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Longevity research

Jinhua Wang, Wan Li, Xiangjin Zheng, Xiaocong Pang, Guanhua Du
FOXC1 is a vital member of FOX families which play important roles in biological processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, metabolism, and longevity. Here we are focusing on roles of FOXC1 and their mechanisms in cancers. FOXC1 promoted progress of many cancers, such as breast cancer (especially basal-like breast cancer), hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer and so on. FOXC1 was also found to be associated with drug resistance of cancers. FOXC1 promoted metastasis of cancers by increasing expression of MMP7, NEDD9 and Snail...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Alessia Bramanti, Ernesto D'Aloja, Federico Cabras, Pasquale Paribello, Maria Francesca Moro, Jutta Lindert, Mauro Giovanni Carta
Introduction: Two main demographic phenomena have substantially changed the condition of elderly: the growth of the urban population and the increase in longevity. Objective: The aim of the present review is to investigate how the elderly living in the cities perceive the sense of insecurity compared to those who reside in rural areas, and their Quality of Life (QoL). Method: Studies published from January 2011 to August 2017 were identified on Google and PubMed combining the following terms: "elderly urban/rural QoL" or "old age urban/rural QoL"...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Annika Wahl, Erik van den Akker, Lucija Klaric, Jerko Štambuk, Elisa Benedetti, Rosina Plomp, Genadij Razdorov, Irena Trbojević-Akmačić, Joris Deelen, Diana van Heemst, P Eline Slagboom, Frano Vučković, Harald Grallert, Jan Krumsiek, Konstantin Strauch, Annette Peters, Thomas Meitinger, Caroline Hayward, Manfred Wuhrer, Marian Beekman, Gordan Lauc, Christian Gieger
Immunoglobulin G (IgG), a glycoprotein secreted by plasma B-cells, plays a major role in the human adaptive immune response and are associated with a wide range of diseases. Glycosylation of the Fc binding region of IgGs, responsible for the antibody's effector function, is essential for prompting a proper immune response. This study focuses on the general genetic impact on IgG glycosylation as well as corresponding subclass specificities. To identify genetic loci involved in IgG glycosylation, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS)-measured IgG glycopeptides of 1,823 individuals in the Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Region (KORA F4) study cohort...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Manuela Alcañiz, Aïda Solé-Auró
BACKGROUND: Sustained growth in longevity raises questions as to why some individuals report a good quality of life in older ages, while others seem to suffer more markedly the effects of natural deterioration. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is mediated by several easily measurable factors, including socio-demographics, morbidity, functional status and lifestyles. This study seeks to further our knowledge of these factors in order to outline a profile of the population at greater risk of poor ageing, and to identify those attributes that might be modified during younger stages of the life course...
March 13, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Kevin Taliaferro, Alexander Crawford, Justin Jabara, Jonathan Lynch, Edward Jung, Raimonds Zvirbulis, Trevor Banka
BACKGROUND: Intraarticular steroid injections are a common first-line therapy for severe osteoarthritis, which affects an estimated 27 million people in the United States. Although topical, oral, intranasal, and inhalational steroids are known to increase intraocular pressure in some patients, the effect of intraarticular steroid injections on intraocular pressure has not been investigated, to the best of our knowledge. If elevated intraocular pressure is sustained for long periods of time or is of sufficient magnitude acutely, permanent loss of the visual field can occur...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
William E Cunningham, Robert E Weiss, Terry Nakazono, Mark A Malek, Steve J Shoptaw, Susan L Ettner, Nina T Harawa
Importance: Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, linkage and retention in care, and adherence to antiretroviral therapy are steps in the care continuum enabling consistent viral suppression for people living with HIV, extending longevity and preventing further transmission. While incarcerated, people living with HIV receive antiretroviral therapy and achieve viral suppression more consistently than after they are released. No interventions have shown sustained viral suppression after jail release...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Collin J Horn, Lien T Luong
Parasites are known to have direct negative effects on host fitness; however, the indirect effects of parasitism on host fitness sans infection are less well understood. Hosts undergo behavioural and physiological changes when in proximity to parasites. Yet, there is little experimental evidence showing that these changes lead to long-term decreases in host fitness. We aimed to determine if parasite exposure affects host fitness independent of contact, because current approaches to parasite ecology may underestimate the effect of parasites on host populations...
