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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546560/potential-decline-in-carbon-carrying-capacity-under-projected-climate-wildfire-interactions-in-the-sierra-nevada
#1
Shuang Liang, Matthew D Hurteau, Anthony LeRoy Westerling
Ecosystem carbon carrying capacity (CCC) is determined by prevailing climate and natural disturbance regimes, conditions that are projected to change significantly. The interaction of changing climate and its effects on disturbance regimes is expected to affect forest regeneration and growth, which may diminish forest carbon (C) stocks and uptake. We modeled landscape C dynamics over 590 years along the latitudinal gradient of the U.S. Sierra Nevada Mountains under climate and area burned by large wildfires projected by late 21(st) century...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546316/satellites-reveal-contrasting-responses-of-regional-climate-to-the-widespread-greening-of-earth
#2
Giovanni Forzieri, Ramdane Alkama, Diego G Miralles, Alessandro Cescatti
Changes in vegetation cover associated to the observed greening may affect several biophysical processes, whose net effects on climate are unclear. Here, we analyze remotely sensed dynamics in leaf area index (LAI) and energy fluxes to explore the associated variation in local climate. We show that the increasing trend in LAI contributed to the warming of boreal zones through a reduction of surface albedo, and to an evaporation-driven cooling in arid regions. The interplay between LAI and surface biophysics is amplified up to five times under extreme warm-dry and cold-wet years...
May 25, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538315/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-compression-garments-on-autonomic-nervous-system-recovery-after-exercise
#3
Alessandro Piras, Giorgio Gatta
Piras, A and Gatta, G. Evaluation of the effectiveness of compression garments on autonomic nervous system recovery after exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1636-1643, 2017-The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the recovery pattern of a whole-body compression garment on hemodynamic parameters and on autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity after a swimming performance. Ten young male athletes were recruited and tested in 2 different days, with and without wearing the garment during the recovery phase...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533074/exercise-science-principles-and-the-vocal-warm-up-implications-for-singing-voice-pedagogy
#4
Matthew Hoch, Mary J Sandage
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESES: Principles from exercise science literature were applied to singing warm-up pedagogy as a method for examining parallels between athletic and voice training. Analysis of the use of exercise principles in vocal warm-up should illuminate aspects of voice training that may be further developed in the future. METHODS/DESIGN: A selected canon of standard voice pedagogy texts and well-regarded warm-up methods were evaluated for use of exercise science principles for skill acquisition and fatigue resistance...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529155/metabolic-insights-into-the-cold-survival-strategy-and-overwintering-of-the-common-cutworm-spodoptera-litura-fabricius-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#5
Wei Zhu, Huan Zhang, Qian Meng, Menglong Wang, Guiling Zhou, Xuan Li, Hongtuo Wang, Lin Miao, Qilian Qin, Jihong Zhang
The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a destructive pest in Asia. Although overwintering in the field has not been reported for this species, their larvae are capable of long-term survival in fluctuating temperatures, i.e., 5°C (12 h) plus 13°C (12 h), if food is available. With an increase in climate change due to global warming and the widespread use of greenhouses, further understanding of their cold survival strategy is needed to predict and control their population in the future...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528435/benefits-of-a-regular-vs-irregular-rhythm-based-training-programme-on-physical-fitness-and-motor-skills-in-obese-girls
#6
Ghazi Racil, Wassim Elmontassar, Imen Rommene, Claire Tourny, Anis Chaouachi, Jeremy B Coquart
PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to examine the impact of a physical exercise programme including rhythmic elements (regular and irregular tempos) on physiological variables, motor skills (MS), and jump performances in obese girls. METHODS: Thirty-six obese girls (age: 10.4 ± 0.9 years, body mass: 58.7 ± 4.0 kg, height: 1.37 ± 0.04 m, body mass index: 31.2 ± 2.1) participated in three weekly physical exercise sessions for 6 weeks, with each session consisting of basic fundamental locomotor movements...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523612/analysis-of-the-environmental-issues-concerning-the-deployment-of-an-otec-power-plant-in-martinique
#7
Damien A Devault, Anne Péné-Annette
Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a form of power generation, which exploits the temperature difference between warm surface seawater and cold deep seawater. Suitable conditions for OTEC occur in deep warm seas, especially the Caribbean, the Red Sea and parts of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The continuous power provided by this renewable power source makes a useful contribution to a renewable energy mix because of the intermittence of the other major renewable power sources, i.e. solar or wind power. Industrial-scale OTEC power plants have simply not been built...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523285/electrically-pumped-wavelength-tunable-gaas-quantum-dots-interfaced-with-rubidium-atoms
#8
Huiying Huang, Rinaldo Trotta, Yongheng Huo, Thomas Lettner, Johannes S Wildmann, Javier Martín-Sánchez, Daniel Huber, Marcus Reindl, Jiaxiang Zhang, Eugenio Zallo, Oliver G Schmidt, Armando Rastelli
We demonstrate the first wavelength-tunable electrically pumped source of nonclassical light that can emit photons with wavelength in resonance with the D2 transitions of (87)Rb atoms. The device is fabricated by integrating a novel GaAs single-quantum-dot light-emitting diode (LED) onto a piezoelectric actuator. By feeding the emitted photons into a 75 mm long cell containing warm (87)Rb vapor, we observe slow-light with a temporal delay of up to 3.4 ns. In view of the possibility of using (87)Rb atomic vapors as quantum memories, this work makes an important step toward the realization of hybrid-quantum systems for future quantum networks...
