India and used as a flavoring in sweets. The anti-hypercholesterolemic effect of cardamom was evaluated in Wistar rats by inducing hypercholesterolemia with a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Dietary interventions were made with (a) Cardamom powder (50 g.kg(-1) ), (b) Cardamom oil (3 g.kg(-1) ) (equivalent to 50 g.kg(-1) cardamom), and (c) de-oiled cardamom powder (50 g.kg(-1) ). RESULTS: Significant reduction in the blood total cholesterol (31%) and LDL cholesterol (44%) was observed by oral administration of cardamom oil in hypercholesterolemic rats accompanied by a marked decrease in serum triglycerides by 42%...
November 26, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886373/clemizole-hydrochloride-blocks-cardiac-potassium-currents-stably-expressed-in-hek-293-cells
#14
Ling-Jun Jie, Wei-Yin Wu, Gang Li, Guo-Sheng Xiao, Shetuan Zhang, Gui-Rong Li, Yan Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent studies showed that clemizole has a potential therapeutic effect for hepatitis C infection and also potently inhibits TRPC5 channels. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether clemizole blocks cardiac K(+) currents and affects cardiac repolarization. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Whole-cell patch technique was employed to examine the effects of clemizole on hERG channel current, IKs and Kv1.5 current in HEK 293 cell expression systems as well as on ventricular action potentials of guinea pig hearts...
November 25, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875257/nicotinic-acid-timed-to-feeding-reverses-tissue-lipid-accumulation-and-improves-glucose-control-in-obese-zucker-rats-s
#15
Tobias Kroon, Tania Baccega, Arne Olsén, Johan Gabrielsson, Nicholas D Oakes
Nicotinic acid (NiAc) is a potent inhibitor of lipolysis, acutely reducing plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. However, a major FFA rebound is seen during rapid NiAc washout, and sustained exposure is associated with tolerance development, with FFAs returning to pretreatment levels. Our aim was to find a rational NiAc dosing regimen that preserves FFA lowering, sufficient to reverse nonadipose tissue lipid accumulation and improve metabolic control, in obese Zucker rats. We compared feeding-period versus fasting-period NiAc dosing for 5 days: 12 h subcutaneous infusion (programmable, implantable mini-pumps) terminated by gradual withdrawal...
January 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864544/investigative-nonclinical-cardiovascular-safety-and-toxicology-studies-with-bms-986094-an-ns5b-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-inhibitor
#16
M Gill, K Horn, J Hennan, R White, D Bounous, S Clark, J R Megill, E Janovitz, M Davies, T Sanderson, M Graziano
BMS-986094, a 2'-C-methylguanosine prodrug that was in development for treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection was withdrawn from Phase 2 clinical trials because of unexpected cardiac and renal adverse events. Investigative nonclinical studies were conducted to extend the understanding of these findings using more comprehensive endpoints. BMS-986094 was given orally to female CD-1 mice (25 and 150 mg/kg/d) for 2 weeks (53/group) and to cynomolgus monkeys (15 and 30 mg/kg/d) for up to 6 weeks (2-3/sex/group for cardiovascular safety, and 5/sex/group for toxicology)...
November 17, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847658/direct-acting-antivirals-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-and-down-syndrome
#17
Eric R Yoo, Ryan B Perumpail, George Cholankeril, Aijaz Ahmed
Patients with Down syndrome who received blood transfusions, likely in conjunction with cardiothoracic surgery for congenital heart disease and prior to the implementation of blood-donor screening for hepatitis C virus infection, face a substantial risk of acquiring the infection. In the past, interferon-based therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection in patients with Down syndrome was noted to have lower efficacy and potentially higher risk of adverse effects. Recently, the treatment for chronic hepatitis C has been revolutionized with the introduction of interferon-free direct acting antivirals with favorable safety, tolerability, and efficacy profile...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832992/studies-on-the-regulation-of-lipid-metabolism-and-its-mechanism-of-the-iridoids-rich-fraction-in-valeriana-jatamansi-jones
#18
Jiali Zhu, Keke Xu, Xuemei Zhang, Jiahong Cao, Zhanrong Jia, Ruocong Yang, Chaoying Ma, Chang Chen, Tiane Zhang, Zhiyong Yan
Valeriana jatamansi Jones, a plant with heart-shaped leaves in the Valeriana genus of Valerianaceae, is widely used in Chinese folk medicine. Iridoid is an important constituent of V. jatamansi that contributes to the pharmacological efficacy of the herb. This study aims to investigate the regulation of lipid metabolism and its mechanism of the iridoids rich fraction in V. jatamansi (IRFV). A high fat diet was used to establish the hyperlipidemia rat model, with 2mg/kg/d of simvastatin as a positive control, fed with 7...
December 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832587/the-liver-at-the-nexus-of-host-microbial-interactions
#19
REVIEW
Andrew J Macpherson, Mathias Heikenwalder, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg
The liver receives blood from the intestine, from the spleen, and directly from the heart and holds a vital position in vertebrate physiology. It plays a role in intermediary metabolism, bile secretion, maintaining blood sterility, serum homeostasis, xenobiotic detoxification, and immunological activity. This article provides our perspective on the liver as a nexus in establishing and maintaining host microbial mutualism. We discuss the role of the liver not only in sanitizing the blood stream from penetrant live microbes, but also in metabolizing xenobiotics that are synthesized or modified by intestinal microbes, and how microbiota modify the signaling potential of bile acids...
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816518/antioxidant-responses-in-hibernating-chinese-soft-shelled-turtle-pelodiscus-sinensis-hatchlings
#20
Wen-Yi Zhang, Cui-Juan Niu, Bo-Jian Chen, Lin Yuan
The antioxidant defense system protects turtles from oxidative stress during hibernation. The present study examined changes of the antioxidant enzymes both on mRNA level and enzyme activity level during hibernation of Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis hatchlings. The upstream regulator NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA was also measured. Samples were taken at pre-hibernation (17.0°C, Mud temperature (MT)), hibernation (5.8°C, MT) and arousal (20.1°C, MT). Nrf2 exhibited a tissue-specific pattern of expression with a decrease in the brain, slight increase in the liver and heart during hibernation, and significant increase during arousal in all the three tissues...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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