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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145101/the-distribution-and-trends-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-and-mercury-in-marine-mammals-from-canada-s-eastern-arctic
#1
REVIEW
Tanya M Brown, Robie W Macdonald, Derek C G Muir, Robert J Letcher
Arctic contaminant research in the marine environment has focused on organohalogen compounds and mercury mainly because they are bioaccumulative, persistent and toxic. This review summarizes and discusses the patterns and trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Eastern Canadian Arctic relative to the rest of the Canadian Arctic. The review provides explanations for these trends and looks at the implications of climate-related changes on contaminants in these marine mammals in a region that has been reviewed little...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140407/targeted-treatment-of-yaws-with-household-contact-tracing-how-much-do-we-miss
#2
Louise Dyson, Michael Marks, Oliver M Crook, Oliver Sokana, Anthony W Solomon, Alex Bishop, David C W Mabey, T Déirdre Hollingsworth
Yaws is a disabling bacterial infection primarily found in warm and humid tropical areas. The World Health Organisation strategy mandates an initial round of total community treatment (TCT) with single-dose azithromycin followed either by further TCT or active case finding and treatment of cases and their contacts (the Morges strategy). We wish to investigate the effectiveness of the Morges strategy. We employ a stochastic household model to study the transmission of infection using data collected from a pre-TCT survey conducted in the Solomon Islands...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138207/impact-of-improved-insulation-and-heating-on-mortality-risk-of-older-cohort-members-with-prior-cardiovascular-or-respiratory-hospitalisations
#3
Nicholas Preval, Michael Keall, Lucy Telfar-Barnard, Arthur Grimes, Philippa Howden-Chapman
OBJECTIVES: We carried out an evaluation of a large-scale New Zealand retrofit programme using administrative data that provided the statistical power to assess the effect of insulation and/or heating retrofits on cardiovascular and respiratory-related mortality in people aged 65 and over with prior respiratory or circulatory hospitalisations. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental cohort study based on administrative data. SETTING: New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: From a larger study cohort of over 900 000 people, we selected two subcohorts: 3287 people who were aged 65 and over and had experienced pretreatment period cardiovascular-related hospitalisation (ICD-10 chapter 9), and 1561 people aged 65 and over who had experienced pretreatment respiratory-related hospitalisation (ICD-10 chapter 10)...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135903/micturition-syncope-in-childhood-how-to-recognize-and-manage-it
#4
Pierluigi Marzuillo, Stefano Guarino, Vincenzo Tipo, Andrea Apicella, Anna Grandone, Mario Diplomatico, Cesare Polito, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Angela La Manna, Laura Perrone
Frequently, general pediatricians could face a patient with syncope, which represents approximately 1% to 3% of emergency visits. Micturition syncope is a transient loss of consciousness with onset immediately before, during, or after micturition. Literature evidence indicates that healthy young men are a population with major risk for presenting micturition syncope, with a peak of incidence around 40 to 50 years of age. Usually, this syncope occurs in the morning, after wake-up, or, more generally, when the male patients assume the orthostatic position after a period of supine position in a warm bed...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135785/comparison-of-polar-m600-optical-heart-rate-and-ecg-heart-rate-during-exercise
#5
John F Horton, Pro Stergiou, Tak S Fung, Larry Katz
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Polar M600 optical heart rate (OHR) sensor compared with ECG heart rate (HR) measurement during various physical activities. METHODS: Thirty-six subjects participated in a continuous 76-min testing session, which included rest, cycling warm-up, cycling intervals, circuit weight training, treadmill intervals, and recovery. HR was measured using a three-lead ECG configuration and a Polar M600 Sport Watch on the left wrist...
December 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129273/contrasting-the-potential-effects-of-daytime-versus-nighttime-warming-on-insects
#6
REVIEW
Cori J Speights, Jason P Harmon, Brandon T Barton
Mean increases in temperatures associated with climate change are largely driven by increases in minimum (nighttime) temperatures; however, most climate change studies disproportionately increase maximum (daytime) temperatures. We review current literature to compare the potential effects of increasing daytime and nighttime temperatures on insects and their interactions within ecological communities. Although few studies have explicitly addressed the effects of nighttime warming, we draw from broader literature on how insects are affected by temperature to identify possible mechanisms that the timing (day or night) of warming may affect insects...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127105/epor2-%C3%A3-cr2-independendent-effects-of-low-dose-epoetin-a-in-porcine-liver-transplantation
#7
Linus Kebschull, Leon Franz Christoph Theilmann, Annika Mohr, Wencke Uennigmann, Sandra Stoeppeler, Barbara Heitplatz, Hans-Ullrich Spiegel, Ralf Bahde, Daniel Michael Palmes, Felix Becker
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains the key component of graft damage during transplantation. Erythropoietin (EPO) induces anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects via the EPOR2/ßcR2-complex, with the potential risk of thrombosis. Previous work indicates that EPO has EPOR2/ßcR2-independent protective effects via direct effects on the endothelium. As the EPOR2/ßcR2-receptor has a very low affinity for EPO, we aimed to test the hypothesis that EPO doses below the level that stimulate this receptor elicit cytoprotective effects via endothelial stimulation in a porcine liver transplantation model...
