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Myocyte regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729454/multimodal-regulation-of-cardiac-myocyte-proliferation
#1
REVIEW
Xuejun Yuan, Thomas Braun
Efficient cardiac regeneration is closely associated with the ability of cardiac myocytes to proliferate. Fetal or neonatal mouse hearts containing proliferating cardiac myocytes regenerate even extensive injuries, whereas adult hearts containing mostly post-mitotic cardiac myocytes have lost this ability. The same correlation is seen in some homoiotherm species such as teleost fish and urodelian amphibians leading to the hypothesis that cardiac myocyte proliferation is a major driver of heart regeneration...
July 21, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687961/allogeneic-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-enhances-the-expression-of-angiogenic-factors-in-a-mouse-acute-hindlimb-ischemic-model
#2
Ngoc Bich Vu, Ha Thi-Ngan Le, Thuy Thi-Thanh Dao, Lan Thi Phi, Ngoc Kim Phan, Van Thanh Ta
Cell migration and molecular mechanisms during healing of damaged vascular or muscle tissues are emerging fields of interest worldwide. The study herein focuses on evaluating the role of allogenic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in restoring damaged tissues. Using a hindlimb ischemic mouse model, ADMSC-mediated induction of cell migration and gene expression related to myocyte regeneration and angiogenesis were evaluated. ADMSCs were labeled with GFP (ADMSC-GFP). The proximal end of the femoral blood vessel of mice (over 6 months of age) are ligated at two positions then cut between the two ties...
July 8, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659386/fate-predetermination-of-cardiac-myocytes-during-zebrafish-heart-regeneration
#3
Isil Tekeli, Anna Garcia-Puig, Mario Notari, Cristina García-Pastor, Isabelle Aujard, Ludovic Jullien, Angel Raya
Adult zebrafish have the remarkable ability to regenerate their heart upon injury, a process that involves limited dedifferentiation and proliferation of spared cardiomyocytes (CMs), and migration of their progeny. During regeneration, proliferating CMs are detected throughout the myocardium, including areas distant to the injury site, but whether all of them are able to contribute to the regenerated tissue remains unknown. Here, we developed a CM-specific, photoinducible genetic labelling system, and show that CMs labelled in embryonic hearts survive and contribute to all three (primordial, trabecular and cortical) layers of the adult zebrafish heart...
June 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655642/the-use-and-abuse-of-cre-lox-recombination-to-identify-adult-cardiomyocyte-renewal-rate-and-origin
#4
REVIEW
Iolanda Aquila, Fabiola Marino, Eleonora Cianflone, Pina Marotta, Michele Torella, Vincenzo Mollace, Ciro Indolfi, Bernardo Nadal-Ginard, Daniele Torella
The adult mammalian heart, including the human, is unable to regenerate segmental losses after myocardial infarction. This evidence has been widely and repeatedly used up-to-today to suggest that the myocardium, contrary to most adult tissues, lacks an endogenous stem cell population or more specifically a bona-fide cardiomyocyte-generating progenitor cell of biological significance. In the last 15 years, however, the field has slowly evolved from the dogma that no new cardiomyocytes were produced from shortly after birth to the present consensus that new cardiomyocytes are formed throughout lifespan...
June 24, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596174/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-10-years-later-for-cardiac-applications
#5
REVIEW
Yoshinori Yoshida, Shinya Yamanaka
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are reprogrammed cells that have features similar to embryonic stem cells, such as the capacity of self-renewal and differentiation into many types of cells, including cardiac myocytes. Although initially the reprogramming efficiency was low, several improvements in reprogramming methods have achieved robust and efficient generation of iPSCs without genomic insertion of transgenes. iPSCs display clonal variations in epigenetic and genomic profiles and cellular behavior in differentiation...