March 15, 2017: ACS Photonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523007/transcriptomic-identification-of-drought-related-genes-and-ssr-markers-in-sudan-grass-based-on-rna-seq
#9
Yongqun Zhu, Xia Wang, Linkai Huang, Chaowen Lin, Xinquan Zhang, Wenzhi Xu, Jianhua Peng, Zhou Li, Haidong Yan, Fuxiang Luo, Xie Wang, Li Yao, Dandan Peng
Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense) is an annual warm-season gramineous forage grass that is widely used as pasture, hay, and silage. However, drought stress severely impacts its yield, and there is limited information about the mechanisms of drought tolerance in Sudan grass. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the Sudan grass variety Wulate No.1, and we developed simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with drought stress. From 852,543,826 raw reads, nearly 816,854,366 clean reads were identified and used for analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520585/the-role-of-simulation-and-warm-up-in-minimally-invasive-gynecologic-surgery
#10
Janelle K Moulder, Michelle Louie, Tarek Toubia, Lauren D Schiff, Matthew T Siedhoff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to update the reader on the current literature and recent studies evaluating the role of simulation and warm-up as part of surgical education and training, and maintenance of surgical skills. RECENT FINDINGS: Laparoscopic and hysteroscopic simulation may improve psychomotor skills, particularly for early-stage learners. However, data are mixed as to whether simulation education is directly transferable to surgical skill...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516802/the-influence-of-heating-on-toe-pressure-in-patients-with-peripheral-arterial-disease
#11
N Settembre, T Kagayama, P Kauhanen, P Vikatmaa, Y Inoue, M Venermo
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The toe skin temperature in vascular patients can be low, making reliable toe pressure measurements difficult to obtain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heating on the toe pressure measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 86 legs were examined. Brachial pressure and toe pressure were measured at rest in a supine position using a laser Doppler device that also measured skin temperature. After heating the toes for 5 min with a heating pad, we re-measured the toe pressure...
May 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Surgery: SJS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513175/effect-of-voc-emissions-from-vegetation-on-air-quality-in-berlin-during-a-heatwave
#12
Galina Churkina, Friderike Kuik, Boris Bonn, Axel Lauer, Rüdiger Grote, Karolina Tomiak, Tim M Butler
The potential of emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone and particulate matter has long been recognized. This potential increases with rising temperatures and may lead to severe problems with air quality in densely populated areas during heat waves. Here, we investigate how heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds from urban/suburban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone and particulate matter. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with atmospheric chemistry (WRF-Chem) with emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation simulated with MEGAN to quantify some of these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany, during the heat wave in 2006...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512225/high-arctic-holocene-temperature-record-from-the-agassiz-ice-cap-and-greenland-ice-sheet-evolution
#13
Benoit S Lecavalier, David A Fisher, Glenn A Milne, Bo M Vinther, Lev Tarasov, Philippe Huybrechts, Denis Lacelle, Brittany Main, James Zheng, Jocelyne Bourgeois, Arthur S Dyke
We present a revised and extended high Arctic air temperature reconstruction from a single proxy that spans the past ∼12,000 y (up to 2009 CE). Our reconstruction from the Agassiz ice cap (Ellesmere Island, Canada) indicates an earlier and warmer Holocene thermal maximum with early Holocene temperatures that are 4-5 °C warmer compared with a previous reconstruction, and regularly exceed contemporary values for a period of ∼3,000 y. Our results show that air temperatures in this region are now at their warmest in the past 6,800-7,800 y, and that the recent rate of temperature change is unprecedented over the entire Holocene...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511496/effect-of-passive-active-and-combined-warm-up-on-lower-limb-muscle-performance-and-dynamic-stability-in-recreational-sports-players
#14
Kedar Gogte, Prateek Srivastav, Ganesh Balthillaya Miyaru
INTRODUCTION: Warm up is an activity that is done before a sports activity. The warm up can be done actively and passively. The preferred mode is active warm up in athletes. There are inconclusive effects of passive warm up compared with an active warm up on short term muscle performance. The cumulative effect of passive and active warm up on muscle performance and dynamic stability is not known. AIM: To find out the effects of passive, active and combined warm up on lower limb muscle performance and dynamic stability in recreational sports players...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508037/arctic-greening-from-warming-promotes-declines-in-caribou-populations
