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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161801/impact-of-sarcopenia-on-long-term-mortality-and-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-undergoing-hemodialysis
#1
Jwa-Kyung Kim, Sung Gyun Kim, Ji-Eun Oh, Young-Ki Lee, Jung-Woo Noh, Hyung Jik Kim, Young Rim Song
Background/Aims: A high body mass index (BMI) is known to correlate with better survival in patients on hemodialysis (HD). However, the impacts of body composition and sarcopenia on survival have not been well studied in this population. Methods: One hundred and forty-two prevalent HD patients were recruited and followed prospectively for up to 4.5 years. Low muscle mass (measured using a portable, whole-body, bioimpedance spectroscopic device) was defined as a lean tissue index (LTI) two standard deviations (SD) or more below the normal gender-specific mean for young people...
November 23, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161755/kv-1-channel-expression-and-vasomotor-function-in-human-coronary-resistance-arteries
#2
Yoshinori Nishijima, Ankush Korishettar, Dawid S Chabowski, Sheng Cao, Xiaodong Zheng, David D Gutterman, David X Zhang
OBJECTIVES: KV channels are important regulators of vascular tone, but the identity of specific KV channels involved and their regulation in disease remain less well understood. We determined the expression of KV 1 channel subunits and their role in cAMP-mediated dilation in coronary resistance arteries from subjects with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Human coronary arteries and arterioles (HCA) from non-CAD and CAD patients were assessed for mRNA and protein expression of KV 1 channel subunits with molecular techniques and for vasodilator response with isolated arterial myography...
November 21, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161316/acute-exercise-alters-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-respiration-and-h2o2-emission-in-response-to-hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-clamp-in-middle-aged-obese-men
#3
Adam J Trewin, Itamar Levinger, Lewan Parker, Christopher S Shaw, Fabio R Serpiello, Mitchell J Anderson, Glenn K McConell, David L Hare, Nigel K Stepto
Obesity, sedentary lifestyle and aging are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity. Acute exercise increases insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle; however, whether mitochondria are involved in these processes remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of insulin stimulation at rest and after acute exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function (JO2) and hydrogen peroxide emission (JH2O2), and the associations with insulin sensitivity in obese, sedentary men...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160756/recent-developments-on-treatment-strategies-and-the-prognosis-of-dermatomyositis-a-review
#4
Verena Isak, Joseph L Jorizzo
Dermatomyositis is an autoimmune disease affecting both skin and muscle. Steroids are the first line treatment. However, no consensus regarding dosing, length of treatment, tapering speed, or when to add which immunosuppressant in case of steroid resistance, has been reached, as randomized-controlled trials are scarce. Especially data on long-term treatment is lacking in order to decide on the most effective treatment for long-term remission. Empiric evidence suggests that with an initially aggressive treatment with oral steroids followed by a slow taper, during which disease activity is adequately controlled, patients can be off therapy within typically 24 to 48 months, and remain disease-free without medication for over 20 years...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160099/safety-of-intradiaphragmatic-delivery-of-adeno-associated-virus-mediated-alpha-glucosidase-raav1-cmv-hgaa-gene-therapy-in-children-affected-by-pompe-disease
#5
Manuela Corti, Cristina Liberati, Barbara K Smith, Lee Ann Lawson, Ibrahim S Tuna, Thomas J Conlon, Kirsten E Erger, Saleem Islam, Roland Herzog, David D Fuller, Shelley Collins, Barry J Byrne
We conducted a first in human trial of diaphragmatic gene therapy (AAV1-CMV-GAA) to treat respiratory and neural dysfunction in early-onset Pompe disease. The primary objective of this study was to assess the safety of rAAV1-CMV-hGAA vector delivered to the diaphragm muscle of Pompe disease subjects with ventilatory insufficiency. Safety was assessed by measurement of change in serum chemistries and hematology, urinalysis, and immune response to GAA and AAV as well as change in level of health. Our data demonstrate that the AAV treatment was safe and there were no adverse events related to the study agent...
