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Longevity research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910817/on-the-molecular-interaction-between-femoral-heads-and-polyethylene-liners-in-artificial-hip-joints-phenomenology-and-molecular-scale-phenomena
#1
Giuseppe Pezzotti, B Sonny Bal, Elisa Casagrande, Nobuhiko Sugano, Bryan J McEntire, Wenliang Zhu, Leonardo Puppulin
The chemical interaction of femoral heads with polyethylene liners is an important new area of research in total hip arthroplasty (THA) as a consequence of an unabating quest for elongated artificial joint lifetimes. It is a topic that goes beyond simple mechanical behavior or wear. It seeks to describe the prosthetic device as a whole by adding chemical considerations to mechanics and abrasion. One of the poorly understood chemical interactions is oxygen affinity of the femoral heads. While oxygen unavoidably diffuses into the non-crystalline enclaves of the polyethylene liner as a result of its contact with the tribolayer, a ceramic femoral head can either attract or release oxygen due to its tribochemical interactions...
December 2, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900317/does-early-career-achievement-lead-to-earlier-death-assessment-of-the-precocity-longevity-effect-in-professional-basketball-players
#2
Nick Wattie, Srdjan Lemez, Chris I Ardern, Michael Rotondi, Joseph Baker
OBJECTIVES: To examine the precocity-longevity (P-L) effect in North American professional basketball players who debuted between 1946 and 1979, and to determine whether playing position and decade of play influenced the relationship between age of career achievements and life span. METHODS: A total of 1852 players were evaluated from a recognized sports archive (i.e., http://sports-reference.com), which provided information on date of birth, death, and career debut, playing position, and indicators of achievement (i...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899767/immune-function-parameters-as-markers-of-biological-age-and-predictors-of-longevity
#3
Irene Martínez de Toda, Ianire Maté, Carmen Vida, Julia Cruces, Mónica De la Fuente
Chronological age is not a good indicator of how each individual ages and thus how to maintain good health. Due to the long lifespan in humans and the consequent difficulty of carrying out longitudinal studies, finding valid biomarkers of the biological age has been a challenge both for research and clinical studies. The aim was to identify and validate several immune cell function parameters as markers of biological age. Adult, mature, elderly and long-lived human volunteers were used. The chemotaxis, phagocytosis, natural killer activity and lymphoproliferation in neutrophils and lymphocytes of peripheral blood were analyzed...
November 28, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895066/protocol-of-the-swiss-longitudinal-cohort-study-swicos-in-rural-switzerland
#4
Andreas W Schoenenberger, Franco Muggli, Gianfranco Parati, Augusto Gallino, Georg Ehret, Paolo M Suter, Renate Schoenenberger-Berzins, Therese J Resink, Paul Erne
INTRODUCTION: Increased longevity and consequent major changes in demographics and population lifestyles necessitate new approaches to reduce the burden of ageing-related diseases (including cardiovascular disease) and maintain an optimal quality of life. This study aims to examine and longitudinally follow health status and disease risk factors in a Swiss rural cohort, evaluating all health-related research and practice disciplines to assure development of new implementable and successful preventive strategies for healthy ageing...
November 28, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893180/hybrid-crosses-and-the-genetic-basis-of-interspecific-divergence-in-lifespan-in-pristionchus-nematodes
#5
Cameron J Weadick, Ralf J Sommer
Characterizing the genetic basis of among-species variation in lifespan is a major goal of evolutionary gerontology research, but the very feature that defines separate species-the inability to interbreed-makes achieving this goal impractical, if not impossible, for most taxa. Pristionchus nematodes provide an intriguing system for tackling this problem, as female lifespan varies among species that can be crossed to form viable (though infertile) hybrids. By conducting reciprocal crosses among three species-two dioecious (long-lived P...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884780/regulation-of-metabolic-health-and-aging-by-nutrient-sensitive-signaling-pathways
#6
Nicole E Cummings, Dudley W Lamming
All organisms need to be capable of adapting to changes in the availability and composition of nutrients. Over 75 years ago, researchers discovered that a calorie restricted (CR) diet could significantly extend the lifespan of rats, and since then a CR diet has been shown to increase lifespan and healthspan in model organisms ranging from yeast to non-human primates. In this review, we discuss the effects of a CR diet on metabolism and healthspan, and highlight emerging evidence that suggests that dietary composition - the precise macronutrients that compose the diet - may be just as important as caloric content...
November 21, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883346/-effect-of-physical-activity-on-longevity
#7
EDITORIAL
Mateusz M Wilczek, Andrzej Krupienicz
Multiple population studies have reported a positive correlation between higher levels of physical activity (PA) and longer lifespan. It has been generally accepted that it occurs due to PA having a direct effect on longevity. However, this idea is negated by experiments on animal models and an observational study on a twin cohort published recently by Karvinen et al. This unique study includes a pairwise comparison of monozygotic twins discordant for PA, therefore eliminating any influence of genetic factors on both mortality and tendency to take up exercise...