June 9, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536315/-skeletal-muscle-stem-cell
#6
Shinsuke Yuasa
Adult skeletal muscle has its own stem cell population known as satellite cells. After muscle injury, quiescent satellite cells are activated and then proliferate and differentiate into mature skeletal muscle to ensure that muscle function is recovered. In our screen for myocyte differentiation-promoting factors, we noted markedly elevated expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor(G-CSFR, encoded by csf3r)in the skeletal muscle developing area. Furthermore, G-CSFR was transiently expressed in regenerating myocytes of adult injured skeletal muscle, and extrinsic G-CSF supported short-term and long-term muscle regeneration in mouse model of skeletal muscle injury...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512107/divergent-requirements-for-ezh1-in-heart-development-versus-regeneration
#7
Shanshan Ai, Xianhong Yu, Yumei Li, Yong Peng, Chen Li, Yanzhu Yue, Ge Tao, Chuan-Yun Li, William T Pu, Aibin He
Rationale: Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is a major epigenetic repressor that deposits methylation on histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3K27me) and controls differentiation and function of many cells, including cardiac myocytes. EZH1 and EZH2 are two alternative catalytic subunits with partial functional redundancy. The relative roles of EZH1 and EZH2 in heart development and regeneration are unknown. Objective: We compared the roles of EZH1 versus EZH2 in heart development and neonatal heart regeneration. Methods and Results: Heart development was normal in Ezh1(-/-) (E1KO) and Ezh2(f/f)::cTNT(-Cre) (E2KO) embryos...
May 16, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480592/slow-myofiber-commitment-by-semaphorin-3a-secreted-from-myogenic-stem-cells
#8
Ryuichi Tatsumi, Takahiro Suzuki, Mai-Khoi Q Do, Yuki Ohya, Judy E Anderson, Ayumi Shibata, Mai Kawaguchi, Shunpei Ohya, Hideaki Ohtsubo, Wataru Mizunoya, Shoko Sawano, Yusuke Komiya, Riho Ichitsubo, Koichi Ojima, Shin-Ichiro Nishimatsu, Tsutomu Nohno, Yutaka Ohsawa, Yoshihide Sunada, Mako Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Yoshihide Ikeuchi, Takanori Nishimura, Takeshi Yagi, Ronald E Allen
Recently, we found that resident myogenic stem satellite cells upregulate a multi-functional secreted protein, semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), exclusively at the early-differentiation phase in response to muscle injury; however, its physiological significance is still unknown. Here we show that Sema3A impacts slow-twitch fiber generation through a signaling pathway, cell-membrane receptor (neuropilin2-plexinA3) → myogenin-myocyte enhancer factor 2D → slow myosin heavy chain. This novel axis was found by small interfering RNA-transfection experiments in myoblast cultures, which also revealed an additional element that Sema3A-neuropilin1/plexinA1, A2 may enhance slow-fiber formation by activating signals that inhibit fast-myosin expression...
May 7, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457188/functional-tissue-engineering-a-prevascularized-cardiac-muscle-construct-for-validating-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-engraftment-potential-in-vitro
#9
Mani T Valarmathi, John W Fuseler, Jay D Potts, Jeffrey M Davis, Robert L Price
The influence of somatic stem cells in the stimulation of mammalian cardiac muscle regeneration is still in its early stages, and so far, it has been difficult to determine the efficacy of the procedures that have been employed. The outstanding question remains whether stem cells derived from the bone marrow or some other location within or outside of the heart can populate a region of myocardial damage and transform into tissue-specific differentiated progenies, and also exhibit functional synchronization...
