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Biomedical engineer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057317/steering-an-idea-in-undergraduate-research-at-a-rural-research-intensive-university
#1
Donald A Sens, Karen L Cisek, Scott H Garrett, Seema Somji, Jane R Dunlevy, Mary Ann Sens, Pat Conway, Van A Doze
This study documents outcomes, including student career choices, of the North Dakota Institutional Development Award Networks of Biomedical Research Excellence program that provides 10-week, summer undergraduate research experiences at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences. Program evaluation initiated in 2008 and, to date, 335 students have completed the program. Of the 335, 214 students have successfully completed their bachelor's degree, 102 are still undergraduates, and 19 either did not complete a bachelor's degree or were lost to follow-up...
January 2017: Acad Pathol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056474/next-generation-organoids-for-biomedical-research-and-applications
#2
REVIEW
Yan-Ru Lou, Alan W Leung
Organoids are in vitro cultures of miniature fetal or adult organ-like structures. Their potentials for use in tissue and organ replacement, disease modeling, toxicology studies, and drug discovery are tremendous. Currently, major challenges facing human organoid technology include (i) improving the range of cellular heterogeneity for a particular organoid system, (ii) mimicking the native micro- and matrix-environment encountered by cells within organoids, and (iii) developing robust protocols for the in vitro maturation of organoids that remain mostly fetal-like in cultures...
October 19, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056124/association-of-adipoq-c-11377g-rs266729-tnf-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-g-308a-rs1800629-and-tnf-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-g-238a-rs361525-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-pakistani-population
#3
Amina Nadeem, Sadaf Mumtaz, Abdul Khaliq Naveed, Qaisar Mansoor, Muhammad Aslam, Muhammad Ismail
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequencies of adiponectin (ADIPOQ) C-11377G, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) G-308A and TNF-αG-238Asingle nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and their association with serum levels in Pakistani T2DM and healthy population. STUDY DESIGN: Case control study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Army Medical College and Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering, Islamabad, Pakistan, from June 2012 till 2014...
October 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054313/imaging-biomaterial-tissue-interactions
#4
REVIEW
Yu Shrike Zhang, Junjie Yao
Modern biomedical imaging has revolutionized life science by providing anatomical, functional, and molecular information of biological species with high spatial resolution, deep penetration, enhanced temporal responsiveness, and improved chemical specificity. In recent years, these imaging techniques have been increasingly tailored for characterizing biomaterials and probing their interactions with biological tissues. This in turn has spurred substantial advances in engineering material properties to accommodate different imaging modalities that was previously unattainable...
October 17, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053081/pcl-and-pcl-based-materials-in-biomedical-applications
#5
Elbay Malikmammadov, Tugba Endogan Tanir, Aysel Kiziltay, Vasif Hasirci, Nesrin Hasirci
Biodegradable polymers have met withan increasing demand in medical usage over the last decades. One of such polymers is poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), whichis a polyester that has been widely used in tissue engineering field for its availability, relatively inexpensive price and suitability for modification. Its chemical and biological properties, physicochemical state, degradability and mechanical strengthcan be adjusted, and therefore,it can be usedunderharsh mechanical, physical and chemical conditions without significant loss of its properties...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050618/degradation-regulated-bioactive-hydrogel-as-the-bioink-with-desirable-moldability-for-microfluidic-biofabrication
#6
Xiaolu Liu, Yicong Zuo, Jing Sun, Zhenzhen Guo, Hongsong Fan, Xingdong Zhang
Bioink development is vital in biofabriacation for generating three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like constructs. As potential candidates of bioinks, hydrogels need to meet the requirements of good moldability, initially strong mechanical properties and prominent bioactivity to guarantee cell vitality and further assembly. Enzyme-induced dynamic degradation is an efficient and biocompatible approach to improve the bioactivity of hydrogels through releasing space continuously for cell proliferation and promoting the functional establishing of engineered tissue...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050582/ph-sensitive-carboxymethyl-chitosan-hydrogels-via-acid-labile-ortho-ester-linkage-for-potential-biomedical-applications
#7
Liefeng Hu, Panpan Zhang, Xin Wang, Xu Cheng, Jiejie Qin, Rupei Tang
Hydrogel systems with favorable biocompatibility and biodegradability are of much interest for application in biomaterials and tissue engineering. In this study, a new ortho ester-based acid-labile crosslink agent with dual-epoxy end groups was synthesized and crosslinked with carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) at different molar ratios to prepare a series of pH-sensitive hydrogels for drug delivering. Doxorubicin (DOX) was then readily loaded into the hydrogels and the in vitro release profiles indicated that the release rate increased rapidly while pH decreased from 7...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047970/demonstration-of-3d-computed-tomography-of-chemiluminescence-with-a-restricted-field-of-view
#8
Hecong Liu, Tao Yu, Man Zhang, Weiwei Cai
Three-dimensional imaging techniques have experienced a surge in research interest during the past few years due to advancements in both hardware, i.e., the sensor arrays and data acquisition systems, and new imaging concepts, such as light field imaging and compressed sensing. Computed tomography of chemiluminescence (CTC) is an intriguing technique for combustion diagnostics due to its ease of implementation, as no excitation source is required in measurements. It has been applied extensively for the retrieval of intermediate species such as CH(*)/OH(*), from which the flame topology can be obtained...