March 13, 2018: Parasitology
Kelsey H Collins, Walter Herzog, Graham Z MacDonald, Raylene A Reimer, Jaqueline L Rios, Ian C Smith, Ronald F Zernicke, David A Hart
Inflammation can arise in response to a variety of stimuli, including infectious agents, tissue injury, autoimmune diseases, and obesity. Some of these responses are acute and resolve, while others become chronic and exert a sustained impact on the host, systemically, or locally. Obesity is now recognized as a chronic low-grade, systemic inflammatory state that predisposes to other chronic conditions including metabolic syndrome (MetS). Although obesity has received considerable attention regarding its pathophysiological link to chronic cardiovascular conditions and type 2 diabetes, the musculoskeletal (MSK) complications (i...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Laura Palanker Musselman, Ronald P Kühnlein
Excess adipose fat accumulation, or obesity, is a growing problem worldwide in terms of both the rate of incidence and the severity of obesity-associated metabolic disease. Adipose tissue evolved in animals as a specialized dynamic lipid storage depot: adipose cells synthesize fat (a process called lipogenesis) when energy is plentiful and mobilize stored fat (a process called lipolysis) when energy is needed. When a disruption of lipid homeostasis favors increased fat synthesis and storage with little turnover owing to genetic predisposition, overnutrition or sedentary living, complications such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease are more likely to arise...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Carine Weber Pires, Djessica Pedrotti, Tathiane Larissa Lenzi, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck Soares, Patricia Klarmann Ziegelmann, Rachel de Oliveira Rocha
This study aimed to compare the longevity of different conventional restorative materials placed in posterior primary teeth. This systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA statement and registered in PROSPERO (CRD42016035775). A comprehensive electronic search without date or language restrictions was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, Turning Research Into Practice (TRIP) and Clinical Trials databases up to January 2017, selecting randomized clinical trials that assessed the longevity of at least two different conventional restorative materials performed in primary molars...
March 1, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Noble I Egekwu, Francisco Posada, Daniel E Sonenshine, Steven Cook
Varroa destructor mites (varroa) are ectoparasites of Apis mellifera honey bees, and the damage they inflict on hosts is likely a causative factor of recent poor honey bee colony performance. Research has produced an arsenal of control agents against varroa mites, which have become resistant to many chemical means of their control, and other means have uncertain efficacy. Novel means of control will result from a thorough understanding of varroa physiology and behavior. However, robust knowledge of varroa biology is lacking; mites have very low survivability and reproduction away from their natural environment and host, and few tested protocols of maintaining mites in vitro are available as standardized methods for varroa research...
March 6, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Jennifer A Schrack, Andrew Leroux, Jerome L Fleg, Vadim Zipunnikov, Eleanor M Simonsick, Stephanie A Studenski, Ciprian Crainiceanu, Luigi Ferrucci
Background: Physical activity (PA) prevents disease and promotes longevity, yet few older adults meet the recommended daily guidelines. Wearable PA and heart rate monitors provide the opportunity to define age-related differences in the absolute and relative intensity of daily activities, and provide insight into the underlying factors influencing PA in older adults. Methods: Participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 440, 52% male, aged 31 to 88) completed a clinical assessment and wore an Actiheart monitor in the free-living environment...
