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Myocyte regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844250/differential-response-of-human-cardiac-stem-cells-and-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury
#1
Deepthi Sreerengam RajendranNair, Jayakumar Karunakaran, Renuka R Nair
Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are popularly used in stem cell therapy for myocardial regeneration. The cell type that survives and maintains stem cell characteristics in the adverse microenvironment following ischemia-reperfusion injury is presumed to be ideal for transplantation. The study was therefore aimed at identifying the cell type with relatively greater resistance to ischemia-reperfusion injury. CDCs were isolated from the right atrial appendage and MSCs from bone marrow of patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery...
November 14, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809412/pgc-1%C3%AE-4-gene-expression-is-suppressed-by-the-il-6-mek-erk-1-2-mapk-signaling-axis-and-altered-by-resistance-exercise-obesity-and-muscle-injury
#2
Jacob L Brown, Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, David E Lee, Lemuel A Brown, Richard A Perry, Kevin L Shimkus, Thomas A Blackwell, James D Fluckey, James A Carson, Sami Dridi, Tyrone A Washington, Nicholas P Greene
AIM: PGC-1α4 is a novel regulator of muscle hypertrophy, however, there is limited understanding of the regulation of its expression and role in many (patho)physiologic conditions. Therefore, our purpose was to elicit signaling mechanisms regulating gene expression of Pgc1α4 and examine its response to (patho)physiologic stimuli associated with altered muscle mass. METHODS: IL-6 knockout mice and pharmacological experiments in C2C12 myocytes were used to identify regulation of Pgc1α4 transcription...
November 3, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798352/mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-p38-target-regenerating-islet-derived-3%C3%AE-expression-is-upregulated-in-cardiac-inflammatory-response-in-the-rat-heart
#3
Hanna Säkkinen, Jani Aro, Leena Kaikkonen, Pauli Ohukainen, Juha Näpänkangas, Heikki Tokola, Heikki Ruskoaho, Jaana Rysä
Regenerating islet-derived 3γ (Reg3γ) is a multifunctional protein, associated with various tissue injuries and inflammatory states. Since chronic inflammation is characteristics also for heart failure, the aim of this study was to characterize Reg3γ expression in cardiac inflammatory conditions. Reg3γ expression was studied in experimental rat models of myocardial infarction (MI) and pressure overload in vivo. For cell culture studies neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NRCMs) were used. In addition, adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase 3b and p38α MAPK in vivo and in vitro was performed...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796891/cardiac-telocytes-in-regeneration-of-myocardium-after-myocardial-infarction
#4
Liao Zhaofu, Cai Dongqing
Recent research progress has revealed that a novel type of interstitial cells termed cardiac telocytes (CTs) is found in the interstitium of the heart. We demonstrated that CTs are distributed both longitudinally and within the cross network in the myocardium and that the density of CTs in the atrium-atria and base of the myocardium is higher than that in the middle of the myocardium, while the density of CTs in the epicardium is higher than that in the endocardium. In addition, we documented, for the first time, that the network of CTs in the infarct zone of the myocardium is destroyed during myocardial infarction (MI)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790620/immune-modulation-of-cardiac-repair-and-regeneration-the-art-of-mending-broken-hearts
#5
REVIEW
Ivana Zlatanova, Cristina Pinto, Jean-Sébastien Silvestre
The accumulation of immune cells is among the earliest responses that manifest in the cardiac tissue after injury. Both innate and adaptive immunity coordinate distinct and mutually non-exclusive events governing cardiac repair, including elimination of the cellular debris, compensatory growth of the remaining cardiac tissue, activation of resident or circulating precursor cells, quantitative and qualitative modifications of the vascular network, and formation of a fibrotic scar. The present review summarizes the mounting evidence suggesting that the inflammatory response also guides the regenerative process following cardiac damage...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783047/camkk2-suppresses-muscle-regeneration-through-the-inhibition-of-myoblast-proliferation-and-differentiation
