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Biomedical engineer

Kyung Min Park, Young Min Shin, Kyobum Kim, Heungsoo Shin
In 2017, a new paradigm change caused by artificial intelligence and big data analysis resulted in innovation in each field of science and technology, and also significantly influenced progress in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM). TERM has continued to make technological advances based on interdisciplinary approaches and has contributed to the overall field of biomedical technology including cancer biology, personalized medicine, development biology, and cell-based therapeutics. While researchers are aware that there is still a long way to go until TERM reaches the ultimate goal of patient treatment through clinical translation, the rapid progress in convergence studies led by technological improvements in TERM has been encouraging...
March 13, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Russell Urie, Deepanjan Ghosh, Inam Ridha, Kaushal Rege
Inorganic nanomaterials have witnessed significant advances in areas of medicine including cancer therapy, imaging, and drug delivery, but their use in soft tissue repair and regeneration is in its infancy. Metallic, ceramic, and carbon allotrope nanoparticles have shown promise in facilitating tissue repair and regeneration. Inorganic nanomaterials have been employed to improve stem cell engraftment in cellular therapy, material mechanical stability in tissue repair, electrical conductivity in nerve and cardiac regeneration, adhesion strength in tissue approximation, and antibacterial capacity in wound dressings...
April 5, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Hayder Amin, Michele Dipalo, Francesco De Angelis, Luca Berdondini
A controlled geometry of in vitro neuronal networks allows investigation of the cellular mechanisms that underlie neuron-to-neuron and neuron-extracellular matrix interactions, which are essential to biomedical research. Herein, we report a selective guidance of primary hippocampal neurons by using arrays of three-dimensional vertical nanopillars (NPs) functionalized with a specific adhesion-promoting molecule-poly-dl-ornithine (PDLO). We show that 90% of neuronal cells are guided exclusively on the combinatorial PDLO/NP substrate...
April 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ee-Seul Kang, Da-Seul Kim, Intan Rosalina Suhito, Wanhee Lee, Inbeom Song, Tae-Hyung Kim
Background: In the past decade, stem cells, with their ability to differentiate into various types of cells, have been proven to be resourceful in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Despite the ability to repair damaged parts of organs and tissues, the use of stem cells still entails several limitations, such as low differentiation efficiency and difficulties in guiding differentiation. To address these limitations, nanotechnology approaches have been recently implemented in stem cell research...
2018: Biomaterials Research
Jian Liu, Tingting Liu, Jian Pan, Shaomin Liu, G Q Max Lu
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are promising functional nanomaterials for a variety of biomedical applications, such as bioimaging, drug/gene delivery, and cancer therapy. This is due to their low density, low toxicity, high biocompatibility, large specific surface areas, and excellent thermal and mechanical stability. The past decade has seen rapid advances in the development of MSNs with multiple compartments. These include hierarchical porous structures and core-shell, yolk-shell, and Janus structured particles for efficient diagnosis and therapeutic applications...
April 4, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Yonggang Ke, Carlos Castro, Jong Hyun Choi
Structural DNA nanotechnology utilizes synthetic or biologic DNA as designer molecules for the self-assembly of artificial nanostructures. The field is founded upon the specific interactions between DNA molecules, known as Watson-Crick base pairing. After decades of active pursuit, DNA has demonstrated unprecedented versatility in constructing artificial nanostructures with significant complexity and programmability. The nanostructures could be either static, with well-controlled physicochemical properties, or dynamic, with the ability to reconfigure upon external stimuli...
April 4, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Jaehong Lee, Sera Shin, Sanggeun Lee, Jaekang Song, Subin Kang, Heetak Han, SeulGee Kim, Seunghoe Kim, Jungmok Seo, DaeEun Kim, Taeyoon Lee
Highly stretchable fiber strain sensors are one of the most important components for various applications in wearable electronics, electronic textiles and biomedical electronics. Herein, we present a facile approach for fabricating highly stretchable and sensitive fiber strain sensors by embedding Ag nanoparticles into a stretchable fiber with a multifilament structure. The multifilament structure and Ag-rich shells of the fiber strain sensor enable the sensor to simultaneously achieve both a high sensitivity and largely wide sensing range despite its simple fabrication process and components...