November 25, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877192/pure-and-confounded-effects-of-causal-snps-on-longevity-insights-for-proper-interpretation-of-research-findings-in-gwas-of-populations-with-different-genetic-structures
#8
Anatoliy I Yashin, Ilya Zhbannikov, Liubov Arbeeva, Konstantin G Arbeev, Deqing Wu, Igor Akushevich, Arseniy Yashkin, Mikhail Kovtun, Alexander M Kulminski, Eric Stallard, Irina Kulminskaya, Svetlana Ukraintseva
This paper shows that the effects of causal SNPs on lifespan, estimated through GWAS, may be confounded and the genetic structure of the study population may be responsible for this effect. Simulation experiments show that levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and other parameters of the population structure describing connections between two causal SNPs may substantially influence separate estimates of the effect of the causal SNPs on lifespan. This study suggests that differences in LD levels between two causal SNP loci within two study populations may contribute to the failure to replicate previous GWAS findings...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872299/the-emergence-of-longevous-populations
#9
Fernando Colchero, Roland Rau, Owen R Jones, Julia A Barthold, Dalia A Conde, Adam Lenart, Laszlo Nemeth, Alexander Scheuerlein, Jonas Schoeley, Catalina Torres, Virginia Zarulli, Jeanne Altmann, Diane K Brockman, Anne M Bronikowski, Linda M Fedigan, Anne E Pusey, Tara S Stoinski, Karen B Strier, Annette Baudisch, Susan C Alberts, James W Vaupel
The human lifespan has traversed a long evolutionary and historical path, from short-lived primate ancestors to contemporary Japan, Sweden, and other longevity frontrunners. Analyzing this trajectory is crucial for understanding biological and sociocultural processes that determine the span of life. Here we reveal a fundamental regularity. Two straight lines describe the joint rise of life expectancy and lifespan equality: one for primates and the second one over the full range of human experience from average lifespans as low as 2 y during mortality crises to more than 87 y for Japanese women today...
November 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869525/oxidative-priority-meal-frequency-and-the-energy-economy-of-food-and-activity-implications-for-longevity-obesity-and-cardiometabolic-disease
#10
Raymond J Cronise, David A Sinclair, Andrew A Bremer
In most modern societies, the relationship that many individuals have with food has fundamentally changed from previous generations. People have shifted away from viewing food as primarily sustenance, and rather now seek out foods based on pure palatability or specific nutrition. However, it is far from clear what optimal nutrition is for the general population or specific individuals. We previously described the Food Triangle as a way to organize food based on an increasing energy density paradigm, and now expand on this model to predict the impact of oxidative priority and both nutrient and fiber density in relation to caloric load...
November 21, 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869510/the-effectiveness-of-commercial-desiccants-and-uncooked-rice-in-removing-moisture-from-hearing-aids
#11
Lauri H Nelson, Karl R White, Dirk V Baker, Angela Hayden, Scott Bird
OBJECTIVE: In many low- and middle-income countries, the availability of hearing technology is limited, with few options for hearing aid repairs. Minimising moisture damage to hearing aid electronics improves function and longevity; however, desiccants that absorb moisture from hearing aid components are unavailable in many regions. This study compared the effectiveness of uncooked white rice and seven commercial silica gel desiccants in removing moisture from hearing aids. DESIGN: Relative humidity measurements in a test chamber were obtained from a water-saturated BTE hearing aid prior to and after placement in uncooked white rice and seven different silica gel desiccants...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861536/muscle-related-polymorphisms-mstn-rs1805086-and-actn3-rs1815739-are-not-associated-with-exceptional-longevity-in-japanese-centenarians
#12
Noriyuki Fuku, Rafael Alis, Thomas Yvert, Hirofumi Zempo, Hisashi Naito, Yukiko Abe, Yasumichi Arai, Haruka Murakami, Motohiko Miyachi, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Enzo Emanuele, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Alejandro Lucia
Myostatin (MSTN) and α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) genes are potentially associated with preservation of muscle mass and oxidative capacity, respectively. To explore the possible role of these genes in exceptional longevity (EL), the allele/genotype frequency distribution of two polymorphisms in MSTN (rs1805086, K153R) and ACTN3 (rs1815739, R577X) was studied in Japanese centenarians of both sexes (n = 742) and healthy controls (n = 814). The rs1805086 R-allele (theoretically associated with muscle mass preservation at the expense of oxidative capacity) was virtually absent in the two groups, where genotype distributions were virtually identical...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857028/comparative-study-on-production-reproduction-and-functional-traits-between-fleckvieh-and-braunvieh-cattle
#13
Ludovic Toma Cziszter, Daniela Elena Ilie, Radu Ionel Neamt, Florin Cristian Neciu, Silviu Ilie Saplacan, Dinu Gavojdian
Objective: Aim of the current comparative study was to evaluate production outputs, reproduction efficiency and functional traits in dual-purpose Fleckvieh and Braunvieh cows, reared under temperate European conditions. Methods: A data-set from 414 Fleckvieh and 42 Braunvieh cows and 799 lactations was analysed. ID tag number, milk yield per milking session, number of steps/interval and milk conductivity were recorded and collected daily using AfiMilk 3.076 A-DU® software...
