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Myocyte regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147923/anti-aminoacyl-trna-synthetase-related-myositis-and-dermatomyositis-clues-for-differential-diagnosis-on-muscle-biopsy
#1
Bruna Cerbelli, Annalinda Pisano, Serena Colafrancesco, Maria Gemma Pignataro, Marco Biffoni, Silvia Berni, Antonia De Luca, Valeria Riccieri, Roberta Priori, Guido Valesini, Giulia d'Amati, Carla Giordano
Anti-synthetase syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibodies toward amino acyl-tRNA synthetases (ARS), anti-Jo 1 being the most commonly detected. Muscle damage develops in up to 90% of ARS-positive patients, characterized by a necrotizing myositis restricted to the perifascicular region. This topographic distribution of muscle damage may lead to a misdiagnosis of dermatomyositis (DM) at muscle biopsy. We compared morphological, immunohistochemical, and histoenzymatic features of muscle from ARS-positive patients (n = 11) with those of DM (n = 7) providing clues for their differential diagnosis...
November 16, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121865/temporally-distinct-transcriptional-regulation-of-myocyte-dedifferentiation-and-myofiber-growth-during-muscle-regeneration
#2
Ke'ale W Louie, Alfonso Saera-Vila, Phillip E Kish, Justin A Colacino, Alon Kahana
BACKGROUND: Tissue regeneration requires a series of steps, beginning with generation of the necessary cell mass, followed by cell migration into damaged area, and ending with differentiation and integration with surrounding tissues. Temporal regulation of these steps lies at the heart of the regenerative process, yet its basis is not well understood. The ability of zebrafish to dedifferentiate mature "post-mitotic" myocytes into proliferating myoblasts that in turn regenerate lost muscle tissue provides an opportunity to probe the molecular mechanisms of regeneration...
November 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080456/cytotherapy-using-stromal-cells-current-and-advance-multi-treatment-approaches
#3
REVIEW
Pravin Shende, Hunny Gupta, R S Gaud
The research in stem cells gives a proper information about basic mechanisms of human development and differentiation. The use of stem cells in new medicinal therapies includes treatment of different conditions such as spinal cord injury, diabetes mellitus, Parkinsonism, and cardiac disorders. These cells exhibit two unique properties: self-renewal and differentiation. The major stem cells been used for approximately about 10-14 years for cellular therapy are mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells can individualize into many lineage, i...
October 25, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974782/nkx2-5-%C3%A2-cardiomyoblasts-contribute-to-cardiomyogenesis-in-the-neonatal-heart
#4
Vahid Serpooshan, Yuan-Hung Liu, Jan W Buikema, Francisco X Galdos, Orlando Chirikian, Sharon Paige, Sneha Venkatraman, Anusha Kumar, David R Rawnsley, Xiaojing Huang, Daniël A Pijnappels, Sean M Wu
During normal lifespan, the mammalian heart undergoes limited renewal of cardiomyocytes. While the exact mechanism for this renewal remains unclear, two possibilities have been proposed: differentiated myocyte replication and progenitor/immature cell differentiation. This study aimed to characterize a population of cardiomyocyte precursors in the neonatal heart and to determine their requirement for cardiac development. By tracking the expression of an embryonic Nkx2.5 cardiac enhancer, we identified cardiomyoblasts capable of differentiation into striated cardiomyocytes in vitro...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954220/comparative-gene-expression-analyses-reveal-distinct-molecular-signatures-between-differentially-reprogrammed-cardiomyocytes
#5
Yang Zhou, Li Wang, Ziqing Liu, Sahar Alimohamadi, Chaoying Yin, Jiandong Liu, Li Qian
Cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-CMs) or directly reprogrammed from non-myocytes (induced cardiomyocytes [iCMs]) are promising sources for heart regeneration or disease modeling. However, the similarities and differences between iPSC-CMs and iCMs are still unknown. Here, we performed transcriptome analyses of beating iPSC-CMs and iCMs generated from cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) of the same origin. Although both iPSC-CMs and iCMs establish CM-like molecular features globally, iPSC-CMs exhibit a relatively hyperdynamic epigenetic status, whereas iCMs exhibit a maturation status that more closely resembles that of adult CMs...