March 2, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Matthew Iasiello, Jonathan Bartholomaeus, Aaron Jarden, Joseph van Agteren
Longevity is a valuable resource for society, as older people are increasingly looking for new ways to contribute after retirement. Their contribution is however dependent upon their physical health, mental health and wellbeing. The potential role that mental health and wellbeing, two separate but interrelated constructs, play often are both under-recognised and insufficiently targeted. Positive ageing is a positive and constructive view of ageing, where older people actively work on maintaining a positive attitude, work towards keeping fit and healthy, and strive to maximize their wellbeing...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Malgorzata A Desmond, Jakub Sobiecki, Mary Fewtrell, Jonathan C K Wells
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest contributor to global mortality, and this trend is expected to continue. Although mortality rates have been falling, adverse developments in obesity and diabetes threaten to reverse this. It has been estimated that the only viable strategy to reduce the epidemic is to focus on population-wide risk factor reduction. Primordial prevention, a strategy aimed at avoiding the development of risk factors before the disease onset, has been shown to reduce the CVD epidemic substantially...
March 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Cory M McLaughlin, Monica Bennett, Nandini Channabasappa, Janna Journeycake, Hannah G Piper
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether anticoagulation (AC) results in thrombus resolution and increased line longevity in children with intestinal failure (IF) and catheter-associated central venous thrombosis (CVT). METHODS: A retrospective, single institution review was performed of children with IF who were dependent on parenteral nutrition with known CVT between 2006 and 2017. Frequency of catheter-related complications including infection, occlusion, and breakage were compared 18months prior to and after starting AC...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Ruopeng An, Xiaoling Xiang, Junyi Liu, Chenghua Guan
INTRODUCTION: Dietary behavior is a central modifiable risk factor for human health. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between dietary habits and self-rated health among the oldest-old Chinese. METHODS: Participants aged 80 years and above (N = 7273) were first interviewed in 1998 and followed in subsequent waves 2-3 years apart till 2011-2012 in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to estimate the effects of dietary habits on poor self-rated health, adjusting for various individual characteristics...
February 21, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Mehdi Jafary-Zadeh, Gideon Praveen Kumar, Paulo Sergio Branicio, Mohsen Seifi, John J Lewandowski, Fangsen Cui
Functional and mechanical properties of novel biomaterials must be carefully evaluated to guarantee long-term biocompatibility and structural integrity of implantable medical devices. Owing to the combination of metallic bonding and amorphous structure, metallic glasses (MGs) exhibit extraordinary properties superior to conventional crystalline metallic alloys, placing them at the frontier of biomaterials research. MGs have potential to improve corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, strength, and longevity of biomedical implants, and hence are promising materials for cardiovascular stent applications...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Evangelos Kontopantelis, Richard John Stevens, Peter J Helms, Duncan Edwards, Tim Doran, Darren M Ashcroft
OBJECTIVES: UK primary care databases (PCDs) are used by researchers worldwide to inform clinical practice. These databases have been primarily tied to single clinical computer systems, but little is known about the adoption of these systems by primary care practices or their geographical representativeness. We explore the spatial distribution of clinical computing systems and discuss the implications for the longevity and regional representativeness of these resources. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
February 28, 2018: BMJ Open
G Wright, A Lax, S B Mehta
Botulinum toxin is widely used in facial rhytide treatments. The duration of its effects influences treatment intervals, cost and convenience to the patient. These are key factors in successful aesthetic procedures. A review of the literature found that duration of effect was between two and six months, with most experiencing loss of maximal contraction for three to four months. Treatments may last between three to four months, and occasionally up to six months. No specific definition of effectiveness/efficacy has been described and used to measure comparable end points...
February 23, 2018: British Dental Journal
L M Viljoen, L Hemerik, J Molenaar
The basic reproduction ratio, R0 , is a fundamental concept in epidemiology. It is defined as the total number of secondary infections brought on by a single primary infection, in a totally susceptible population. The value of R0 indicates whether a starting epidemic reaches a considerable part of the population and causes a lot of damage, or whether it remains restricted to a relatively small number of individuals. To calculate R0 one has to evaluate an integral that ranges over the duration of the infection of the host...
February 19, 2018: Acta Biotheoretica
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