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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110269/genetic-predictors-of-long-term-graft-function-in-kidney-and-pancreas-transplant-patients
#1
Claire E Duff, Matthew J Simmonds
Kidney and pancreas transplantation have helped transform the lives of people with end-stage renal failure and individuals with type 1 diabetes who have poor glycaemic control/severe secondary complications, respectively. Despite an improvement in immunosuppressive regimes, operative techniques and decreased initial rejection rates, there has been little improvement in long-term graft survival rates over the past decade. Whilst limited progress has been made in establishing clinical markers of graft function, several genetic markers of long-term graft function have been identified...
January 20, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105719/allostatic-load-and-biological-anthropology
#2
Ashley N Edes, Douglas E Crews
Multiple stressors affect developing and adult organisms, thereby partly structuring their phenotypes. Determining how stressors influence health, well-being, and longevity in human and nonhuman primate populations are major foci within biological anthropology. Although much effort has been devoted to examining responses to multiple environmental and sociocultural stressors, no holistic metric to measure stress-related physiological dysfunction has been widely applied within biological anthropology. Researchers from disciplines outside anthropology are using allostatic load indices (ALIs) to estimate such dysregulation and examine life-long outcomes of stressor exposures, including morbidity and mortality...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103829/a-comparison-of-the-effects-of-oral-vs-intravenous-hydration-on-subclinical-acute-kidney-injury-in-living-kidney-donors-a-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Shona Mackinnon, Emma Aitken, Ryan Ghita, Marc Clancy
BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment for established renal failure is living donor kidney transplantation. However this pathway exposes healthy individuals to significant reduction in nephron mass via major surgical procedure. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is now the most common method for live donor transplantation, reducing both donor post-operative pain and recovery time. However this procedure exposes kidneys to additional haemodynamic stresses. It has been suggested that donor hydration-particularly the use of preoperative intravenous fluids-may counteract these stresses, reducing subclinical acute kidney injury and ultimately improving long-term renal function...
January 19, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099885/oestrus-synchronisation-and-superovulation-alter-the-cervicovaginal-mucus-proteome-of-the-ewe
#4
Jessie W Maddison, Jessica P Rickard, Naomi C Bernecic, Guillaume Tsikis, Clement Soleilhavoup, Valerie Labas, Lucie Combes-Soia, Gregoire Harichaux, Xavier Druart, Tamara Leahy, Simon P de Graaf
: Although essential for artificial insemination (AI) and MOET (multiple ovulation and embryo transfer), oestrus synchronisation and superovulation are associated with increased female reproductive tract mucus production and altered sperm transport. The effects of such breeding practices on the ovine cervicovaginal (CV) mucus proteome have not been detailed. The aim of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively investigate the Merino CV mucus proteome in naturally cycling (NAT) ewes at oestrus and mid-luteal phase, and quantitatively compare CV oestrus mucus proteomes of NAT, progesterone synchronised (P4) and superovulated (SOV) ewes...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090398/life-expectancies-in-hawai-i-a-multi-ethnic-analysis-of-2010-life-tables
#5
Yanyan Wu, Kathryn Braun, Alvin T Onaka, Brian Y Horiuchi, Caryn J Tottori, Lynne Wilkens
The objective of this study is to examine longevity disparities in Hawai'i by race/ethnicity and gender based on age-specific death rates in 2010. Abridged life tables for Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hawaiians, and Caucasians in Hawai'i are presented for the age groups: <1, 1-4, every 5-year interval from 5-84, and 85+ years for the year of 2010. Death data were provided by the Hawai'i Department of Health Office of Health Status Monitoring, and population data were based on 2010 Census modified based on ethnicity estimates from the Hawai'i Health Survey...
January 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088983/the-epigenetic-basis-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-aging
#6
REVIEW
Ashley Kramer, Grant A Challen
Highly proliferative tissues such as the gut, skin, and bone marrow lose millions of cells each day to normal attrition and challenge from different biological adversities. To achieve a lifespan beyond the longevity of individual cell types, tissue-specific stem cells sustain these tissues throughout the life of a human. For example, the lifespan of erythrocytes is about 100 days and adults make about two million new erythrocytes every second. A small pool of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow is responsible for the lifetime maintenance of these populations...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069988/exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-pm2-5-shortens-lifespan-and-induces-inflammation-associated-signaling-and-oxidative-stress-in-drosophila
#7
Xiaoke Wang, Minjie Chen, Mianhua Zhong, Ziying Hu, Lianglin Qiu, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Nancy G Fossett, Lung-Chi Chen, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient PM2.5 is associated with human premature mortality. However, it has not yet been toxicologically replicated, likely due to the lack of suitable animal models. Drosophila is frequently used in longevity research due to many incomparable merits. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to validate Drosophila models for PM2.5 toxicity study through characterizing their biological responses to exposure to concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAP). RESULTS: The survivorship curve demonstrated that exposure to CAP markedly reduced lifespan of Drosophila...