November 21, 2017: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159853/the-use-of-cell-conditioned-medium-for-musculoskeletal-tissue-regeneration
#6
REVIEW
Francesca Veronesi, Veronica Borsari, Maria Sartori, Monia Orciani, Monica Mattioli-Belmonte Cima, Milena Fini
Tissue regenerative medicine combines the use of cells, scaffolds and molecules to repair damaged tissues. Different cell types are employed for musculoskeletal diseases, both differentiated and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). In recent years, the hypothesis that cell-based therapy is guided principally by cell-secreted factors has become increasingly popular. The aim of the present literature review was to evaluate preclinical and clinical studies that used conditioned medium (CM), rich in cell-factors, for musculoskeletal regeneration with a cell-free approach...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159793/curative-radiation-therapy-for-very-elderly-bladder-cancer-patients-with-localized-disease
#7
M Bonet, T Bonfill, M Nuñez, L De Verdonces, E Mur, E Gallardo, L Fernandez-Morales, A Aguilar, J Prats, M Arenas
PURPOSE: To report the outcomes of a cohort of very elderly muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients treated with contemporary 3D-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) with or without concurrent chemotherapy, after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). METHODS: From February 2010 to January 2014, a total of 41 patients older than 75 years, with T2-3 N0-1 high-grade MIBC, a Karnofsky index (KI) of at least 90% and/or a Barthel scale score of at least 95, were treated with TURBT followed by radiotherapy (RT) with or without chemotherapy, and were prospectively followed-up...
November 20, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159527/melatonin-ameliorates-intrarenal-renin-angiotensin-system-in-a-5-6-nephrectomy-rat-model
#8
Sayaka Ishigaki, Naro Ohashi, Takashi Matsuyama, Shinsuke Isobe, Naoko Tsuji, Takamasa Iwakura, Tomoyuki Fujikura, Takayuki Tsuji, Akihiko Kato, Hiroaki Miyajima, Hideo Yasuda
BACKGROUND: Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension. It has been reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important components of intrarenal RAS activation. Melatonin is recognized as a powerful antioxidant, and we recently reported that impaired nighttime melatonin secretion correlates negatively with urinary angiotensinogen excretion, the surrogate marker of intrarenal RAS activity in patients with CKD...
November 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159074/only-some-patients-with-bulbar-and-spinal-muscular-atrophy-may-develop-cardiac-disease
#9
Josef Finsterer, Claudia Stöllberger
Objectives: According to recent publications, some patients with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (BSMA) develop cardiac disease, manifesting as ST-segment abnormalities, Brugada-syndrome, dilative cardiomyopathy, or sudden cardiac death. Here we present neurological and cardiac data of a BSMA patient who was followed up for 10 y. Case report: In a male patient aged 47 y, BSMA was diagnosed at age 37 y upon the typical clinical presentation (postural tremor since age 12 y, dysarthria since age 15 y, muscle cramps since age 29 y, general myalgias since age 32 y, general fasciculations since age 34 y, myoclonic jerks, easy fatigability, dyspnea upon exercise since age 36 y) and a CAG-repeat expansion of 47 ± 1 repeats in the androgen-receptor gene detected at age 37 y...
March 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158954/the-relationship-between-segmental-rolling-ability-and-lumbar-multifidus-activation-time
#10
Nicole Clark, Michael L Voight, Ashley M Campbell, Sherry Pierce, Pat Sells, Ryan Cook, Clint Henley, Lindsey Schiller
Background: Segmental rolling has been utilized as an assessment and intervention tool to identify and affect dysfunction of the upper quarter, core, and lower quarter. One theory to explain dysfunctional segmental rolling is a lack of segmental spinal control / stabilization. Faulty muscle firing sequencing has been related to poor spinal stability, however to date, no assessment tool exists to evaluate a patient's motor coordination of local and global musculature. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the temporal sequence of lumbar multifidus activation associated with anterior deltoid activation, and to determine if faulty sequencing was associated with the inability to segmentally roll in subjects without mobility restrictions...
