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Longevity research

Li-Wa Shao, Rong Niu, Ying Liu
Neurons have a central role in the systemic coordination of mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) and the cell non-autonomous modulation of longevity. However, the mechanism by which the nervous system senses mitochondrial stress and communicates to the distal tissues to induce UPR(mt) remains unclear. Here we employ the tissue-specific CRISPR-Cas9 approach to disrupt mitochondrial function only in the nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans, and reveal a cell non-autonomous induction of UPR(mt) in peripheral cells...
October 21, 2016: Cell Research
Carmen Nacarino-Meneses, Xavier Jordana, Meike Köhler
The study of bone growth marks (BGMs) and other histological traits of bone tissue provides insights into the life history of present and past organisms. Important life history traits like longevity or age at maturity, which could be inferred from the analysis of these features, form the basis for estimations of demographic parameters that are essential in ecological and evolutionary studies of vertebrates. Here, we study the intraskeletal histological variability in an ontogenetic series of Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) in order to assess the suitability of several skeletal elements to reconstruct the life history strategy of the species...
2016: PeerJ
Chu-Shiu Li, June Han Lee, Chwen-Chi Liu, Yan-Lan Chan, Christopher Wen, Mu-Lin Chiu, Min Kuang Tsai, Shan Pou Tsai, Jackson Pui Man Wai, Chwen Keng Tsao, Xifeng Wu, Chi Pang Wen
Widowhood has been increasingly encountered because of increasing longevity of women, often characterized by social stigmatization and poor physical and mental health. However, applied research to overcome its adversity has been quite limited. The goal of this study is to explore the role of physical activity in improving the health of widows.A cohort of 446,582 adults in Taiwan who successively participated in a comprehensive medical screening program starting in 1994, including 232,788 women, was followed up for mortality until 2008...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Vitaly K Koltover
There are two generally known concepts in biology of aging. Accordingly to the first one, there is a program of aging. The alternative concept advocates that aging proceeds stochastically. In this area of research, free radical-theory of aging, which was put forward by Denham Harman in fifties of XXth century, has determined the most heuristic line. The goal of this review is to demonstrate how the aging program and the aging stochastics are united on the basis of the systems theory of reliability. On this basis, universal features of aging, such as the exponential growth of mortality rate with time and correlation of longevity with the species-specific resting metabolism, are naturally explained...
October 9, 2016: Current Aging Science
Katherine E Weisensee, Richard L Jantz
This research examines the pattern of secular change in the cranial morphology of two populations experiencing the epidemiological transition associated with decreased mortality rates in children, followed by declines in infant mortality and subsequent increases in adult longevity. The two samples examined in this study come from US and Portuguese individuals. The epidemiological transition occurred at different times in the United States and Portugal, with Portugal entering into the transition later than the United States...
January 2016: Human Biology
Tomoyo Kawamura, Noriyuki Mori, Katsumi Shibata
The turnover of the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) has attracted interest in regard to longevity. Thus, compounds that can rapidly increase the cellular NAD(+) concentration have been surveyed by many researchers. Of those, β-nicotinamide mononucleotide (β-NMN) has been focused on. Studies on the biosynthesis of NAD(+) from β-NMN have been reported at the cellular level, but not at the whole animal level. In the present study, we investigated whether β-NMN is superior to nicotinamide (Nam) as a precursor of NAD(+) in whole animal experiments...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Alice Séguret, Abel Bernadou, Robert J Paxton
In eusocial insects, reversal of the fecundity/longevity trade-off and extreme differences in life histories between castes of the same species garner scientific and public interest. Facultative social species at the threshold of sociality, in which individuals are socially plastic, provide an excellent opportunity to understand the causes and mechanisms underlying this reversal in life history trade-off associated with eusociality. We briefly present the ultimate factors favoring sociality and the association between fecundity and longevity in facultative eusocial insects, including kin selection and disposable soma, as well as proximate mechanisms observed in such species, such as differences in hormone titers and functions...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Matteo Antoine Negroni, Evelien Jongepier, Barbara Feldmeyer, Boris H Kramer, Susanne Foitzik
Social insects are known for their unusual life histories with fecund, long-lived queens and sterile, short-lived workers. We review ultimate factors underlying variation in life history strategies in female social insects, whose social life reshapes common trade-offs, such as the one between fecundity and longevity. Interspecific life history variation is associated with colony size, mediated by changes in division of labour and extrinsic mortality. In addition to the ratio of juvenile to adult mortality, social factors such as queen number influence life history trajectories...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Johnna R Swartz, Annchen R Knodt, Spenser R Radtke, Ahmad R Hariri
Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality...