September 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044983/horseradish-peroxidase-catalyzed-hydrogelation-for-biomedical-biopharmaceutical-and-biofabrication-applications
#9
Shinji Sakai, Masaki Nakahata
Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed hydrogelation has attracted much attention due to the ease of handling, high biocompatibility, and processability. This review summarizes recent developments including cutting-edge research using HRP-mediated hydrogelation toward biomedical, biopharmaceutical, and biofabrication applications. From the viewpoint of polymer chemistry, the basic chemistry behind hydrogelation, the structure-property relationship, and hybridization of multiple materials using HRP-catalyzed hydrogelation are summarized...
October 18, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043368/self-coacervation-of-modular-squid-beak-proteins-a-comparative-study
#10
Hao Cai, Bartosz Gabryelczyk, Malathy S S Manimekalai, Gerhard Grüber, Stefan Salentinig, Ali Miserez
The beak of the Humboldt squid is a biocomposite material made solely of organic components - chitin and proteins - which exhibits 200-fold stiffness and hardness gradients from the soft base to the exceptionally hard tip (rostrum). The outstanding mechanical properties of the squid beak are achieved via controlled hydration and impregnation of the chitin-based scaffold by protein coacervates. Molecular-based understanding of these proteins is essential to mimic the natural beak material. Here, we present detailed studies of two histidine-rich beak proteins (HBP-1 and -2) that play central roles during beak bio-fabrication...
October 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040639/the-medical-science-dmz-a-network-design-pattern-for-data-intensive-medical-science
#11
Sean Peisert, Eli Dart, William Barnett, Edward Balas, James Cuff, Robert L Grossman, Ari Berman, Anurag Shankar, Brian Tierney
Objective: We describe a detailed solution for maintaining high-capacity, data-intensive network flows (eg, 10, 40, 100 Gbps+) in a scientific, medical context while still adhering to security and privacy laws and regulations. Materials and Methods: High-end networking, packet-filter firewalls, network intrusion-detection systems. Results: We describe a "Medical Science DMZ" concept as an option for secure, high-volume transport of large, sensitive datasets between research institutions over national research networks, and give 3 detailed descriptions of implemented Medical Science DMZs...
October 6, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038795/immune-engineering-from-systems-immunology-to-engineering-immunity
#12
Ning Jiang
The smallpox vaccine represents the earliest attempt in engineering immunity. The recent success of chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells) in cancer once again demonstrates the clinical potential of immune engineering. Inspired by this success, diverse approaches have been used to boost various aspects of immunity: engineering dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells, T cells, antibodies, cytokines, small peptides, and others. With recent development of various high-throughput technologies (of which engineers, especially biomedical engineers/bioengineers contributed significantly), such as immune repertoire sequencing, and analytical methods, a systems level of understanding immunity (or the lack of it) beyond model animals has provided critical insights into the human immune system...
March 2017: Curr Opin Biomed Eng
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038380/integrating-nanomedicine-and-imaging
#13
REVIEW
Carlos Pérez-Medina, Sjoerd Hak, Thomas Reiner, Zahi A Fayad, Matthias Nahrendorf, Willem J M Mulder
Biomedical engineering and its associated disciplines play a pivotal role in improving our understanding and management of disease. Motivated by past accomplishments, such as the clinical implementation of coronary stents, pacemakers or recent developments in antibody therapies, disease management now enters a new era in which precision imaging and nanotechnology-enabled therapeutics are maturing to clinical translation. Preclinical molecular imaging increasingly focuses on specific components of the immune system that drive disease progression and complications, allowing the in vivo study of potential therapeutic targets...
November 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036277/pyseqlab-an-open-source-python-package-for-sequence-labeling-and-segmentation
#14
Ahmed Allam, Michael Krauthammer
Motivation: Text and genomic data are composed of sequential tokens, such as words and nucleotides that give rise to higher order syntactic constructs. In this work, we aim at providing a comprehensive Python library implementing conditional random fields (CRFs), a class of probabilistic graphical models, for robust prediction of these constructs from sequential data. Results: Python Sequence Labeling (PySeqLab) is an open source package for performing supervised learning in structured prediction tasks...