April 4, 2018: ACS Nano
Alisa Palaveniene, Volodymyr Harkavenko, Vitalina Kharchenko, Povilas Daugela, Mindaugas Pranskunas, Gintaras Juodzbalys, Nataliya Babenko, Jolanta Liesiene
The use of synthetic materials for biomedical applications still presents issues owing to the potential for unfavourable safety characteristics. Currently, there is increasing interest in using natural, marine-derived raw materials for bone tissue engineering. In our study, the endoskeleton of the mollusc Sepia, i.e. cuttlebone (CB), was used with regenerated cellulose (RC) to prepare three-dimensional composite bone grafts. CB microparticles were mechanically immobilised within a cellulose gel, resulting in a macroporous structure upon lyophilisation...
April 3, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Zhaowei Chen, Chaoqun Liu, Fangfang Cao, Jinsong Ren, Xiaogang Qu
DNA metallization has witnessed tremendous growth and development, from the initial simple synthesis aimed at manufacturing conductive metal nanowires to the current fabrication of various nanostructures for applications in areas as diverse as nanolithography, energy conversion and storage, catalysis, sensing, and biomedical engineering. To this, our aim here was to present a comprehensive review to summarize the research activities on DNA metallization that have appeared since the concept was first proposed in 1998...
April 3, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Daniel J Hageman, Shuying Wu, Sharon Kilbreath, Stanley G Rockson, Chun Wang, Melissa L Knothe Tate
For a century-old problem, edema and its treatment have gone remarkably unnoticed by the biomedical community. Given the prevalence of lymphedema and its debilitating repercussions, there is an acute need for both efficacy-based measures and clinical standards to guide compression garment design and therapeutic application. This review outlines the current state of the art in compression treatment and suggests an integrated biomedical engineering approach going forward. Characterizing the pressure gradient profiles of commercial compression sleeves is necessary to better understand the role of compression treatment in the mitigation of swelling...
March 29, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
Susan Samson, Jason J Northey, Vicki Plaks, Carole Baas, Ivory Dean, Mark A LaBarge, Andrei Goga, Laura J Van't Veer, Valerie M Weaver
To address cancer as a multifaceted adaptive system, the increasing momentum for cross-disciplinary connectivity between cancer biologists, physical scientists, mathematicians, chemists, biomedical engineers, computer scientists, clinicians, and advocates is fueling the emergence of new scientific frontiers, principles, and opportunities within physical sciences and oncology. In parallel to highlighting the advances, challenges, and acceptance of advocates as credible contributors, we offer recommendations for addressing real world hurdles in advancing equitable partnerships among advocacy stakeholders...
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
Fahanwi Asabuwa Ngwabebhoh, Ahmet Erdem, Ufuk Yildiz
In the present study, nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was prepared via acid hydrolysis and synthesis parameters were optimized via response surface modelling with a determined maximum NCC yield of 43.8%. The optimized NCC sample was subsequently surface modified via epichlorohydrin-mediated amination forming aminated nanocrystalline cellulose (A-NCC) with an amine content calculated as 1500 μmol/g. The average particle size and zeta potential were determined 100 nm and 325 nm for NCC and A-NCC, respectively...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Naihao Lu, Yinhua Sui, Yun Ding, Rong Tian, Li Li, Fufeng Liu
With the potential uses of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in biomedical and biotechnological applications, and the growing concerns about nanotoxicity of these engineered nanoparticles, the importance of protein-nanoparticle interaction has not been well stressed. In this study, we used both experimental and theoretical approaches to investigate the interactions of different functionalized single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) with human serum albumin (HSA). It was found that the HSA adsorption capacities of CNTs followed the order carboxylated SWCNTs > hydroxylated SWCNTs > amined SWCNTs...