November 17, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853853/-social-support-after-traumatism
#14
A Maercker, E Heim, T Hecker, M V Thoma
The classical concept of social support has recently become of relevance again, particularly in the context of traumatized patient groups, which include refugees and migrants. This article summarizes the evidence from social support research, e. g. different types of positive effects as well as context, gender and cultural aspects. These aspects are highlighted by means of studies stemming from applied healthcare research and thus describe a wide range of health effects, e.g. increased well-being and reduced depressive symptoms, improved functional abilities, better immune status and longevity...
November 16, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845177/demographic-phenotypic-and-genetic-characteristics-of-centenarians-in-okinawa-and-japan-part-1-centenarians-in-okinawa
#15
REVIEW
Bradley J Willcox, Donald Craig Willcox, Makoto Suzuki
A study of elderly Okinawans has been carried out by the Okinawa Centenarian Study (OCS) research group for over four decades. The OCS began in 1975 as a population-based study of centenarians (99-year-olds and older) and other selected elderly persons residing in the main island of the Japanese prefecture of Okinawa. As of 2015, over 1000 centenarians have been examined. By several measures of health and longevity the Okinawans can claim to be the world's healthiest and longest-lived people. In this paper we explore the demographic, phenotypic, and genetic characteristics of this fascinating population...
November 11, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837523/linguistic-evidence-for-the-failure-mindset-as-a-predictor-of-life-span-longevity
#16
Ian B Penzel, Michelle R Persich, Ryan L Boyd, Michael D Robinson
BACKGROUND: When people think that their efforts will fail to achieve positive outcomes, they sometimes give up their efforts after control, which can have negative health consequences. PURPOSE: Problematic orientations of this type, such as pessimism, helplessness, or fatalism, seem likely to be associated with a cognitive mindset marked by higher levels of accessibility for failure words or concepts. Thus, the purpose of the present research was to determine whether there are individual differences in the frequency with which people think about failure, which in turn are likely to impact health across large spans of time...
November 11, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836583/sirt6-novel-mechanisms-and-links-to-aging-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Luisa Tasselli, Wei Zheng, Katrin F Chua
SIRT6, a member of the Sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent enzymes, has established roles in chromatin signaling and genome maintenance. Through these functions, SIRT6 protects against aging-associated pathologies including metabolic disease and cancer, and can promote longevity in mice. Research from the past few years revealed that SIRT6 is a complex enzyme with multiple substrates and catalytic activities, and uncovered novel SIRT6 functions in the maintenance of organismal health span. Here, we review these new discoveries and models of SIRT6 biology in four areas: heterochromatin stabilization and silencing; stem cell biology; cancer initiation and progression; and regulation of metabolic homeostasis...
November 8, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830179/hla-matching-trumps-donor-age-donor-recipient-pairing-characteristics-that-impact-long-term-success-in-living-donor-kidney-transplantation-in-the-era-of-paired-kidney-exchange
#18
John Milner, Marc L Melcher, Brian Lee, Jeff Veale, Matthew Ronin, Tom D'Alessandro, Garet Hil, Phillip C Fry, Patrick W Shannon
BACKGROUND: We sought to identify donor characteristics influencing long-term graft survival, expressed by a novel measure, kidney life years (KLYs), in living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). METHODS: Cox and multiple regression analyses were applied to data from the Scientific Registry for Transplant Research from 1987 to 2015. Dependent variable was KLYs. RESULTS: Living donor kidney transplantation (129 273) were performed from 1987 to 2013 in the United States...
July 2016: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824893/an-age-associated-decline-in-thymic-output-differs-in-dog-breeds-according-to-their-longevity
#19
Angela Holder, Stephanie Mella, Donald B Palmer, Richard Aspinall, Brian Catchpole
The age associated decline in immune function is preceded in mammals by a reduction in thymic output. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence of a link between immune competence and lifespan. One approach to determining thymic output is to quantify signal joint T cell receptor excision circles (sj-TRECs), a method which has been developed and used in several mammalian species. Life expectancy and the rate of aging vary in dogs depending upon their breed. In this study, we quantified sj-TRECs in blood samples from dogs of selected breeds to determine whether there was a relationship between longevity and thymic output...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794161/effects-and-effectiveness-of-cavity-disinfectants-in-operative-dentistry-a-literature-review
#20
Mohammed S Bin-Shuwaish
The degree of success in the elimination of bacteria during cavity preparation and prior to the insertion of a restoration may increase the longevity of the restoration and therefore the success of the restorative procedure. The complete eradication of bacteria in a caries-affected tooth, during cavity preparation, is considered a difficult clinical task. In addition to weakening the tooth structure, attempts to excavate extensive carious tissue completely, by only mechanical procedures, may affect the vitality of the pulp...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
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