January 9, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069550/identification-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-superoxide-dismutase-genes-in-dastarcus-helophoroides-coleoptera-bothrideridae
#8
Zhang Zhengqing, Guo Ruijian, Menglou Li
Dastarcus helophoroides, a predatory natural enemy of longhorned beetles, has a relatively longer lifespan compared to other insects. To determine the potential physiological roles of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) in longevity and aging of D. helophoroides, analyses including molecular information, bioinformatics research, phylogenetic relationship and expression patterns were combined for investigation. Four D.hSODs were classified into three groups: one cytoplasmic Cu/Zn-SOD, two extracellular Cu/Zn-SOD and one Mn-SOD, were identified and characterized by multiple alignments...
January 6, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062624/plasma-n-terminal-prosomatostatin-and-risk-of-incident-cardiovascular-disease-and-all-cause-mortality-in-a-prospective-observational-cohort-the-prevend-study
#9
Ali Abbasi, Lyanne M Kieneker, Eva Corpeleijn, Ron T Gansevoort, Rijk O B Gans, Joachim Struck, Rudolf A de Boer, Hans L Hillege, Ronald P Stolk, Gerjan Navis, Stephan J L Bakker
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin is a component of the well-known insulin-like growth factor-1/growth hormone (GH) longevity axis. There is observational evidence that increased GH is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to investigate the potential association of plasma N-terminal fragment prosomatostatin (NT-proSST) with incident CVD and all-cause mortality in apparently healthy adults. METHODS: We studied 8134 participants without history of CVD (aged 28-75 years; women, 52...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057834/intergenerational-transmission-of-sociality-the-role-of-parents-in-shaping-social-behavior-in-monogamous-and-non-monogamous-species
#10
REVIEW
Allison M Perkeybile, Karen L Bales
Social bonds are necessary for many mammals to survive and reproduce successfully. These bonds (i.e. pair-bonds, friendships, filial bonds) are characterized by different periods of development, longevity and strength. Socially monogamous species display certain behaviors not seen in many other mammals, such as adult pair-bonding and male parenting. In our studies of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) and titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), we have examined the neurohormonal basis of these bonds. Here, we discuss the evidence from voles that aspects of adolescent and adult social behavior are shaped by early experience, including changes to sensory systems and connections, neuropeptide systems such as oxytocin and vasopressin, and alterations in stress responses...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052287/is-overnight-fasting-before-surgery-too-much-or-not-enough-how-basic-aging-research-can-guide-preoperative-nutritional-recommendations-to-improve-surgical-outcomes-a-mini-review
#11
Alban Longchamp, Eylul Harputlugil, Jean-Marc Corpataux, C Keith Ozaki, James R Mitchell
Dietary restriction (DR) is best known for extending lifespan in experimental model organisms, but also increases resistance to a variety of clinically relevant stressors, including those associated with surgery. Extended periods of DR, lasting months to years, are required for optimal longevity benefits in rodents, but short-term dietary preconditioning (less than 1 week) remarkably protects from acute injury. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the mechanistic basis of short-term DR and fasting in the context of surgical stress resistance, including upstream amino acid sensing by the GCN2 and mTORC1 pathways, and downstream effector mechanisms including increased insulin-dependent prosurvival signaling and elevated endogenous hydrogen sulfide production...
January 5, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049008/the-gut-microbiota-of-centenarians-signatures-of-longevity-in-the-gut-microbiota-profile
#12
REVIEW
Biagi Elena, Simone Rampelli, Silvia Turroni, Sara Quercia, Marco Candela, Patrizia Brigidi
The changing physiology and lifestyle of elderly people affect the gut microbiota composition, the changes of which can, in turn, affect the health maintenance of the ageing host. In a co-evolutionary vision of the relationship between gut microbiota and ageing as an adaptive process of the human superorganism, long-living individuals who get to "successfully" age might be the ones whose microbiota manages to continuously re-establish a mutualistic relationship with the host, adapting to the progressive endogenous and environmental changes...
December 31, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046180/effect-of-timing-of-relocation-of-replacement-gilts-from-group-pens-to-individual-stalls-before-breeding-on-fertility-and-well-being
#13
R V Knox, J Shen, L L Greiner, J F Connor
Variation in gilt fertility is associated with increased replacement and reduced longevity. Stress before breeding is hypothesized to be involved in reduced fertility. This study tested the timing of gilt relocation from pens to individual stalls before breeding on fertility and well-being. The experiment was performed in replicates on a commercial research farm. After detection of first estrus, gilts ( = 563) were assigned to treatment for relocation into stalls 3 wk (REL3wk), 2 wk (REL2wk), or 1 wk (REL1wk) before breeding at second estrus...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040447/demographics-phenotypic-health-characteristics-and-genetic-analysis-of-centenarians-in-china
#14
REVIEW
Yi Zeng, Qiushi Feng, Danan Gu, James W Vaupel
After a brief introduction to the background, significance and unique features of the centenarian population in China, we describe the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study (CLHLS), which is the world's largest study of centenarians, nonagenarians, octogenarians, and compatible young-old aged 65-79. Based on the CLHLS data and other relevant studies, we summarize demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as self-reported and objectively-tested health indicators of centenarians in China, with an emphasis on gender differences and rural/urban disparities...