October 4, 2016: NeuroImage
Lincoln Fok, Pui Kwan Cheung, Guangda Tang, Wai Chin Li
Beach environments are known to be conducive to fragmentation of plastic debris, and highly fragmented plastic particles can interact with smaller organisms. Even through stranded plastic debris may not interact directly with marine organisms, backwash processes may transport this debris back to coastal waters, where it may affect a wide range of marine life at different trophic levels. This study analysed the size distribution of stranded plastic debris (<10 mm) collected from eight coastal beaches in Guangdong Province, China...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Trish Hafford-Letchfield, Nicky Lambert, Ellouise Long, Dominique Brady
Greater longevity in the UK population has led to the increasing diversity of women experiencing aging in a multitude of ways. Internationally, gender inequalities in aging are still relatively invisible within both government policy and everyday life for particular groups of women. This article explores the concept of women growing older "solo"-by which we mean women who find themselves nonpartnered and aging without children as they move into later life. We report on the findings from a mixed-methods survey of 76 solo women in the UK aged 50 years and over, used to provide a broader overview of the issues and challenges they face as they move into later life...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Women & Aging
Kisha Holden, Tabia Akintobi, Jammie Hopkins, Allyson Belton, Brian McGregor, Starla Blanks, Glenda Wrenn
Health is a human right. Equity in health implies that ideally everyone should have a fair opportunity to attain their full health potential and, more pragmatically, that no one should be disadvantaged from achieving this potential. Addressing the multi-faceted health needs of ethnically and culturally diverse individuals in the United States is a complex issue that requires inventive strategies to reduce risk factors and buttress protective factors to promote greater well-being among individuals, families, and communities...
March 2016: Social Sciences
Hannah Watson, Mark Bolton, Britt J Heidinger, Winnie Boner, Pat Monaghan
Repeated exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids during development can have long-term detrimental effects on survival and fitness, potentially associated with increased telomere attrition. Nestling birds are regularly handled for ecological research, yet few authors have considered the potential for handling-induced stress to influence hormonally mediated phenotypic development or bias interpretations of subsequent focal measurements. We experimentally manipulated the handling experience of the semi-precocial nestlings of European Storm Petrel Hydrobates pelagicus to simulate handling in a typical field study and examined cumulative effects on physiology and condition in late postnatal development...
October 2016: Ibis
Adi Pinkas, Michael Aschner
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are non-enzymatically glycated proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. These compounds both originate exogenously and are formed endogenously, and are associated, along with one of their receptors - RAGE, with a variety of pathologies and neurodegeneration. Some of their deleterious effects include affecting insulin signaling and FOXO-related pathways in both receptor-dependent and -independent manner. A potential ameliorating agent for these effects is insulin, which is being studied in several in vivo and in vitro models; one of these models is C...
