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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241002/the-future-of-multiplexed-eukaryotic-genome-engineering
#1
David B Thompson, Soufiane Aboulhouda, Eriona Hysolli, Cory J Smith, Stan Wang, Oscar Castanon, George M Church
Multiplex genome editing is the simultaneous introduction of multiple distinct modifications to a given genome. Though in its infancy, maturation of this field will facilitate powerful new biomedical research approaches, and will enable a host of far-reaching biological engineering applications, including new therapeutic modalities and industrial applications, as well as 'genome writing' and de-extinction efforts. In this perspective, we focus on multiplex editing of large eukaryotic genomes. We describe the current state of multiplexed genome editing, the current limits of our ability to multiplex edits, and provide perspective on the many applications that fully-realized multiplex editing technologies would enable in higher eukaryotic genomes...
December 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240857/the-latest-drugs-and-small-molecule-inhibitors-for-skin-and-hair
#2
Varun Kalhun, Neil Sadick
<p>Biologic drugs, a novel class of agents engineered to target specifc mediators of infammation, and small-molecule inhibitors that pen-etrate the cell membrane to interact with targets inside a cell represent the cutting-edge of pharmacological biomedical therapeutics. Clinical studies have already demonstrated the effectiveness of this new generation of drugs in treating a variety of medical illnesses and conditions that were refractory to traditional treatments. This review aims to describe the latest available or currently in-develop-ment drugs, biologic agents, and small molecule inhibitors for treatment of psoriasis, rosacea, alopecia areata, and atopic dermatitis...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239234/adoption-of-in-vitro-systems-and-zebrafish-embryos-as-alternative-models-for-reducing-rodent-use-in-assessments-of-immunological-and-oxidative-stress-responses-to-nanomaterials
#3
Helinor J Johnston, Rachel Verdon, Suzanne Gillies, David M Brown, Teresa F Fernandes, Theodore B Henry, Adriano G Rossi, Lang Tran, Carl Tucker, Charles R Tyler, Vicki Stone
Assessing the safety of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) is paramount to the responsible and sustainable development of nanotechnology, which provides huge societal benefits. Currently, there is no evidence that engineered NMs cause detrimental health effects in humans. However, investigation of NM toxicity using in vivo, in vitro, in chemico, and in silico models has demonstrated that some NMs stimulate oxidative stress and inflammation, which may lead to adverse health effects. Accordingly, investigation of these responses currently dominates NM safety assessments...
December 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236688/evolution-of-a-designed-protein-assembly-encapsulating-its-own-rna-genome
#4
Gabriel L Butterfield, Marc J Lajoie, Heather H Gustafson, Drew L Sellers, Una Nattermann, Daniel Ellis, Jacob B Bale, Sharon Ke, Garreck H Lenz, Angelica Yehdego, Rashmi Ravichandran, Suzie H Pun, Neil P King, David Baker
The challenges of evolution in a complex biochemical environment, coupling genotype to phenotype and protecting the genetic material, are solved elegantly in biological systems by the encapsulation of nucleic acids. In the simplest examples, viruses use capsids to surround their genomes. Although these naturally occurring systems have been modified to change their tropism and to display proteins or peptides, billions of years of evolution have favoured efficiency at the expense of modularity, making viral capsids difficult to engineer...
December 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235844/injectable-and-degradable-ph-responsive-hydrogel-via-spontaneous-amino-yne-click-reaction
#5
Jiachang Huang, Xulin Jiang
Injectable hydrogels have attracted increasing attentions in tissue regeneration and local drug delivery applications. Current click reactions for preparing injectable hydrogel often require a photoinitiator or catalyst, which may be toxic and may involve complex synthesis of precursors. Here we report a facile and inexpensive method to prepare injectable and degradable hydrogels via spontaneous amino-yne click reaction without using any initiator or catalyst under physiological conditions based on telechelic electron-deficient dipropiolate ester of polyethylene glycol and water-soluble commercially available carboxymethyl chitosan...
December 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232876/evaluation-of-fibrin-based-interpenetrating-polymer-networks-as-potential-biomaterials-for-tissue-engineering
#6
Olfat Gsib, Jean-Luc Duval, Mathieu Goczkowski, Marie Deneufchatel, Odile Fichet, Véronique Larreta-Garde, Sidi Ahmed Bencherif, Christophe Egles
Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) have gained great attention for a number of biomedical applications due to their improved properties compared to individual components alone. In this study, we investigated the capacity of newly-developed naturally-derived IPNs as potential biomaterials for tissue engineering. These IPNs combine the biologic properties of a fibrous fibrin network polymerized at the nanoscale and the mechanical stability of polyethylene oxide (PEO). First, we assessed their cytotoxicity in vitro on L929 fibroblasts...