#6
Cheng Ye, Duo Zhang, Lei Zhao, Yan Li, Xiaohan Yao, Hui Wang, Shengjie Zhang, Wei Liu, Hongchao Cao, Shuxian Yu, Yucheng Wang, Jingjing Jiang, Hui Wang, Xihua Li, Hao Ying
Skeletal muscle has a major role in locomotion and muscle disorders are associated with poor regenerative efficiency. Therefore, a deeper understanding of muscle regeneration is needed to provide a new insight for new therapies. CaMKK2 plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase cascade; however, its role in skeletal muscle remains unknown. Here, we found that CaMKK2 expression levels were altered under physiological and pathological conditions including postnatal myogensis, freeze or cardiotoxin-induced muscle regeneration, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780890/novel-protective-effects-of-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-rats
#7
Fenfen Ma, Wenwen Li, Xinghui Li, Ba Hieu Tran, Rinkiko Suguro, Ruijuan Guan, Cuilan Hou, Huijuan Wang, Aijie Zhang, Yichun Zhu, YiZhun Zhu
Extracorporeal pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has shown the ability to regenerate tissue by promoting cell proliferation. In the present study, we investigated for the first time whether PEMF treatment could improve the myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and uncovered its underlying mechanisms.In our study, we demonstrated for the first time that extracorporeal PEMF has a novel effect on myocardial I/R injury. The number and function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were increased in PEMF treating rats...
December 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780147/stem-cell-therapies-for-congenital-heart-disease
#8
REVIEW
Masoumeh Ghafarzadeh, Mehrdad Namdari, Ali Eatemadi
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent congenital anomaly in newborn babies. Cardiac malformations have been induced in different animal model experiments, by perturbing some molecules that take part in the developmental pathways associated with myocyte differentiation, specification, or cardiac morphogenesis. The exact epigenetic, environmental, or genetic, basis for these molecules perturbations is yet to be understood. But, scientist have bridged this gap by introducing autologous stem cell into the defective hearts to treat CHD...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738436/heart-derived-stem-cells-in-miniature-swine-with-coronary-microembolization-novel-ischemic-cardiomyopathy-model-to-assess-the-efficacy-of-cell-based-therapy
#9
Gen Suzuki, Rebeccah F Young, Merced M Leiker, Takayuki Suzuki
A major problem in translating stem cell therapeutics is the difficulty of producing stable, long-term severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in a large animal model. For that purpose, extensive infarction was created in sinclair miniswine by injecting microspheres (1.5 × 10(6) microspheres, 45 μm diameter) in LAD. At 2 months after embolization, animals (n = 11) were randomized to receive allogeneic cardiosphere-derived cells derived from atrium (CDCs: 20 × 10(6), n = 5) or saline (untreated, n = 6)...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725864/tweak-protects-cardiomyocyte-against-apoptosis-in-a-pi3k-akt-pathway-dependent-manner
#10
Bin Yang, Ping Yan, Hui Gong, Lin Zuo, Ying Shi, Jian Guo, Rui Guo, Jun Xie, Bao Li
Myocyte apoptosis is a key determinant of cardiac recovery and prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), a member of TNF superfamily, is a pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokine implicated in physiological tissue regeneration and wound repair and is closely related to cardiac remodeling, dysfunction and fibrosis. However, the role of TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 in the cardiomyocyte apoptosis is still poorly understood...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690014/new-treatment-strategies-for-alcohol-induced-heart-damage
#11
Joaquim Fernández-Solà, Ana Planavila Porta