December 28, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035340/targeting-glucose-metabolism-for-healthy-aging
#15
REVIEW
Rachel A Brewer, Victoria K Gibbs, Daniel L Smith
Advancing age is the greatest single risk factor for numerous chronic diseases. Thus, the ability to target the aging process can facilitate improved healthspan and potentially lifespan. Lack of adequate glucoregulatory control remains a recurrent theme accompanying aging and chronic disease, while numerous longevity interventions result in maintenance of glucoregulatory control. In this review, we propose targeting glucose metabolism to enhance regulatory control as a means to ameliorate the aging process...
October 27, 2016: Nutr Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025308/2-5-dimethyl-celecoxib-extends-drosophila-life-span-via-a-mechanism-that-requires-insulin-and-target-of-rapamycin-signaling
#16
Qi Wu, Ting Lian, Xiaolan Fan, Chaochun Song, Uma Gaur, Xueping Mao, Deying Yang, Matthew D W Piper, Mingyao Yang
The search for antiaging drugs is a key component of gerontology research. A few drugs with positive effects on life span in model organisms have been found. Here, we report that 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib, a derivative of the anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib, can extend Drosophila life span and delay aging by a mechanism involving insulin signaling and target of rapamycin signaling. Importantly, its positive effects were apparent when the treatment window was restricted to the beginning of life or the later half...
December 26, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024784/assessing-the-feasibility-of-yttria-stabilized-zirconia-in-novel-designs-as-mandibular-anterior-fixed-lingual-retention-after-orthodontic-treatment
#17
Matthew M Stout, Brian K Cook, Dwayne D Arola, Hanson Fong, Ariel J Raigrodski, Anne-Marie Bollen
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility of yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) in fixed lingual retention as an alternative to stainless steel. METHODS: Exploratory Y-TZP specimens were milled to establish design parameters. Next, the specimens were milled according to ASTM standard C1161-13 and subjected to 4-point flexural tests to determine material properties. Finite element analysis was used to evaluate 9 novel cross-sectional designs, which were compared with stainless steel wire...
January 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009055/life-history-evolution-reproduction-and-the-origins-of-sex-dependent-aging-and-longevity
#18
Robert C Brooks, Michael G Garratt
Males and females in many species differ in how they age and how long they live. These differences have motivated much research, concerning both their evolution and the underlying mechanisms that cause them. We review how differences in male and female life histories have evolved to shape patterns of aging and some of the mechanisms and pathways involved. We pay particular attention to three areas where considerable potential for synergy between mechanistic and evolutionary research exists: (1) the role of estrogens, androgens, the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 pathway, and the mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathway in sex-dependent growth and reproduction; (2) sexual conflict over mating rate and fertility, and how mate presence or mating can become an avenue for males and females to directly affect each other's life span; and (3) the link between dietary restriction and aging, and the emerging understanding that only the restriction of certain nutrients is involved and that this is linked to reproduction...
December 23, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002550/assessing-and-refining-myocardial-infarction-risk-estimation-among-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-study-by-the-centers-for-aids-research-network-of-integrated-clinical-systems
#19
Matthew J Feinstein, Robin M Nance, Daniel R Drozd, Hongyan Ning, Joseph A Delaney, Susan R Heckbert, Matthew J Budoff, William C Mathews, Mari M Kitahata, Michael S Saag, Joseph J Eron, Richard D Moore, Chad J Achenbach, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Heidi M Crane
Importance: Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that is treated with antiretroviral therapy have improved longevity but face an elevated risk of myocardial infarction (MI) due to common MI risk factors and HIV-specific factors. Despite these elevated MI rates, optimal methods to predict MI risks for HIV-infected persons remain unclear. Objective: To determine the extent to which existing and de novo estimation tools predict MI in a multicenter HIV cohort with rigorous MI adjudication...
December 21, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994309/effect-of-carbodiimide-on-the-structural-stability-of-resin-dentin-interface
#20
REVIEW
Payal Singh, Rajni Nagpal, Udai Pratap Singh, Naveen Manuja
Clinical longevity of composite resin restorations is a significant problem in adhesive dentistry. Most of the current simplified adhesives present good immediate bonding, but the bond strength gradually falls over a period due to biodegradation at the resin-dentin interface. Various strategies have been proposed to improve the durability of resin-dentin bond including the use of matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors and collagen cross-linkers, biomimetic remineralization, ethanol wet bonding, to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the bonding substrate, i...
November 2016: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
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