December 10, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231863/silk-materials-functionalized-via-genetic-engineering-for-biomedical-applications
#7
REVIEW
Tomasz Deptuch, Hanna Dams-Kozlowska
The great mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability of silk-based materials make them applicable to the biomedical field. Genetic engineering enables the construction of synthetic equivalents of natural silks. Knowledge about the relationship between the structure and function of silk proteins enables the design of bioengineered silks that can serve as the foundation of new biomaterials. Furthermore, in order to better address the needs of modern biomedicine, genetic engineering can be used to obtain silk-based materials with new functionalities...
December 12, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231247/biocatalysis-in-radiochemistry-enzymatic-incorporation-of-pet-radionuclides-into-molecules-of-biomedical-interest
#8
REVIEW
Eunice S da Silva, Vanessa Gómez-Vallejo, Fernando López-Gallego, Jordi Llop
Biocatalysis is emerging as a new approach to radiolabel biologically active molecules with short half-lived positron emitters for their use in positron emission tomography. Despite the golden era of biocatalysis in radiochemistry occurred in the 70´s and 80´s, advances in enzyme engineering during the last decade have significantly enhanced the toolbox of enzymes available for chemical reactions, which may find application in the context of radiochemistry. In the present review, we intend to give an overview of the biocatalytic approaches that have been reported during the last four decades for the synthesis of PET radiotracers using Nitrogen-13, Carbon-11 and Fluorine-18...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230380/the-axolotl-limb-regeneration-model-as-a-discovery-tool-for-engineering-the-stem-cell-niche
#9
Negar Seyedhassantehrani, Takayoshi Otsuka, Shambhavi Singh, David M Gardiner
Purpose of review: Recent advances in genomics and gene editing have expanded the range of model organisms to include those with interesting biological capabilities such as regeneration. Among these are the classic models of regeneration biology, the salamander. Although stimulating endogenous regeneration in humans likely is many years away, with advances in stem cell biology and biomedical engineering (e.g. bio-inspired materials), it is evident that there is great potential to enhance regenerative outcomes by approaching the problem from an engineering perspective...
September 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230295/modulating-protein-amyloid-aggregation-with-nanomaterials
#10
Bo Wang, Emily H Pilkington, Yunxiang Sun, Thomas P Davis, Pu Chun Ke, Feng Ding
Direct exposure or intake of nanopaticles (NPs) to the human body can invoke a series of biological responses, some of which are deleterious, and as such the role of NPs in vivo requires thorough examination. Over the past decade, it has been established that biomolecules such as proteins can bind NPs to form a 'corona', where the structures and dynamics of NP-associated proteins can assign new functionality, systemic distribution and toxicity. However, the behavior and fate of NPs in biological systems are still far from being fully understood...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Science. Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226930/soft-network-materials-with-isotropic-negative-poisson-s-ratios-over-large-strains
#11
Jianxing Liu, Yihui Zhang
Auxetic materials with negative Poisson's ratios have important applications across a broad range of engineering areas, such as biomedical devices, aerospace engineering and automotive engineering. A variety of design strategies have been developed to achieve artificial auxetic materials with controllable responses in the Poisson's ratio. The development of designs that can offer isotropic negative Poisson's ratios over large strains can open up new opportunities in emerging biomedical applications, which, however, remains a challenge...
December 11, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225960/utility-of-amorphous-calcium-phosphate-based-scaffolds-in-dental-biomedical-applications
#12
Diane R Bienek, Drago Skrtic
Calcium phosphate (CaP) materials are important inorganic constituents in biological hard tissue. CaPs, including amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) have been widely applied in dental and biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering. Scaffold constructs are commonly used as templates to create a biomimetic environment. This review considers ACP scaffold fabrication techniques, including tissue-engineered constructs with intrinsic incorporation of ACP as well as scaffolds formed via precipitation of mineralized solutions on a substrate...
2017: Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223730/characterization-of-a-new-decellularized-bovine-pericardial-biological-mesh-structural-and-mechanical-properties
#13
Alessandra Bielli, Roberta Bernardini, Dimitrios Varvaras, Piero Rossi, Giancarlo Di Blasi, Giuseppe Petrella, Oreste Claudio Buonomo, Maurizio Mattei, Augusto Orlandi
Implants made from naturally-derived biomaterials, also called biological meshes or biomeshes, typically derive from decellularized extracellular matrix of either animal or human tissue. Biomeshes have many biomedical applications such as ligament repair, bone and cartilage regeneration and soft tissue replacement. Bovine collagen is one of the most widely used and abundantly available xenogenic materials. In particular, bovine pericardium is widely used as extracellular matrix bioprosthetic tissue. The efficiency of a pericardial mesh to function as scaffold depends on the quality of the decellularization protocol used...