November 10, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121092/relationship-between-fine-particulate-matter-weather-condition-and-daily-non-accidental-mortality-in-shanghai-china-a-bayesian-approach
#8
Xin Fang, Bo Fang, Chunfang Wang, Tian Xia, Matteo Bottai, Fang Fang, Yang Cao
There are concerns that the reported association of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with mortality might be a mixture of PM2.5 and weather conditions. We evaluated the effects of extreme weather conditions and weather types on mortality as well as their interactions with PM2.5 concentrations in a time series study. Daily non-accidental deaths, individual demographic information, daily average PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological data between 2012 and 2014 were obtained from Shanghai, China. Days with extreme weather conditions were identified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117262/benthic-colonization-in-newly-ice-free-soft-bottom-areas-in-an-antarctic-fjord
#9
Cristian Lagger, Natalia Servetto, Luciana Torre, Ricardo Sahade
Extended glacier retreat is among the main consequences of the rapid warming of the West Antarctic Peninsula. Particularly, in the inner part of Potter Cove (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) large areas are now exposed to open sea conditions owing to the retreat of Fourcade glacier. During the 2010 austral summer, underwater photographic surveys were undertaken by SCUBA diving up to 30 m in these new ice-free areas 80 m from the glacier front. Our main aim was to investigate colonization and early succession of the benthic assemblages on soft-bottom areas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112055/self-selected-resistance-exercise-load-implications-for-research-and-prescription
#10
Sebastião Barbosa-Netto, Obanshe S dʼAcelino-E-Porto, Marcos B Almeida
Barbosa-Netto, S, d'Acelino-e-Porto, OS, and Almeida, MB. Self-selected resistance exercise load: implications for research and prescription. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-Resistance training has been widely used for maintaining or improving the quality of life and sports performance. It is not clear, however, whether the load commonly used in these exercises is equivalent to the number of repetitions determined for execution, that is, the level of effort applied to the self-selected load. Ergo, the aim of this study was to identify the number of maximum repetitions that strength training practitioners can perform with the load commonly used (self-selected) to perform 10 repetitions in their training routines...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109689/molecular-plasticity-under-ocean-warming-proteomics-and-fitness-data-provides-clues-for-a-better-understanding-of-the-thermal-tolerance-in-fish
#11
Diana Madeira, José E Araújo, Rui Vitorino, Pedro M Costa, José L Capelo, Catarina Vinagre, Mário S Diniz
Ocean warming is known to alter the performance and fitness of marine organisms albeit the proteome underpinnings of species thermal tolerance are still largely unknown. In this 1-month experiment we assessed the vulnerability of the gilt-head sea bream Sparus aurata, taken here as a biological model for some key fisheries species, to ocean warming (control 18°C, nursery ground temperature 24°C and heat wave 30°C). Survival was impaired after 28 days, mainly at 30°C although fishes' condition was unaltered...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109686/ketone-diester-ingestion-impairs-time-trial-performance-in-professional-cyclists
#12
Jill J Leckey, Megan L Ross, Marc Quod, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke
We investigated the effect of pre- "race" ingestion of a 1,3-butanediol acetoacetate diester on blood ketone concentration, substrate metabolism and performance of a cycling time trial (TT) in professional cyclists. In a randomized cross-over design, 10 elite male cyclists completed a ~31 km laboratory-based TT on a cycling ergometer programmed to simulate the 2017 World Road Cycling Championships course. Cyclists consumed a standardized meal [2 g/kg body mass (BM) carbohydrate (CHO)] the evening prior to a trial day and a CHO breakfast (2 g/kg BM CHO) with 200 mg caffeine on the morning of a trial day...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108681/legionella-contamination-in-warm-water-systems-a-species-level-survey
#13
Thorsten Dilger, Holger Melzl, André Gessner
Legionellae constitute a frequent contamination of warm water systems and can lead to serious infections. Therefore, in many countries it is mandatory to monitor warm water systems for their presence. The method of examination in Germany is regulated by guideline ISO 11731 and DIN EN ISO 11731-2, and the results are reported as concentration of Legionella spp. Only limited information is available on the presence of individual species of Legionellae in the examined systems, since most investigations and research focus solely on Legionella pneumophila as the most important human pathogen...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108553/rhinarium-temperature-dynamics-in-domestic-dogs
#14
Ronald Heinz Herbert Kröger, Aitor Bereber Goiricelaya
Many mammals have specialized nose-tips with glabrous and often wet skin, called rhinaria. The function of the rhinarium is unknown in most species. Rhinaria differ not only in shape and skin structure, but also in skin temperature. They are considerably colder in carnivorans than in herbivorous artio- and perissodactyls. Domestic dogs are carnivorans and their noses often feel cold, such that they can be used as an abundant and easily accessible model species. We performed a study on rhinarium temperature in dogs under various ambient temperatures as well as in different behavioral and physiological contexts, breeds, and age groups...
