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Myocyte regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282211/late-ca2-sparks-and-ripples-during-the-systolic-ca2-transient-in-heart-muscle-cells
#1
Ewan D Fowler, Cherrie H Kong, Jules Hancox, Mark B Cannell
Rationale: The development of a refractory period for Ca2+ spark initiation after Ca2+ release in cardiac myocytes, should inhibit further Ca2+ release during the action potential (AP) plateau. However, Ca2+ release sites that did not initially activate, or which have prematurely recovered from refractoriness might release Ca2+ later during the AP and alter the cell-wide Ca2+ transient. Objective: To investigate the possibility of late Ca2+ spark (LCS) activity in intact isolated cardiac myocytes using fast confocal line scanning with improved confocality and signal to noise...
December 27, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258985/recent-advances-on-the-role-of-long-non-coding-rna-h19-in-regulating-mammalian-muscle-growth-and-development
#2
Chen Yu Qin, He Cai, Han Rui Qing, Li Li, Hong Ping Zhang
As one of the first identified long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), H19 plays a wide range of roles in vivo, including not only as a tumor suppressor and oncogene involved in disease process, but also as a regulator of growth and development of multiple tissues in mammalian embryos. The function of H19 in muscles (both skeletal and cardiac muscle) draws widespread attention due to the following two reasons. On one hand, H19 promotes myogenic differentiation and myogenesis of skeletal muscle satellite cells (SMSCs) via regulating Igf2 in cis...
December 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258756/insulin-antagonises-pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-pedf-induced-modulation-of-lineage-commitment-of-myocytes-and%C3%A2-heterotrophic-ossification
#3
Revathy Carnagarin, Mina Elahy, Arun M Dharmarajan, Crispin R Dass
Extensive bone defects arising as a result of trauma, infection and tumour resection and other bone pathologies necessitates the identification of effective strategies in the form of tissue engineering, gene therapy and osteoinductive agents to enhance the bone repair process. PEDF is a multifunctional glycoprotein which plays an important role in regulating osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation. PEDF treatment of mice and human skeletal myocytes at physiological concentration inhibited myogenic differentiation and activated Erk1/2 MAPK- dependent osteogenic transdifferentiation of myocytes...
December 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245050/nanog-restores-the-impaired-myogenic-differentiation-potential-of-skeletal-myoblasts-after-multiple-population-doublings
#4
Aref Shahini, Debanik Choudhury, Mohammadnabi Asmani, Ruogang Zhao, Pedro Lei, Stelios T Andreadis
Adult skeletal muscle regeneration relies on the activity of satellite cells residing in the skeletal muscle niche. However, systemic and intrinsic factors decrease the myogenic differentiation potential of satellite cells thereby impairing muscle regeneration. Here we present data showing that late passage C2C12 myoblasts exhibited significantly impaired myogenic differentiation potential that was accompanied by impaired expression of myogenic regulatory factors (Myf5, MyoD, Myogenin, and MRF4) and members of myocyte enhancer factor 2 family...
December 2, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224095/sex-differences-in-muscle-wasting
#5
Lindsey J Anderson, Haiming Liu, Jose M Garcia
With aging and other muscle wasting diseases, men and women undergo similar pathological changes in skeletal muscle: increased inflammation, enhanced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, satellite cell senescence, elevated apoptosis and proteasome activity, and suppressed protein synthesis and myocyte regeneration. Decreased food intake and physical activity also indirectly contribute to muscle wasting. Sex hormones also play important roles in maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis. Testosterone is a potent anabolic factor promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscular regeneration...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215316/endothelial-progenitor-cells-for-cellular-angiogenesis-and-repair-lessons-learned-from-experimental-animal-models
#6
Khawaja Husnain Haider, Salim Aziz, Mateq Ali Al-Reshidi
Stem/progenitor cell-based therapy has been extensively studied for angiomyogenic repair of the ischemic heart by regeneration of the damaged myocytes and neovascularization of the ischemic tissue through biological bypassing. Given their inherent ability to assume functionally competent endothelial phenotype and release of broad array of proangiogenic cytokines, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs)-based therapy is deemed as most appropriate for vaculogenesis in the ischemic heart. Emulating the natural repair process that encompasses mobilization and homing-in of the bone marrow and peripheral blood EPCs, their reparability has been extensively studied in the animal models of myocardial ischemia with encouraging results...
December 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202822/the-p75ntr-mediated-effect-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-l6c5-myogenic-cells
#7
Alessandra de Perini, Ivan Dimauro, Guglielmo Duranti, Cristina Fantini, Neri Mercatelli, Roberta Ceci, Luigi Di Luigi, Stefania Sabatini, Daniela Caporossi
OBJECTIVE: During muscle development or regeneration, myocytes produce nerve growth factor (NGF) as well as its tyrosine-kinase and p75-neurotrophin (p75NTR) receptors. It has been published that the p75NTR receptor could represent a key regulator of NGF-mediated myoprotective effect on satellite cells, but the precise function of NGF/p75 signaling pathway on myogenic cell proliferation, survival and differentiation remains fragmented and controversial. Here, we verified the role of NGF in the growth, survival and differentiation of p75NTR-expressing L6C5 myogenic cells, specifically inquiring for the putative involvement of the nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and the small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) αB-crystallin and Hsp27 in these processes...