High-dose alcohol misuse induces multiple noxious cardiac effects, including myocyte hypertrophy and necrosis, interstitial fibrosis, decreased ventricular contraction and ventricle enlargement. These effects produce diastolic and systolic ventricular dysfunction leading to congestive heart failure, arrhythmias and an increased death rate. There are multiple, dose-dependent, synchronic and synergistic mechanisms of alcohol-induced cardiac damage. Ethanol alters membrane permeability and composition, interferes with receptors and intracellular transients, induces oxidative, metabolic and energy damage, decreases protein synthesis, excitation-contraction coupling and increases cell apoptosis...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689781/poly-3-hydroxyoctanoate-a-promising-new-material-for-cardiac-tissue-engineering
#12
Andrea V Bagdadi, Maryam Safari, Prachi Dubey, Pooja Basnett, Panagiotis Sofokleous, Eleanor Humphrey, Ian Locke, Mohan Edirisinghe, Cesare Terracciano, Aldo R Boccaccini, Jonathan C Knowles, Sian E Harding, Ipsita Roy
Cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) is currently a prime focus of research due to an enormous clinical need. In this work, a novel functional material, Poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate), P(3HO), a medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), produced using bacterial fermentation, was studied as a new potential material for CTE. Engineered constructs with improved mechanical properties, crucial for supporting the organ during new tissue regeneration, and enhanced surface topography, to allow efficient cell adhesion and proliferation, were fabricated...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680670/differential-lectin-binding-patterns-identify-distinct-heart-regions-in-giant-danio-devario-aequipinnatus-and-zebrafish-danio-rerio-hearts
#13
Trina Manalo, Adam May, Joshua Quinn, Dominique S Lafontant, Olubusola Shifatu, Wei He, Juan M Gonzalez-Rosa, Geoffrey C Burns, Caroline E Burns, Alan R Burns, Pascal J Lafontant
Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins commonly used as biochemical and histochemical tools to study glycoconjugate (glycoproteins, glycolipids) expression patterns in cells, tissues, including mammalian hearts. However, lectins have received little attention in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and giant danio (Devario aequipinnatus) heart studies. Here, we sought to determine the binding patterns of six commonly used lectins-wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin, Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin (BS lectin), concanavalin A (Con A), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I), and Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (tomato lectin)-in these hearts...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644105/stage-specific-effects-of-notch-activation-during-skeletal-myogenesis
#14
Pengpeng Bi, Feng Yue, Yusuke Sato, Sara Wirbisky, Weiyi Liu, Tizhong Shan, Yefei Wen, Daoguo Zhou, Jennifer Freeman, Shihuan Kuang
Skeletal myogenesis involves sequential activation, proliferation, self-renewal/differentiation and fusion of myogenic stem cells (satellite cells). Notch signaling is known to be essential for the maintenance of satellite cells, but its function in late-stage myogenesis, i.e. post-differentiation myocytes and post-fusion myotubes, is unknown. Using stage-specific Cre alleles, we uncovered distinct roles of Notch1 in mononucleated myocytes and multinucleated myotubes. Specifically, constitutive Notch1 activation dedifferentiates myocytes into Pax7 quiescent satellite cells, leading to severe defects in muscle growth and regeneration, and postnatal lethality...
September 19, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622691/single-cell-transcriptome-and-epigenomic-reprogramming-of-cardiomyocyte-derived-cardiac-progenitor-cells
#15
COMMENT
Xin Chen, Tushar Chakravarty, Yiqiang Zhang, Xiaojin Li, Jiang F Zhong, Charles Wang
The molecular basis underlying the dedifferentiation of mammalian adult cardiomyocytes (ACMs) into myocyte-derived cardiac progenitor cells (mCPCs) during cardiac tissue regeneration is poorly understood. We present data integrating single-cell transcriptome and whole-genome DNA methylome analyses of mouse mCPCs to understand the epigenomic reprogramming governing their intrinsic cellular plasticity. Compared to parental cardiomyocytes, mCPCs display epigenomic reprogramming with many differentially-methylated regions, both hypermethylated and hypomethylated, across the entire genome...