December 5, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223052/wavelength-selection-for-portable-noninvasive-blood-component-measurement-system-based-on-spectral-difference-coefficient-and-dynamic-spectrum
#14
Ximeng Feng, Gang Li, Haixia Yu, Shaohui Wang, Xiaoqing Yi, Ling Lin
Noninvasive blood component analysis by spectroscopy has been a hotspot in biomedical engineering in recent years. Dynamic spectrum provides an excellent idea for noninvasive blood component measurement, but studies have been limited to the application of broadband light sources and high-resolution spectroscopy instruments. In order to remove redundant information, a more effective wavelength selection method has been presented in this paper. In contrast to many common wavelength selection methods, this method is based on sensing mechanism which has a clear mechanism and can effectively avoid the noise from acquisition system...
November 26, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220457/multi-field-query-expansion-is-effective-for-biomedical-dataset-retrieval
#15
Mohamed Reda Bouadjenek, Karin Verspoor
In the context of the bioCADDIE challenge addressing information retrieval of biomedical datasets, we propose a method for retrieval of biomedical data sets with heterogenous schemas through query reformulation. In particular, the method proposed transforms the initial query into a multi-field query that is then enriched with terms that are likely to occur in the relevant datasets. We compare and evaluate two query expansion strategies, one based on the Rocchio method and another based on a biomedical lexicon...
January 1, 2017: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220201/engineering-hydrogel-microenvironments-to-recapitulate-the-stem-cell-niche
#16
Christopher M Madl, Sarah C Heilshorn
Stem cells are a powerful resource for many applications including regenerative medicine, patient-specific disease modeling, and toxicology screening. However, eliciting the desired behavior from stem cells, such as expansion in a naïve state or differentiation into a particular mature lineage, remains challenging. Drawing inspiration from the native stem cell niche, hydrogel platforms have been developed to regulate stem cell fate by controlling microenvironmental parameters including matrix mechanics, degradability, cell-adhesive ligand presentation, local microstructure, and cell-cell interactions...
December 8, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216567/biocompatible-nanocomposite-of-tio2-incorporated-bi-polymer-for-articular-cartilage-tissue-regeneration-a-facile-material
#17
Lei Cao, Xiaofeng Wu, Qiugen Wang, Jiandong Wang
The development and design of polymeric hydrogels for articular cartilage tissue engineering have been a vital biomedical research for recent days. Organic/inorganic combined hydrogels with improved surface activity have shown potential for the repair and regeneration of hard tissues, but have not been broadly studied for articular cartilage tissue engineering applications. In this work, bi-polymeric hydrogel composite was designed with the incorporation some quantities of stick-like TiO2 nanostructures for favorable surface behavior and enhancement of osteoblast adhesions...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215258/plasma-functionalized-solution-a-potent-antimicrobial-agent-for-biomedical-applications-from-antibacterial-therapeutics-to-biomaterial-surface-engineering
#18
Joo Young Park, Sanghoo Park, Wonho Choe, Hae In Yong, Cheorun Jo, Kijung Kim
Deadly diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria and viruses have increasingly victimized humans; thus, the importance of disinfection has increased in medical settings as well as in food and agricultural industries. Plasma contains multiple bactericidal agents, including reactive species, charged particles, and photons, which can have synergistic effects. In particular, the chemicals formed in aqueous solution during plasma exposure have the potential for high antibacterial activity against various bacterial infections...
December 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214583/prospects-of-pluripotent-and-adult-stem-cells-for-rare-diseases
#19
Javier García-Castro, Ilyas Singeç
Rare diseases are highly diverse and complex regarding molecular underpinning and clinical manifestation and afflict millions of patients worldwide. The lack of appropriate model systems with face and construct validity and the limited availability of live tissues and cells from patients has largely hampered the understanding of underlying disease mechanisms. As a consequence, there are no adequate treatment options available for the vast majority of rare diseases. Over the last decade, remarkable progress in pluripotent and adult stem cell biology and the advent of powerful genomic technologies opened up exciting new avenues for the investigation, diagnosis, and personalized therapy of intractable human diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211649/hearing-shapes-event-related-potentials-reveal-the-time-course-of-auditory-visual-sensory-substitution
#20
Christian Graulty, Orestis Papaioannou, Phoebe Bauer, Michael A Pitts, Enriqueta Canseco-Gonzalez
In auditory-visual sensory substitution, visual information (e.g., shape) can be extracted through strictly auditory input (e.g., soundscapes). Previous studies have shown that image-to-sound conversions that follow simple rules [such as the Meijer algorithm; Meijer, P. B. L. An experimental system for auditory image representation. Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 39, 111-121, 1992] are highly intuitive and rapidly learned by both blind and sighted individuals. A number of recent fMRI studies have begun to explore the neuroplastic changes that result from sensory substitution training...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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