May 25, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423519/vitamin-d-and-vdr-in-cancer-cachexia-and-muscle-regeneration
#10
Andrea Camperi, Fabrizio Pin, Domiziana Costamagna, Fabio Penna, Maria Lopez Menduina, Zaira Aversa, Teresa Zimmers, Roberto Verzaro, Raffaella Fittipaldi, Giuseppina Caretti, Francesco Maria Baccino, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Paola Costelli
Low circulating levels of vitamin D were associated with decreased muscle strength and physical performance. Along this line, the present study was aimed to investigate: i) the therapeutic potential of vitamin D in cancer-induced muscle wasting; ii) the mechanisms by which vitamin D affects muscle phenotype in tumor-bearing animals.Rats bearing the AH130 hepatoma showed decreased circulating vitamin D compared to control rats, while muscle vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA was up-regulated. Both circulating vitamin D and muscle VDR expression increased after vitamin D administration, without exerting appreciable effects on body weight and muscle mass...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382363/micropatterned-co-culture-of-cardiac-myocytes-on-fibrous-scaffolds-for-predictive-screening-of-drug-cardiotoxicities
#11
Yaowen Liu, Tian Xia, Jiaojun Wei, Qingjie Liu, Xiaohong Li
The spatial arrangement of cardiac myocytes (CMs) and other non-myocytes scaffolds, closely resembling native tissue, is essential to control the CM morphology and function for cardiac tissue regeneration. In the current study, micropatterned fibrous scaffolds were developed to establish a CM co-culture system with cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and endothelial cells (ECs) as a potential in vitro drug screening model. To pursue a biomimetic approach to influence CM behaviors, strip, oval and wave-patterned mats were constructed by deposition of electrospun fibers on lithographic collectors, followed by precise stacking for cell co-cultures...
April 6, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262548/notch-inhibition-enhances-cardiac-reprogramming-by-increasing-mef2c-transcriptional-activity
#12
Maria Abad, Hisayuki Hashimoto, Huanyu Zhou, Maria Gabriela Morales, Beibei Chen, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Eric N Olson
Conversion of fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes represents a potential means of restoring cardiac function after myocardial infarction, but so far this process remains inefficient and little is known about its molecular mechanisms. Here we show that DAPT, a classical Notch inhibitor, enhances the conversion of mouse fibroblasts into induced cardiac-like myocytes by the transcription factors GATA4, HAND2, MEF2C, and TBX5. DAPT cooperates with AKT kinase to further augment this process, resulting in up to 70% conversion efficiency...
March 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259927/autophagy-induction-in-the-skeletal-myogenic-differentiation-of-human-tonsil-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#13
Saeyoung Park, Yoonyoung Choi, Namhee Jung, Jieun Kim, Seiyoon Oh, Yeonsil Yu, Jung-Hyuck Ahn, Inho Jo, Byung-Ok Choi, Sung-Chul Jung
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation and are thus a valuable source for the replacement of diseased or damaged organs. Previously, we reported that the tonsils can be an excellent reservoir of MSCs for the regeneration of skeletal muscle (SKM) damage. However, the mechanisms involved in the differentiation from tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSCs) to myocytes via myoblasts remain unclear. To clarify these mechanisms, we analyzed gene expression profiles of T-MSCs during differentiation into myocytes compared with human skeletal muscle cells (hSKMCs)...
April 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245809/mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-myoblast-differentiation-under-hgf-and-igf-1-stimulation-for-3d-skeletal-muscle-tissue-engineering
#14
R Witt, A Weigand, A M Boos, A Cai, D Dippold, A R Boccaccini, D W Schubert, M Hardt, C Lange, A Arkudas, R E Horch, J P Beier
BACKGROUND: Volumetric muscle loss caused by trauma or after tumour surgery exceeds the natural regeneration capacity of skeletal muscle. Hence, the future goal of tissue engineering (TE) is the replacement and repair of lost muscle tissue by newly generating skeletal muscle combining different cell sources, such as myoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), within a three-dimensional matrix. Latest research showed that seeding skeletal muscle cells on aligned constructs enhance the formation of myotubes as well as cell alignment and may provide a further step towards the clinical application of engineered skeletal muscle...