December 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107972/rna-seq-analysis-reveals-insight-into-enhanced-rice-xa7-mediated-bacterial-blight-resistance-at-high-temperature
#15
Stephen P Cohen, Hongxia Liu, Cristiana T Argueso, Andy Pereira, Casiana Vera Cruz, Valerie Verdier, Jan E Leach
Plant disease is a major challenge to agriculture worldwide, and it is exacerbated by abiotic environmental factors. During some plant-pathogen interactions, heat stress allows pathogens to overcome host resistance, a phenomenon which could severely impact crop productivity considering the global warming trends associated with climate change. Despite the importance of this phenomenon, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. To better understand host plant responses during simultaneous heat and pathogen stress, we conducted a transcriptomics experiment for rice plants (cultivar IRBB61) containing Xa7, a bacterial blight disease resistance (R) gene, that were infected with Xanthomonas oryzae, the bacterial blight pathogen of rice, during high temperature stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106621/high-day-and-night-time-temperatures-affect-grain-growth-dynamics-in-contrasting-rice-genotypes
#16
Wanju Shi, Xinyou Yin, Paul C Struik, Celymar Solis, Fangming Xie, Ralf C Schmidt, Min Huang, Yingbin Zou, Changrong Ye, S V Krishna Jagadish
Rice grain yield and quality are predicted to be highly vulnerable to global warming. Five genotypes including heat-tolerant and susceptible checks, a heat-tolerant near-isogenic line and two hybrids were exposed to control (31 °C/23 °C, day/night), high night-time temperature (HNT; 31 °C/30 °C), high day-time temperature (HDT; 38 °C/23 °C) and high day- and night-time temperature (HNDT; 38 °C/30 °C) treatments for 20 consecutive days during the grain-filling stage. Grain-filling dynamics, starch metabolism enzymes, temporal starch accumulation patterns and the process of chalk formation were quantified...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105466/-effect-of-warm-needle-moxibustion-intervention-on-knee-joint-swelling-and-expression-of-synovial-sirt-1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-rats-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
Guo-Wei Cai, Jia Li, Jing Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of warm needle moxibustion (WNM) on knee-joint swelling and expression of sirtuin 1 (SIRT 1, a class Ⅲ histone/protein deacetylase) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in synovial tissue in rats with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into five groups:normal control, model, SIRT 1-inhibitor, WNM, and SIRT 1-inhibitor plus WNM (inhibitor+WNM), n=10 rats in each group. The RA model was established by subcutaneous injection of bovine type Ⅱ collagen at the sole, once daily for 21 days...
October 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101534/process-analytical-technology-in-freeze-drying-detection-of-the-secondary-solute-water-crystallization-with-heat-flux-sensors
#18
Qiming Wang, Evgenyi Shalaev
In situ and non-invasive detection of solute crystallization during freeze-drying would facilitate cycle optimization and scale-up from the laboratory to commercial manufacturing scale. The objective of the study is to evaluate heat flux sensor (HFS) as a tool for monitoring solute crystallization and other first-order phase transitions (e.g., onset of freezing). HFS is a thin-film differential thermopile, which acts as a transducer to generate an electrical signal proportional to the total heat applied to its surface...
November 3, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095916/transcriptomic-difference-in-bovine-blastocysts-following-vitrification-and-slow-freezing-at-morula-stage
#19
Alisha Gupta, Jaswant Singh, Isabelle Dufort, Claude Robert, Fernanda Caminha Faustino Dias, Muhammad Anzar
Cryopreservation is known for its marked deleterious effects on embryonic health. Bovine compact morulae were vitrified or slow-frozen, and post-warm morulae were cultured to the expanded blastocyst stage. Blastocysts developed from vitrified and slow-frozen morulae were subjected to microarray analysis and compared with blastocysts developed from unfrozen control morulae for differential gene expression. Morula to blastocyst conversion rate was higher (P < 0.05) in control (72%) and vitrified (77%) than in slow-frozen (34%) morulae...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095655/efficacy-of-a-prevention-program-for-medial-elbow-injuries-in-youth-baseball-players
#20
Jun Sakata, Emi Nakamura, Tatsuhiro Suzuki, Makoto Suzukawa, Atsushi Akaike, Kuniaki Shimizu, Norikazu Hirose
BACKGROUND: Youth baseball players are at high risk for elbow injuries, which can lead to future functional disability. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a prevention program to lower the risk of medial elbow injury in these athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Youth baseball players, 8 to 11 years old, without a history of elbow and shoulder pain, were allocated to either the intervention (n = 136) or control (n = 169) group...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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