November 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158549/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-mediates-the-profibrotic-effect-of-albumin-in-renal-tubular-cells
#11
Junping Hu, Weili Wang, Fan Zhang, Pin-Lan Li, Krishna M Boini, Fan Yi, Ningjun Li
Proteinuria is closely associated with the progression of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) by producing renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Over-activation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α has been implicated in the progression of CKD. The present study tested the hypothesis that HIF-1α mediates albumin-induced profibrotic effect in cultured renal proximal tubular cells. Incubation of the cells with albumin (40 μg/ml) for 72 hrs significantly increased the protein levels of HIF-1α, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and collagen-I, which were blocked by HIF-1α shRNA...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158259/structural-analyses-of-key-features-in-the-kank1-kif21a-complex-yield-mechanistic-insights-into-the-crosstalk-between-microtubules-and-the-cell-cortex
#12
Zhuangfeng Weng, Yuan Shang, Deqiang Yao, Jinwei Zhu, Rongguang Zhang
The crosstalk between dynamic microtubules (MTs) and the cell cortex plays important roles in cell division, polarity, and migration. A critical adaptor that links the plus ends of MTs with the cell cortex is the KN motif and ankyrin repeat domains 1 (KANK1)/kinesin family member 21A (KIF21A) complex. Genetic defects in these two proteins are associated with various cancers and developmental diseases such as congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1). However, the molecular mechanism governing the KANK1/KIF21A interaction and the role of the conserved ankyrin (ANK) repeats in this interaction are still unclear...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158169/potential-benefit-of-lymph-node-dissection-during-radical-nephroureterectomy-for-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma-a-systematic-review-by-the-european-association-of-urology-guidelines-panel-on-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Jose Luis Dominguez-Escrig, Benoit Peyronnet, Thomas Seisen, Harman M Bruins, Cathy Yuhong Yuan, Marko Babjuk, Andreas Böhle, Maximilian Burger, Eva M Compérat, Paolo Gontero, Thomas Lam, Steven MacLennan, Hugh Mostafid, Joan Palou, Bas W G van Rhijn, Richard J Sylvester, Richard Zigeuner, Shahrokh F Shariat, Morgan Rouprêt
CONTEXT: The oncological efficacy of routine lymphadenectomy (lymph node dissection [LND]) at the time of radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the available literature assessing the impact of LND in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Embase, Medline, and Cochrane databases were searched for all studies comparing outcomes of patients undergoing RNU without LND versus any form of LND...
November 17, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158091/observation-of-the-effects-of-different-surgical-treatments-on-unilateral-masticatory-muscle-spasm
#14
Guangyong Wu, Jia Ouyang, Zhiyu Zhang, Ruen Liu
BACKGROUND: Unilateral masticatory muscle spasm is a rare disease without a generally accepted and efficacious treatment plan. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of different surgical treatments on unilateral masticatory muscle spasm. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the surgical treatment and effects of 10 cases of unilateral masticatory muscle spasm between February 2010 and September 2016. Three cases underwent complete amputation of the trigeminal motor branch, 3 cases underwent partial amputation of the trigeminal motor branch, and 4 cases received only vascular decompression...
