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Longevity research

James R Eles, Alberto L Vazquez, Takashi D Y Kozai, X Tracy Cui
Implantable electrode devices enable long-term electrophysiological recordings for brain-machine interfaces and basic neuroscience research. Implantation of these devices, however, leads to neuronal damage and progressive neural degeneration that can lead to device failure. The present study uses in vivo two-photon microscopy to study the calcium activity and morphology of neurons before, during, and one month after electrode implantation to determine how implantation trauma injures neurons. We show that implantation leads to prolonged, elevated calcium levels in neurons within 150 μm of the electrode interface...
May 7, 2018: Biomaterials
Mevlüt Arslan, Can Holyavkin, Halil İbrahim Kısakesen, Alican Topaloğlu, Yusuf Sürmeli, Zeynep Petek Çakar
High-throughput aging studies with yeast as a model organism involve transposon-mutagenesis and yeast knockout collection, which have been pivotal strategies for understanding the complex cellular aging process. In this study, a chronologically long-lived Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant was successfully obtained by using another high-throughput approach, evolutionary engineering, based on systematic selection in successive batch cultures under gradually increasing levels of caloric restriction. Detailed comparative physiological and transcriptomic analyses of the chronologically long-lived mutant and the reference strain revealed enhanced levels of respiratory metabolism, upregulation of genes related to carbohydrate metabolic processes, glycogen-trehalose pathways, stress response, and repression of protein synthesis-related genes in the long-lived mutant SRM11, already in the absence of caloric restriction...
May 19, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
Silas S O Hung
Sturgeons are fish species of biological and economical importance, and most of them are endangered, vulnerable or rare because of their large size, late sexual maturity, long period between spawning, and longevity. These unique biological characteristics make them highly susceptible to overfishing, degradation of habitat and spawning ground, and contamination of water and sediments by pollutants. The objective of the current review is not to exhaustively include all studies on sturgeon nutrient requirements and utilizations conducted under laboratory conditions, but to critique some studies and update previous reviews...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
Elise Marie Jerschabek Laetz, Heike Wägele
Background: Despite widespread interest in solar-powered sea slugs (Sacoglossa: Gastropoda), relatively little is know about how they actually perform functional kleptoplasty. Sister-taxa Elysia timida and E. cornigera provide an ideal model system for investigating this phenomenon, since they feed on the same algal genus and only E. timida is capable of long-term kleptoplasty. Recent research has explored factors regarding functional kleptoplasty in E. timida , including their starvation longevity, digestive activity, autophagal response and photosynthetic efficiency under two different temperature conditions (18 °C and 21 °C)...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Alexander V Symonenko, Natalia V Roshina, Anna V Krementsova, Elena G Pasyukova
In recent years, several genes involved in complex neuron specification networks have been shown to control life span. However, information on these genes is scattered, and studies to discover new neuronal genes and gene cascades contributing to life span control are needed, especially because of the recognized role of the nervous system in governing homeostasis, aging, and longevity. Previously, we demonstrated that several genes that encode RNA polymerase II transcription factors and that are involved in the development of the nervous system affect life span in Drosophila melanogaster ...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Lee B Sims, Hermann B Frieboes, Jill M Steinbach-Rankins
A variety of drug-delivery platforms have been employed to deliver therapeutic agents across cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) and the vaginal mucosa, offering the capability to increase the longevity and retention of active agents to treat infections of the female reproductive tract (FRT). Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to improve retention, diffusion, and cell-specific targeting via specific surface modifications, relative to other delivery platforms. In particular, polymeric NPs represent a promising option that has shown improved distribution through the CVM...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Ralph Dobler, Damian K Dowling, Edward H Morrow, Klaus Reinhardt
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial replacement, a form of nuclear transfer, has been proposed as a germline therapy to prevent the transmission of mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial replacement therapy has been licensed for clinical application in the UK, and already carried out in other countries, but little is known about negative or unintended effects on the health of offspring born using this technique. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Studies in invertebrate models have used techniques that achieve mitochondrial replacement to create offspring with novel combinations of mitochondrial and nuclear genotype...
May 11, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Prakshit Niraula, Saurav Ghimire, Hanna Lee, Man Su Kim
Aging is a complex process resulting in: i) a decline in body functions and capacity to withstand environmental stress and ii) an increased susceptibility to diseases including, but not limited to, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, cancer and dementia. Among a number of herbal products used to alleviate symptoms associated with aging is Ilex paraguariensis (IP). This product has been reported to have anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, its effect on an organisms' longevity has not been thoroughly studied to date...
May 14, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
Ya Shao, Chongfa Cai, Haitao Zhang, Wei Fu, Xuemei Zhong, Shen Tang
Selenium (Se) is an essential nutritional element for human beings. Many studies have been conducted on concentration and distribution patterns of soil Se in low Se, Se-enriched, and selenosis areas; however, soil Se has not been systematically studied in a watershed, especially in Se-enriched longevity region and karst area in South China. This study is carried out to explore the controlling factors of Se-enriched soils in Baishou river tributary watershed, where soils are Se-enriched, and local people have the phenomenon of longevity...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
D P Thubru, D M Firake, G T Behere
Lethal and sub lethal effects of fresh and old residues of azadirachtin, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki ( Bt var. k ), and deltamethrin, were evaluated at their recommended field doses against adult and immature stages of Trichogramma brassicae under in vitro conditions. The experiments were carried out at the Entomology section of Division of Crop Protection, ICAR Research Complex for NEH region, Umiam, Meghalaya, in 2012-2013. The effects of different pesticides were determined by bioassays using the residual film method, the diet contamination method, the pupal dip method and the topical application technique...