September 13, 2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612437/dynamic-phosphorylation-of-the-myocyte-enhancer-factor-2c%C3%AE-1-splice-variant-promotes-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-and-hypertrophy
#16
Fiorenza Baruffaldi, Didier Montarras, Valentina Basile, Luca De Feo, Sara Badodi, Massimo Ganassi, Renata Battini, Carmine Nicoletti, Carol Imbriano, Antonio Musarò, Susanna Molinari
The transcription factor MEF2C (Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2C) plays an established role in the early steps of myogenic differentiation. However, the involvement of MEF2C in adult myogenesis and in muscle regeneration has not yet been systematically investigated. Alternative splicing of mammalian MEF2C transcripts gives rise to two mutually exclusive protein variants: MEF2Cα2 which exerts a positive control of myogenic differentiation, and MEF2Cα1, in which the α1 domain acts as trans-repressor of the MEF2C pro-differentiation activity itself...
September 10, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545814/natural-myocardial-ecm-patch-drives-cardiac-progenitor-based-restoration-even-after-scarring
#17
Udi Sarig, Hadar Sarig, Elio de-Berardinis, Su-Yin Chaw, Evelyne B V Nguyen, Vaibavi S Ramanujam, Vu D Thang, Muthafar Al-Haddawi, Susan Liao, Dror Seliktar, Theodoros Kofidis, Freddy Y C Boey, Subbu S Venkatraman, Marcelle Machluf
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the regenerative capacity of non-supplemented and bioactive patches made of decellularized porcine cardiac extracellular matrix (pcECM) and characterize the biological key factors involved in possible cardiac function (CF) restoration following acute and 8weeks chronic MI. BACKGROUND: pcECM is a key natural biomaterial that can affect cardiac regeneration following myocardial infarction (MI), through mechanisms, which are still not clearly understood...
October 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520664/nitric-oxide-and-promotion-of-cardiac-myocyte-apoptosis
#18
Péter Andréka, Thanh Tran, Keith A Webster, Nanette H Bishopric
The removal of damaged, superfluous or energy-starved cells is essential for biological homeostasis, and occurs in every tissue type. Programmed cell death occurs through several closely regulated signal pathways, including apoptosis, in which cell components are broken down and packaged into small membrane-bound fragments that are then removed by neighbouring cells or phagocytes. This process is activated in the cardiac myocyte in response to a variety of stresses, including oxidative and nitrosative stress, and involves mitochondria-derived signals...
August 2004: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484198/innate-heart-regeneration-endogenous-cellular-sources-and-exogenous-therapeutic-amplification
#19
Konstantinos Malliaras, Styliani Vakrou, Chris J Kapelios, John N Nanas
INTRODUCTION: The -once viewed as heretical- concept of the adult mammalian heart as a dynamic organ capable of endogenous regeneration has recently gained traction. However, estimated rates of myocyte turnover vary wildly and the underlying mechanisms of cardiac plasticity remain controversial. It is still unclear whether the adult mammalian heart gives birth to new myocytes through proliferation of resident myocytes, through cardiomyogenic differentiation of endogenous progenitors or through both mechanisms...
November 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27480202/protection-of-neonatal-rat-cardiac-myocytes-against-radiation-induced-damage-with-agonists-of-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone
#20
Laura Kiscsatári, Zoltán Varga, Andrew V Schally, Renáta Gáspár, Csilla Terézia Nagy, Zoltán Giricz, Péter Ferdinandy, Gabriella Fábián, Zsuzsanna Kahán, Anikó Görbe
Despite the great clinical significance of radiation-induced cardiac damage, experimental investigation of its mechanisms is an unmet need in medicine. Beneficial effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) agonists in regeneration of the heart have been demonstrated. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the potential of modern GHRH agonistic analogs in prevention of radiation damage in an in vitro cardiac myocyte-based model. Cultures of cardiac myocytes isolated from newborn rats (NRVM) were exposed to a radiation dose of 10Gy...
September 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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