September 26, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852100/mechanisms-of-stem-cell-based-cardiac-repair-gap-junctional-signaling-promotes-the-cardiac-lineage-specification-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#6
Heiko Lemcke, Ralf Gaebel, Anna Skorska, Natalia Voronina, Cornelia Aquilina Lux, Janine Petters, Sarah Sasse, Nicole Zarniko, Gustav Steinhoff, Robert David
Different subtypes of bone marrow-derived stem cells are characterized by varying functionality and activity after transplantation into the infarcted heart. Improvement of stem cell therapeutics requires deep knowledge about the mechanisms that mediate the benefits of stem cell treatment. Here, we demonstrated that co-transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) led to enhanced synergistic effects on cardiac remodeling. While HSCs were associated with blood vessel formation, MSCs were found to possess transdifferentiation capacity...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796340/application-of-differentiated-human-tonsil-derived-stem-cells-to-trembler-j-mice
#7
Saeyoung Park, Yoonyoung Choi, Geon Kwak, Young Bin Hong, Namhee Jung, Jieun Kim, Byung-Ok Choi, Sung-Chul Jung
INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into various cell types. METHODS: In this study we investigated the potential of human tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSCs) for neuromuscular regeneration in trembler-J (Tr-J) mice, a model for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). RESULTS: T-MSCs differentiated toward skeletal myocytes with increased expression of skeletal muscle-related markers (including troponin I type 1, and myogenin), and the formation of myotubes in vitro...
August 10, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733351/multicellular-transcriptional-analysis-of-mammalian-heart-regeneration
#8
Gregory A Quaife-Ryan, Choon Boon Sim, Mark Ziemann, Antony Kaspi, Haloom Rafehi, Mirana Ramialison, Assam El-Osta, James E Hudson, Enzo R Porrello
BACKGROUND: The inability of the adult mammalian heart to regenerate following injury represents a major barrier in cardiovascular medicine. In contrast, the neonatal mammalian heart retains a transient capacity for regeneration, which is lost shortly after birth. Defining the molecular mechanisms that govern regenerative capacity in the neonatal period remains a central goal in cardiac biology. Here, we assemble a transcriptomic framework of multiple cardiac cell populations during postnatal development and following injury, which enables comparative analyses of the regenerative (neonatal) versus nonregenerative (adult) state for the first time...
September 19, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729454/multimodal-regulation-of-cardiac-myocyte-proliferation
#9
REVIEW
Xuejun Yuan, Thomas Braun
Efficient cardiac regeneration is closely associated with the ability of cardiac myocytes to proliferate. Fetal or neonatal mouse hearts containing proliferating cardiac myocytes regenerate even extensive injuries, whereas adult hearts containing mostly post-mitotic cardiac myocytes have lost this ability. The same correlation is seen in some homoiotherm species such as teleost fish and urodelian amphibians leading to the hypothesis that cardiac myocyte proliferation is a major driver of heart regeneration...
July 21, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687961/allogeneic-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-enhances-the-expression-of-angiogenic-factors-in-a-mouse-acute-hindlimb-ischemic-model
#10
Ngoc Bich Vu, Ha Thi-Ngan Le, Thuy Thi-Thanh Dao, Lan Thi Phi, Ngoc Kim Phan, Van Thanh Ta
Cell migration and molecular mechanisms during healing of damaged vascular or muscle tissues are emerging fields of interest worldwide. The study herein focuses on evaluating the role of allogenic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in restoring damaged tissues. Using a hindlimb ischemic mouse model, ADMSC-mediated induction of cell migration and gene expression related to myocyte regeneration and angiogenesis were evaluated. ADMSCs were labeled with GFP (ADMSC-GFP). The proximal end of the femoral blood vessel of mice (over 6 months of age) are ligated at two positions then cut between the two ties...