May 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Kenichi Shibuya, Kenta Watanabe, Michiyuki Ono
Flower longevity is one of the most important traits in ornamental plants. In Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil), EPHEMERAL1 (EPH1), a NAC transcription factor, is reportedly a key regulator of petal senescence. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis is a powerful tool for crop breeding as well as for biological research. Here we report the application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology to targeted mutagenesis of the EPH1 gene in I. nil. Three regions within the EPH1 gene were simultaneously targeted by a single binary vector containing three single-guide RNA cassettes...
April 27, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Qucheng Deng, Yongping Wei, Yan Zhao, Xuerong Han, Juan Yin
Despite a number of longevity indicators having been used in previous longevity studies, few studies have critically evaluated whether these indicators are suitable to assess the regional longevity level. In addition, an increasing number of studies have attempted to determine the influence of socioeconomic and natural factors on regional longevity, but only certain factors were considered. This study aims to bridge this gap by determining the relationship between the 7 longevity indicators and selecting 24 natural and socioeconomic indicators in 109 selected counties and urban districts in Guangxi, China...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Daniel Elsner, Karen Meusemann, Judith Korb
Social insects are promising new models in aging research. Within single colonies, longevity differences of several magnitudes exist that can be found elsewhere only between different species. Reproducing queens (and, in termites, also kings) can live for several decades, whereas sterile workers often have a lifespan of a few weeks only. We studied aging in the wild in a highly social insect, the termite Macrotermes bellicosus , which has one of the most pronounced longevity differences between reproductives and workers...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Wen Sang, Jing Xu, Muhammad Hamid Bashir, Shaukat Ali
The current studies were carried out to observe the variations in development, biology and life table parameters of ladybird beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, feeding on pink hibiscus mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes) contaminated with heavy metals (cadmium, lead, and nickel) bio-transferred across a multi-trophic chain. The developmental time required for immature life stages (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th instar nymphs, pupae) and total developmental period (egg-adult) differed significantly among different heavy metal treatments and control...
February 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Patricia Hodgson, Jake Ireland, Bianka Grunow
The zebrafish (ZF) has become an essential model for biomedical, pharmacological and eco-toxicological heart research. Despite the anatomical differences between fish and human hearts, similarities in cellular structure and conservation of genes as well as pathways across vertebrates have led to an increase in the popularity of ZF as a model for human cardiac research. ZF research benefits from an entirely sequenced genome, which allows us to establish and study cardiovascular mutants to better understand cardiovascular diseases...
May 2, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Karen J Murphy, Natalie Parletta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Populations surrounding the Mediterranean basin have traditionally reaped health benefits from a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), which may benefit Westernized countries plagued by chronic disease. But is it feasible to implement beyond the Mediterranean? To answer this question, we present evidence from randomized controlled trials that achieved high dietary compliance rates with subsequent physical and mental health benefits. RECENT FINDINGS: In the 1960s, the Seven Countries Study identified dietary qualities of Mediterranean populations associated with healthy aging and longevity...
May 4, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Rocío Álvarez-Varas, David Morales-Moraga, Daniel González-Acuña, Sebastián A Klarian, Juliana A Vianna
Penguins are reliable sentinels for environmental assessments of mercury (Hg) due to their longevity, abundance, high trophic level, and relatively small foraging areas. We analyzed Hg concentrations from blood and feathers of adult Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) and feathers of chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarcticus) from different reproductive colonies with variable degrees of urbanization and industrialization along the Chilean and Antarctic coasts. We evaluated Hg concentration differences between species, sexes (Humboldt penguins), and localities...
May 3, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Satoru Matsuda, Yukie Nakagawa, Yasuko Kitagishi, Atsuko Nakanishi, Toshiyuki Murai
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate to various specialized cells, which have the potential capacity to differentiate properly and accelerate recovery in damaged sites of the body. This stem cell technology has become the fundamental element in regenerative medicine. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported to adversely influence stem cell properties, it is imperative to attenuate the extent of ROS to the promising protective approach with MSCs’ regenerative therapy...
May 1, 2018: Cells
L L Hernandez
Lactation is a physiological event that is exclusive to mammals. Lactation evolved as a strategy to improve the survival of the young by providing them with the complete nutrition that is required for survival upon birth as well as maternal-offspring bonding. Typically, milk production by the dam matches the demand of the young. The dairy cow is a unique exception in which the discoveries and genetic selection related to lactation physiology have been applied and resulted in a dramatic increase in milk yield of dairy cows...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Rhonda Spencer-Hwang, Xochitl Torres, Johanny Valladares, Marco Pasco-Rubio, Molly Dougherty, Wonha Kim
CONTEXT: Research has linked adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with chronic disease in adults and diminished life span. Adverse biological embedding of ACEs potentially occurs through inflammatory mechanisms; inflammatory marker alterations are identified as candidate biomarkers for mediating health consequences. Lifestyle practices of residents of California's Loma Linda Blue Zone, one of five worldwide longevity hotspots, may provide insight into inflammation remediation and chronic disease prevention...
March 11, 2018: Permanente Journal
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