#15
Per Fauchald, Taejin Park, Hans Tømmervik, Ranga Myneni, Vera Helene Hausner
The migratory tundra caribou herds in North America follow decadal population cycles, and browsing from abundant caribou could be expected to counteract the current climate-driven expansion of shrubs in the circumpolar tundra biome. We demonstrate that the sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean has provided a strong signal for climate-induced changes on the adjacent caribou summer ranges, outperforming other climate indices in explaining the caribou-plant dynamics. We found no evidence of a negative effect of caribou abundance on vegetation biomass...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507323/increasing-phenological-asynchrony-between-spring-green-up-and-arrival-of-migratory-birds
#16
Stephen J Mayor, Robert P Guralnick, Morgan W Tingley, Javier Otegui, John C Withey, Sarah C Elmendorf, Margaret E Andrew, Stefan Leyk, Ian S Pearse, David C Schneider
Consistent with a warming climate, birds are shifting the timing of their migrations, but it remains unclear to what extent these shifts have kept pace with the changing environment. Because bird migration is primarily cued by annually consistent physiological responses to photoperiod, but conditions at their breeding grounds depend on annually variable climate, bird arrival and climate-driven spring events would diverge. We combined satellite and citizen science data to estimate rates of change in phenological interval between spring green-up and migratory arrival for 48 breeding passerine species across North America...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505844/equation-of-state-phonons-and-lattice-stability-of-ultrafast-warm-dense-matter
#17
L Harbour, M W C Dharma-Wardana, D D Klug, L J Lewis
Using the two-temperature model for ultrafast matter (UFM), we compare the equation of state, pair-distribution functions g(r), and phonons using the neutral pseudoatom (NPA) model with results from density functional theory (DFT) codes and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for Al, Li, and Na. The NPA approach uses state-dependent first-principles pseudopotentials from an "all-electron" DFT calculation with finite-T exchange-correlation functional (XCF). It provides pair potentials, structure factors, the "bound" and "free" states, as well as a mean ionization Z[over ¯] unambiguously...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503004/factors-controlling-the-evaporation-of-secondary-organic-aerosol-from-%C3%AE-pinene-ozonolysis
#18
Taina Yli-Juuti, Aki Pajunoja, Olli-Pekka Tikkanen, Angela Buchholz, Celia Faiola, Olli Väisänen, Liqing Hao, Eetu Kari, Otso Peräkylä, Olga Garmash, Manabu Shiraiwa, Mikael Ehn, Kari Lehtinen, Annele Virtanen
Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) forms a major fraction of organic aerosols in the atmosphere. Knowledge of SOA properties that affect their dynamics in the atmosphere is needed for improving climate models. By combining experimental and modeling techniques, we investigated the factors controlling SOA evaporation under different humidity conditions. Our experiments support the conclusion of particle phase diffusivity limiting the evaporation under dry conditions. Viscosity of particles at dry conditions was estimated to increase several orders of magnitude during evaporation, up to 10(9) Pa s...
March 16, 2017: Geophysical Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496184/el-ni%C3%A3-o-increases-the-risk-of-lower-mississippi-river-flooding
#19
Samuel E Munoz, Sylvia G Dee
Mississippi River floods rank among the costliest climate-related disasters in the world. Improving flood predictability, preparedness, and response at seasonal to decadal time-scales requires an understanding of the climatic controls that govern flood occurrence. Linking flood occurrence to persistent modes of climate variability like the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has proven challenging, due in part to the limited number of high-magnitude floods available for study in the instrumental record. To augment the relatively short instrumental record, we use output from the Community Earth System Model (CESM) Last Millennium Ensemble (LME) to investigate the dynamical controls on discharge extremes of the lower Mississippi River...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494226/the-effect-of-prior-experience-on-children-s-tool-innovation
#20
Clare L Whalley, Nicola Cutting, Sarah R Beck
Spontaneous tool innovation to solve physical problems is difficult for young children. In three studies, we explored the effect of prior experience with tools on tool innovation in children aged 4-7years (N=299). We also gave children an experience more consistent with that experienced by corvids in similar studies to enable fairer cross-species comparisons. Children who had the opportunity to use a premade target tool in the task context during a warm-up phase were significantly more likely to innovate a tool to solve the problem on the test trial compared with children who had no such warm-up experience...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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