November 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158063/frailty-and-the-quality-of-life-in-hemodialysis-patients-the-importance-of-waist-circumference
#15
Nazanin Noori, Arti Sharma Parpia, Rajiv Lakhani, Sabrina Janes, Marc B Goldstein
OBJECTIVE: Frailty among the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population is highly prevalent and has been associated with mortality. Little is known about the relation of different aspects of body composition, a modifiable risk factor, with the risk of frailty in ESRD population. DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty-one patients including 85 men and 66 women, aged ≥18 years with ESRD who had been receiving conventional maintenance hemodialysis (HD) for at least 3 months were included...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157985/evidence-for-autocrine-and-paracrine-regulation-of-allergen-induced-mast-cell-mediator-release-in-the-guinea-pig-airways
#16
Li Yu, Qi Liu, Brendan J Canning
Mast cells play an essential role in immediate type hypersensitivity reactions and in chronic allergic diseases of the airways, including asthma. Mast cell mediator release can be modulated by locally released autacoids and circulating hormones, but surprisingly little is known about the autocrine effects of mediators released upon mast cell activation. We thus set out to characterize the autocrine and paracrine effects of mast cell mediators on mast cell activation in the guinea pig airways. By direct measures of histamine, cysteinyl-leukotriene and thromboxane release and with studies of allergen-evoked contractions of airway smooth muscle, we describe a complex interplay amongst these autacoids...
November 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157738/do-hip-muscle-weakness-and-dynamic-knee-valgus-matter-for-the-clinical-evaluation-and-decision-making-process-in-patients-with-patellofemoral-pain
#17
REVIEW
Nayra Deise Dos Anjos Rabelo, Paulo Roberto Garcia Lucareli
BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain is a very common musculoskeletal condition. In the last years, evidence regarding this disease increased exponentially. Although widely investigated, this problem still frustrates patients and clinicians for having an unfavorable prognosis. Some gaps still exist in the understanding and managing of patellofemoral pain. Numerous cross-sectional association studies show an association between gluteus muscular strength and dynamic knee valgus in patients with patellofemoral pain...
November 8, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157668/iron-induced-rna-oxidation-in-the-general-population-and-in-mouse-tissue
#18
Vanja Cejvanovic, Laura Kofoed Kjær, Helle Kirstine Mørup Bergholdt, Arendse Torp-Pedersen, Trine Henriksen, Allan Weimann, Christina Ellervik, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen
Iron promotes formation of hydroxyl radicals by the Fenton reaction, subsequently leading to potential oxidatively generated damage of nucleic acids. Oxidatively generated damage to RNA, measured as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) in urine, is increased in patients with genetic iron overload, which have led us to test the hypothesis that high iron status, assessed by iron biomarkers and genetic disposition, increases urinary excretion of 8-oxoGuo. In a general Danish population study we used a Mendelian randomization design with HFE genotypes as a proxy for iron status and supplemented with ex vivo experiments in mice muscle tissue exposed to iron(II) sulfate to attempt to clarify this hypothesis...
November 17, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157315/botulinum-toxin-type-a-injections-as-monotherapy-for-upper-limb-essential-tremor-using-kinematics
#19
Olivia Samotus, Niraj Kumar, Philippe Rizek, Mandar Jog
BACKGROUND: There is a significant need for a targeted therapy for essential tremor (ET), as medications have not been developed specifically for ET, and the ones prescribed are often not well-tolerated, so that many patients remain untreated. Recent work has shown that, unlike previous experience, kinematically guided individualized botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections provide benefit along with minimal weakness. Ours is the first long-term (96-week) safety and efficacy study of BoNT-A as monotherapy for ET using kinematically driven injection parameters...
November 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157297/smoldering-myocarditis-following-immune-checkpoint-blockade
#20
Timothy G Norwood, Brian C Westbrook, Douglas B Johnson, Silvio H Litovsky, Nina L Terry, Svetlana B McKee, Alan S Gertler, Javid J Moslehi, Robert M Conry
BACKGROUND: Severe myocarditis associated with electrical conduction abnormalities and occasionally heart failure has been well documented following treatment with immune checkpoint blockade with an estimated incidence of less than 1%. However, the incidence, early detection, and management of less severe immune-related myocarditis are unknown since most immunotherapy trials have not included routine cardiac monitoring. Herein, we provide the first description of subclinical or smoldering myocarditis with minimal signs and symptoms following immune checkpoint blockade with a single dose of ipilimumab and nivolumab...
November 21, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
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