March 27, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Marica Marrese, Valentina Cirillo, Vincenzo Guarino, Luigi Ambrosio
Electrospun polymeric fibers are currently used as 3D models for in vitro applications in biomedical areas, i.e., tissue engineering, cell and drug delivery. The high customization of the electrospinning process offers numerous opportunities to manipulate and control surface area, fiber diameter, and fiber density to evaluate the response of cells under different morphological and/or biochemical stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate-via atomic force microscopy (AFM)-the chemical and morphological changes in bi-component electrospun fibers (BEFs) during the in vitro degradation process using a biological medium...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Arturo Urrios, Eva Gonzalez-Flo, David Canadell, Eulalia de Nadal, Javier Macia, Francesc Posas
Synthetic Biology studies aim to develop cellular devices for biomedical applications. These devices, based on living instead of electronic or electro-mechanic technology, might provide alternative treatments for a wide range of diseases. However, the feasibility of these devices depends, in many cases, on complex genetic circuits that must fulfill physiological requirements. In this work, we explored the potential of multicellular architectures to act as an alternative to complex circuits for implementation of new devices...
March 27, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Baochang Cheng, Yufei Yan, Jingjing Qi, Lianfu Deng, Zeng-Wu Shao, Ke-Qin Zhang, Bin Li, Ziling Sun, Xinming Li
Silk fibroin (SF) from Bombyx mori has received increasing interest in biomedical fields, because of its slow biodegradability, good biocompatibility, and low immunogenicity. Although SF based hydrogels have been studied intensively as potential matrix for tissue engineering, weak gelation performance and low mechanical strength are major limitations that hamper their widespread applicability. Therefore, searching for new strategies to improve SF gelation property is highly desirable in tissue engineering research...
March 27, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jianjuan Jiang, Shaoqing Zhang, Zhigang Qian, Nan Qin, Wenwen Song, Long Sun, Zhitao Zhou, Zhifeng Shi, Liang Chen, Xinxin Li, Ying Mao, David L Kaplan, Stephanie N Gilbert Corder, Xinzhong Chen, Mengkun Liu, Fiorenzo G Omenetto, Xiaoxia Xia, Tiger H Tao
Precise patterning of polymer-based biomaterials for functional bio-nanostructures has extensive applications including biosensing, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. Remarkable progress is made in both top-down (based on lithographic methods) and bottom-up (via self-assembly) approaches with natural and synthetic biopolymers. However, most methods only yield 2D and pseudo-3D structures with restricted geometries and functionalities. Here, it is reported that precise nanostructuring on genetically engineered spider silk by accurately directing ion and electron beam interactions with the protein's matrix at the nanoscale to create well-defined 2D bionanopatterns and further assemble 3D bionanoarchitectures with shape and function on demand, termed "Protein Bricks...
March 27, 2018: Advanced Materials
Chintan Parmar, Joseph D Barry, Ahmed Hosny, John Quackenbush, Hugo Jwl Aerts
Radiographic imaging continues to be one of the most effective and clinically useful tools within oncology. Sophistication of artificial intelligence (AI) has allowed for detailed quantification of radiographic characteristics of tissues using predefined engineered algorithms or deep learning methods. Precedents in radiology as well as a wealth of research studies hint at the clinical relevance of these characteristics. However, there are critical challenges associated with the analysis of medical imaging data...
March 26, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Volodymyr Kuzmenko, Erdem Karabulut, Elin Pernevik, Peter Enoksson, Paul Gatenholm
Neural tissue engineering (TE), an innovative biomedical method of brain study, is very dependent on scaffolds that support cell development into a functional tissue. Recently, 3D patterned scaffolds for neural TE have shown significant positive effects on cells by a more realistic mimicking of actual neural tissue. In this work, we present a conductive nanocellulose-based ink for 3D printing of neural TE scaffolds. It is demonstrated that by using cellulose nanofibrils and carbon nanotubes as ink constituents, it is possible to print guidelines with a diameter below 1 mm and electrical conductivity of 3...
June 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Daniela Oliveira, Anila Sahar Butt, Armin Haller, Dietrich Rebholz-Schuhmann, Ratnesh Sahay
Motivation: Searching for precise terms and terminological definitions in the biomedical data space is problematic, as researchers find overlapping, closely related and even equivalent concepts in a single or multiple ontologies. Search engines that retrieve ontological resources often suggest an extensive list of search results for a given input term, which leads to the tedious task of selecting the best-fit ontological resource (class or property) for the input term and reduces user confidence in the retrieval engines...
March 20, 2018: Briefings in Bioinformatics
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