October 5, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Bradley J Willcox, Brian J Morris, Gregory J Tranah, Randi Chen, Kamal H Masaki, Qimei He, D Craig Willcox, Richard C Allsopp, Stefan Moisyadi, Mariana Gerschenson, Philip M C Davy, Leonard W Poon, Beatriz Rodriguez, Anne B Newman, Tamara B Harris, Steven R Cummings, Yongmei Liu, Neeta Parimi, Daniel S Evans, Timothy A Donlon
BACKGROUND: We recently reported that protection against coronary artery disease (CAD) mortality is the major contributor to longer life associated with FOXO3 genotype. The present study examined this relation in more detail. METHODS: We performed a 15-year observational study of 3,584 older American men of Japanese ancestry from the Kuakini Honolulu Heart Program cohort and 1,595 White and 1,067 Black elderly individuals from the Health Aging and Body Composition study...
September 30, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Heather M Snyder, Sanjay Asthana, Lisa Bain, Roberta Brinton, Suzanne Craft, Dena B Dubal, Mark A Espeland, Margaret Gatz, Michelle M Mielke, Jacob Raber, Peter R Rapp, Kristine Yaffe, Maria C Carrillo
More than 5 million Americans are living with Alzheimer's disease (AD) today, and nearly two-thirds of Americans with AD are women. This sex difference may be due to the higher longevity women generally experience; however, increasing evidence suggests that longevity alone is not a sufficient explanation and there may be other factors at play. The Alzheimer's Association convened an expert think tank to focus on the state of the science and level of evidence around gender and biological sex differences for AD, including the knowledge gaps and areas of science that need to be more fully addressed...
September 21, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Elizabeth E Devore, Stephanie L Harrison, Katie L Stone, Kathleen F Holton, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Kristine Yaffe, Kristine Ensrud, Peggy M Cawthon, Susan Redline, Eric Orwoll, Eva S Schernhammer
BACKGROUND: Circadian disruptions can contribute to accelerated aging, and the circadian system regulates cognitive and physical functions; therefore, circadian markers (eg, melatonin) may be associated with key aspects of healthy aging and longevity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate urinary melatonin levels in relation to cognitive function, physical function, and mortality among 2,821 older men in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study DESIGN: Cohort study. MEASUREMENTS: In 2003-2005, participants provided first-morning spot urine samples, which were assayed for 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (the primary melatonin metabolite in urine); cognitive and physical function assessments were completed twice, at baseline and an average of 6...
July 2016: Sleep Medicine
Namrata Adhauliya, Anupama N Kalappanavar, I M Ali, Rajeshwari G Annigeri
Autophagy is a catabolic process involving cellular recycling and is believed to play a distinct role in cell survival especially when exposed to stressors, rendering it comparable to the elixir sustaining life. It plays a significant role in various conditions like cancers, neuropathies, heart diseases, auto-immune diseases, etc. Its role in tumorigenesis and cancer therapeutics is worth exploring. Autophagy is believed to help in survival and longevity of cancer cells by buffering metabolic stress. Inhibition of autophagy in an environment of nutrient deprivation leads to cell death...
October 2016: Oral Oncology
Mariela Acuña Mora, Philip Moons, Carina Sparud-Lundin, Ewa-Lena Bratt, Eva Goossens
BACKGROUND: Life-long specialized care is of the utmost importance to safeguard longevity as well as the quality of life in children diagnosed with a chronic condition (CC). Provision of life-long care, however, infers transfers to different settings in line with person's development status. Young people with CC (10-25 years) will transfer care from a pediatric towards an adult-oriented care setting. As a transfer of care is associated with a change of care context, healthcare team, responsibilities, expectations, and roles, patients need to be prepared for this alteration...
September 29, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Lillian Ng, Richard Steane, Emme Chacko, Natalie Scollay
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to disseminate advice imparted to early career psychiatrists by a panel of senior colleagues at a Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists symposium, reflecting on things they wished they had known at the earlier stage in their careers. METHODS: Key themes were extracted from notes taken at the symposium, where opinions were expressed by three senior psychiatrists. RESULTS: There are components in building a sustainable career as a psychiatrist, which include considering one's work environment and relationships with colleagues; self-care, mentorship and reflective practice; and seeking opportunities to teach and research for career progression...
September 28, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
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