July 8, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659386/fate-predetermination-of-cardiac-myocytes-during-zebrafish-heart-regeneration
#11
Isil Tekeli, Anna Garcia-Puig, Mario Notari, Cristina García-Pastor, Isabelle Aujard, Ludovic Jullien, Angel Raya
Adult zebrafish have the remarkable ability to regenerate their heart upon injury, a process that involves limited dedifferentiation and proliferation of spared cardiomyocytes (CMs), and migration of their progeny. During regeneration, proliferating CMs are detected throughout the myocardium, including areas distant to the injury site, but whether all of them are able to contribute to the regenerated tissue remains unknown. Here, we developed a CM-specific, photoinducible genetic labelling system, and show that CMs labelled in embryonic hearts survive and contribute to all three (primordial, trabecular and cortical) layers of the adult zebrafish heart...
June 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655642/the-use-and-abuse-of-cre-lox-recombination-to-identify-adult-cardiomyocyte-renewal-rate-and-origin
#12
REVIEW
Iolanda Aquila, Fabiola Marino, Eleonora Cianflone, Pina Marotta, Michele Torella, Vincenzo Mollace, Ciro Indolfi, Bernardo Nadal-Ginard, Daniele Torella
The adult mammalian heart, including the human, is unable to regenerate segmental losses after myocardial infarction. This evidence has been widely and repeatedly used up-to-today to suggest that the myocardium, contrary to most adult tissues, lacks an endogenous stem cell population or more specifically a bona-fide cardiomyocyte-generating progenitor cell of biological significance. In the last 15 years, however, the field has slowly evolved from the dogma that no new cardiomyocytes were produced from shortly after birth to the present consensus that new cardiomyocytes are formed throughout lifespan...
June 24, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596174/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-10-years-later-for-cardiac-applications
#13
REVIEW
Yoshinori Yoshida, Shinya Yamanaka
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are reprogrammed cells that have features similar to embryonic stem cells, such as the capacity of self-renewal and differentiation into many types of cells, including cardiac myocytes. Although initially the reprogramming efficiency was low, several improvements in reprogramming methods have achieved robust and efficient generation of iPSCs without genomic insertion of transgenes. iPSCs display clonal variations in epigenetic and genomic profiles and cellular behavior in differentiation...
June 9, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536315/-skeletal-muscle-stem-cell
#14
REVIEW
Shinsuke Yuasa
Adult skeletal muscle has its own stem cell population known as satellite cells. After muscle injury, quiescent satellite cells are activated and then proliferate and differentiate into mature skeletal muscle to ensure that muscle function is recovered. In our screen for myocyte differentiation-promoting factors, we noted markedly elevated expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor(G-CSFR, encoded by csf3r)in the skeletal muscle developing area. Furthermore, G-CSFR was transiently expressed in regenerating myocytes of adult injured skeletal muscle, and extrinsic G-CSF supported short-term and long-term muscle regeneration in mouse model of skeletal muscle injury...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512107/divergent-requirements-for-ezh1-in-heart-development-versus-regeneration
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Shanshan Ai, Xianhong Yu, Yumei Li, Yong Peng, Chen Li, Yanzhu Yue, Ge Tao, Chuanyun Li, William T Pu, Aibin He
RATIONALE: Polycomb repressive complex 2 is a major epigenetic repressor that deposits methylation on histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3K27me) and controls differentiation and function of many cells, including cardiac myocytes. EZH1 and EZH2 are 2 alternative catalytic subunits with partial functional redundancy. The relative roles of EZH1 and EZH2 in heart development and regeneration are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We compared the roles of EZH1 versus EZH2 in heart development and neonatal heart regeneration...