July 21, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035749/chemical-remodeling-cell-surface-glycans-for-immunotargeting-of-tumor-cells
#15
Xuexia Li, Xiaoyan Xu, Xiongjian Rao, Yinping Tian, Wen Yi
Recruitment of human endogenous antibodies to target and eliminate tumor cells is a promising therapeutic strategy in the biomedical field. Current antibody-recruiting molecules are typically bi-functional agents that utilize cell-surface receptor binding property for targeting. This approach has intrinsic limitations due to the heterogeneity of tumor cells and the limited number of receptors on the cell surface. Here we report a targeting strategy based on remodeling of cell surface glycans through metabolic engineering and bioorthogonal chemical ligation...
October 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035605/a-two-staged-approach-to-developing-and-evaluating-an-ontology-for-delivering-personalized-education-to-diabetic-patients
#16
Susan Quinn, Raymond Bond, Chris Nugent
Ontologies are often used in biomedical and health domains to provide a concise and consistent means of attributing meaning to medical terminology. While they are novices in terms of ontology engineering, the evaluation of an ontology by domain specialists provides an opportunity to enhance its objectivity, accuracy, and coverage of the domain itself. This paper provides an evaluation of the viability of using ontology engineering novices to evaluate and enrich an ontology that can be used for personalized diabetic patient education...
October 16, 2017: Informatics for Health & Social Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034997/everything-you-always-wanted-to-know-about-poly-l-lysine-dendrigrafts-but-were-afraid-to-ask
#17
Jean-Patrick Francoia, Laurent Vial
Less than a decade ago, dendrigrafts of poly-L-lysine (DGLs) joined the family of polycationic dendritic macromolecules. Resulting from the iterative polycondensation of a N-carboxyanhydride in water, four generations of the dendrigraft can be obtained on a multi-gram scale and without chromatographic purification. DGLs share features with both dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers, but turned out to have unique biophysical and bioactive properties. The macromolecules - in their native form or functionalized - have been extensively characterized by various analytical and computational methods, and already found numerous applications in the biomedical field such as drug and gene delivery, biomaterials, tissue engineering, bioimaging, and biosensing...
October 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034774/mechanical-enhancement-and-in-vitro-biocompatibility-of-nanofibrous-collagen-chitosan-scaffolds-for-tissue-engineering
#18
Fengjuan Zou, Runrun Li, Jianjun Jiang, Xiumei Mo, Guofeng Gu, Zhongwu Guo, Zonggang Chen
The collagen-chitosan complex with a three-dimensional nanofiber structure was fabricated to mimic native ECM for tissue repair and biomedical applications. Though the three-dimensional hierarchical fibrous structures of collagen-chitosan composites could provide more adequate stimulus to facilitate cell adhesion, migrate and proliferation, and thus have the potential as tissue engineering scaffolding, there are still limitations in their applications due to the insufficient mechanical properties of natural materials...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027284/polydopamine-particles-reinforced-poly-vinyl-alcohol-hydrogel-with-nir-light-triggered-shape-memory-and-self-healing-capability
#19
Li Yang, Zhanhua Wang, Guoxia Fei, Hesheng Xia
This study focuses on developing a facile approach to prepare biocompatible poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite hydrogels containing polydopamine particles (PDAPs) with ultrafast near-infrared (NIR) light-triggered shape memory and self-healing capability. The PVA-PDAPs composite hydrogels with excellent mechanical properties can be achieved after freezing/thawing treatment, and the formation of physically cross-linked networks from the hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) between PVA and PDAPs. Due to the excellent photothermal effect of polydopamine, the composited hydrogel can achieve rapid shape recovery and efficient self-healing properties under NIR light exposure in a short time...
October 13, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026204/engineering-and-physical-sciences-in-oncology-challenges-and-opportunities
#20
REVIEW
Michael J Mitchell, Rakesh K Jain, Robert Langer
The principles of engineering and physics have been applied to oncology for nearly 50 years. Engineers and physical scientists have made contributions to all aspects of cancer biology, from quantitative understanding of tumour growth and progression to improved detection and treatment of cancer. Many early efforts focused on experimental and computational modelling of drug distribution, cell cycle kinetics and tumour growth dynamics. In the past decade, we have witnessed exponential growth at the interface of engineering, physics and oncology that has been fuelled by advances in fields including materials science, microfabrication, nanomedicine, microfluidics, imaging, and catalysed by new programmes at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), including the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), Physical Sciences in Oncology, and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Alliance for Nanotechnology...
October 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
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