February 28, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194397/a-novel-human-tissue-engineered-3-d-functional-vascularized-cardiac-muscle-construct
#15
Mani T Valarmathi, John W Fuseler, Jeffrey M Davis, Robert L Price
Organ tissue engineering, including cardiovascular tissues, has been an area of intense investigation. The major challenge to these approaches has been the inability to vascularize and perfuse the in vitro engineered tissue constructs. Attempts to provide oxygen and nutrients to the cells contained in the biomaterial constructs have had varying degrees of success. The aim of this current study is to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) model of vascularized cardiac tissue to examine the concurrent temporal and spatial regulation of cardiomyogenesis in the context of postnatal de novo vasculogenesis during stem cell cardiac regeneration...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181511/natriuretic-peptide-receptor-b-modulates-the-proliferation-of-the-cardiac-cells-expressing-the-stem-cell-antigen-1
#16
Stéphanie Rignault-Clerc, Christelle Bielmann, Lucas Liaudet, Bernard Waeber, François Feihl, Nathalie Rosenblatt-Velin
Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) injections in adult "healthy" or infarcted mice led to increased number of non-myocyte cells (NMCs) expressing the nuclear transcription factor Nkx2.5. The aim of this study was to identify the nature of the cells able to respond to BNP as well as the signaling pathway involved. BNP treatment of neonatal mouse NMCs stimulated Sca-1(+) cell proliferation. The Sca-1(+) cells were characterized as being a mixed cell population involving fibroblasts and multipotent precursor cells...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163790/hypertrophy-changes-3d-shape-of-hipsc-cardiomyocytes-implications-for-cellular-maturation-in-regenerative-medicine
#17
Cassady E Rupert, Heidi H Chang, Kareen L K Coulombe
Advances in the use of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes for heart regeneration and in vitro disease models demand a greater understanding of how these cells grow and mature in 3-dimensional space. In this study, we developed an analysis methodology of single cardiomyocytes plated on 2D surfaces to assess their 3D myofilament volume and its z-height distribution, or shape, upon hypertrophic stimulation via phenylephrine (PE) treatment or long-term culture ("aging"). Cardiomyocytes were fixed and labeled with α-actinin for confocal microscopy imaging to obtain z-stacks for 3D myofilament volume analysis...
February 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155919/obtaining-spontaneously-beating-cardiomyocyte-like-cells-from-adipose-derived-stromal-vascular-fractions-cultured-on-enzyme-crosslinked-gelatin-hydrogels
#18
Gang Yang, Zhenghua Xiao, Xiaomei Ren, Haiyan Long, Kunlong Ma, Hong Qian, Yingqiang Guo
Heart failure often develops after acute myocardial infarction because the injured myocardial tissue fails to recover or regenerate. Stem cell transplantation using adult cell sources, such as adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF), draws extensive attention. In this study, SVF cells were isolated from rat adipose tissue and cultivated on enzyme-crosslinked gelatin hydrogels. Morphological features of cell development and spontaneous beating behavior from these cells were observed and recorded. Cardiac phenotypes were characterized via immunofluorescence staining, and the expression of cardiac-specific genes was measured via RT-PCR...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116799/in-vitro-models-of-the-cardiac-microenvironment-to-study-myocyte-and-non-myocyte-crosstalk-bioinspired-approaches-beyond-the-polystyrene-dish
#19
Celinda M Kofron, Ulrike Mende
The heart is a complex pluricellular organ composed of cardiomyocytes and non-myocytes including fibroblasts, endothelial cells and immune cells. Myocytes are responsible for electrical conduction and contractile force generation, while the other cell types are responsible for matrix deposition, vascularization, and injury response. Myocytes and non-myocytes are known to communicate and exert mutual regulatory effects. In concert, they determine the structural, electrical and mechanical characteristics in the healthy and remodelled myocardium...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104772/the-elusive-progenitor-cell-in-cardiac-regeneration-slip-slidin-away
#20
REVIEW
Chen-Leng Cai, Jeffery D Molkentin
The adult human heart is unable to regenerate after various forms of injury, suggesting that this organ lacks a biologically meaningful endogenous stem cell pool. However, injecting the infarcted area of the adult mammalian heart with exogenously prepared progenitor cells of various types has been reported to create new myocardium by the direct conversion of these progenitor cells into cardiomyocytes. These reports remain controversial because follow-up studies from independent laboratories failed to observe such an effect...
January 20, 2017: Circulation Research
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