July 7, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480592/slow-myofiber-commitment-by-semaphorin-3a-secreted-from-myogenic-stem-cells
#16
Ryuichi Tatsumi, Takahiro Suzuki, Mai-Khoi Q Do, Yuki Ohya, Judy E Anderson, Ayumi Shibata, Mai Kawaguchi, Shunpei Ohya, Hideaki Ohtsubo, Wataru Mizunoya, Shoko Sawano, Yusuke Komiya, Riho Ichitsubo, Koichi Ojima, Shin-Ichiro Nishimatsu, Tsutomu Nohno, Yutaka Ohsawa, Yoshihide Sunada, Mako Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Yoshihide Ikeuchi, Takanori Nishimura, Takeshi Yagi, Ronald E Allen
Recently, we found that resident myogenic stem satellite cells upregulate a multi-functional secreted protein, semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), exclusively at the early-differentiation phase in response to muscle injury; however, its physiological significance is still unknown. Here we show that Sema3A impacts slow-twitch fiber generation through a signaling pathway, cell-membrane receptor (neuropilin2-plexinA3) → myogenin-myocyte enhancer factor 2D → slow myosin heavy chain. This novel axis was found by small interfering RNA-transfection experiments in myoblast cultures, which also revealed an additional element that Sema3A-neuropilin1/plexinA1, A2 may enhance slow-fiber formation by activating signals that inhibit fast-myosin expression...
May 7, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457188/functional-tissue-engineering-a-prevascularized-cardiac-muscle-construct-for-validating-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-engraftment-potential-in-vitro
#17
Mani T Valarmathi, John W Fuseler, Jay D Potts, Jeffrey M Davis, Robert L Price
The influence of somatic stem cells in the stimulation of mammalian cardiac muscle regeneration is still in its early stages, and so far, it has been difficult to determine the efficacy of the procedures that have been employed. The outstanding question remains whether stem cells derived from the bone marrow or some other location within or outside of the heart can populate a region of myocardial damage and transform into tissue-specific differentiated progenies, and also exhibit functional synchronization...
May 25, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423519/vitamin-d-and-vdr-in-cancer-cachexia-and-muscle-regeneration
#18
Andrea Camperi, Fabrizio Pin, Domiziana Costamagna, Fabio Penna, Maria Lopez Menduina, Zaira Aversa, Teresa Zimmers, Roberto Verzaro, Raffaella Fittipaldi, Giuseppina Caretti, Francesco Maria Baccino, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Paola Costelli
Low circulating levels of vitamin D were associated with decreased muscle strength and physical performance. Along this line, the present study was aimed to investigate: i) the therapeutic potential of vitamin D in cancer-induced muscle wasting; ii) the mechanisms by which vitamin D affects muscle phenotype in tumor-bearing animals.Rats bearing the AH130 hepatoma showed decreased circulating vitamin D compared to control rats, while muscle vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA was up-regulated. Both circulating vitamin D and muscle VDR expression increased after vitamin D administration, without exerting appreciable effects on body weight and muscle mass...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382363/micropatterned-co-culture-of-cardiac-myocytes-on-fibrous-scaffolds-for-predictive-screening-of-drug-cardiotoxicities
#19
Yaowen Liu, Tian Xia, Jiaojun Wei, Qingjie Liu, Xiaohong Li
The spatial arrangement of cardiac myocytes (CMs) and other non-myocytes scaffolds, closely resembling native tissue, is essential to control the CM morphology and function for cardiac tissue regeneration. In the current study, micropatterned fibrous scaffolds were developed to establish a CM co-culture system with cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and endothelial cells (ECs) as a potential in vitro drug screening model. To pursue a biomimetic approach to influence CM behaviors, strip, oval and wave-patterned mats were constructed by deposition of electrospun fibers on lithographic collectors, followed by precise stacking for cell co-cultures...
April 6, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262548/notch-inhibition-enhances-cardiac-reprogramming-by-increasing-mef2c-transcriptional-activity
#20
Maria Abad, Hisayuki Hashimoto, Huanyu Zhou, Maria Gabriela Morales, Beibei Chen, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Eric N Olson
Conversion of fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes represents a potential means of restoring cardiac function after myocardial infarction, but so far this process remains inefficient and little is known about its molecular mechanisms. Here we show that DAPT, a classical Notch inhibitor, enhances the conversion of mouse fibroblasts into induced cardiac-like myocytes by the transcription factors GATA4, HAND2, MEF2C, and TBX5. DAPT cooperates with AKT kinase to further augment this process, resulting in up to 70% conversion efficiency...
March 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
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