December 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164111/cartilage-and-muscle-cell-fate-and-origins-during-lizard-tail-regeneration
#8
Ricardo Londono, Wei Wenzhong, Bing Wang, Rocky S Tuan, Thomas P Lozito
Introduction: Human cartilage is an avascular tissue with limited capacity for repair. By contrast, certain lizards are capable of musculoskeletal tissue regeneration following tail loss throughout all stages of their lives. This extraordinary ability is the result of a complex process in which a blastema forms and gives rise to the tissues of the regenerate. Blastemal cells have been shown to originate either from dedifferentiated tissues or from existing progenitor cells in various species, but their origin has not been determined in lizards...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147923/anti-aminoacyl-trna-synthetase-related-myositis-and-dermatomyositis-clues-for-differential-diagnosis-on-muscle-biopsy
#9
Bruna Cerbelli, Annalinda Pisano, Serena Colafrancesco, Maria Gemma Pignataro, Marco Biffoni, Silvia Berni, Antonia De Luca, Valeria Riccieri, Roberta Priori, Guido Valesini, Giulia d'Amati, Carla Giordano
Anti-synthetase syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibodies toward amino acyl-tRNA synthetases (ARS), anti-Jo 1 being the most commonly detected. Muscle damage develops in up to 90% of ARS-positive patients, characterized by a necrotizing myositis restricted to the perifascicular region. This topographic distribution of muscle damage may lead to a misdiagnosis of dermatomyositis (DM) at muscle biopsy. We compared morphological, immunohistochemical, and histoenzymatic features of muscle from ARS-positive patients (n = 11) with those of DM (n = 7) providing clues for their differential diagnosis...
November 16, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121865/temporally-distinct-transcriptional-regulation-of-myocyte-dedifferentiation-and-myofiber-growth-during-muscle-regeneration
#10
Ke'ale W Louie, Alfonso Saera-Vila, Phillip E Kish, Justin A Colacino, Alon Kahana
BACKGROUND: Tissue regeneration requires a series of steps, beginning with generation of the necessary cell mass, followed by cell migration into damaged area, and ending with differentiation and integration with surrounding tissues. Temporal regulation of these steps lies at the heart of the regenerative process, yet its basis is not well understood. The ability of zebrafish to dedifferentiate mature "post-mitotic" myocytes into proliferating myoblasts that in turn regenerate lost muscle tissue provides an opportunity to probe the molecular mechanisms of regeneration...
November 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080456/cytotherapy-using-stromal-cells-current-and-advance-multi-treatment-approaches
#11
REVIEW
Pravin Shende, Hunny Gupta, R S Gaud
The research in stem cells gives a proper information about basic mechanisms of human development and differentiation. The use of stem cells in new medicinal therapies includes treatment of different conditions such as spinal cord injury, diabetes mellitus, Parkinsonism, and cardiac disorders. These cells exhibit two unique properties: self-renewal and differentiation. The major stem cells been used for approximately about 10-14 years for cellular therapy are mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells can individualize into many lineage, i...
October 25, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974782/nkx2-5-%C3%A2-cardiomyoblasts-contribute-to-cardiomyogenesis-in-the-neonatal-heart
#12
Vahid Serpooshan, Yuan-Hung Liu, Jan W Buikema, Francisco X Galdos, Orlando Chirikian, Sharon Paige, Sneha Venkatraman, Anusha Kumar, David R Rawnsley, Xiaojing Huang, Daniël A Pijnappels, Sean M Wu
During normal lifespan, the mammalian heart undergoes limited renewal of cardiomyocytes. While the exact mechanism for this renewal remains unclear, two possibilities have been proposed: differentiated myocyte replication and progenitor/immature cell differentiation. This study aimed to characterize a population of cardiomyocyte precursors in the neonatal heart and to determine their requirement for cardiac development. By tracking the expression of an embryonic Nkx2.5 cardiac enhancer, we identified cardiomyoblasts capable of differentiation into striated cardiomyocytes in vitro...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954220/comparative-gene-expression-analyses-reveal-distinct-molecular-signatures-between-differentially-reprogrammed-cardiomyocytes
#13
Yang Zhou, Li Wang, Ziqing Liu, Sahar Alimohamadi, Chaoying Yin, Jiandong Liu, Li Qian
Cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-CMs) or directly reprogrammed from non-myocytes (induced cardiomyocytes [iCMs]) are promising sources for heart regeneration or disease modeling. However, the similarities and differences between iPSC-CMs and iCMs are still unknown. Here, we performed transcriptome analyses of beating iPSC-CMs and iCMs generated from cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) of the same origin. Although both iPSC-CMs and iCMs establish CM-like molecular features globally, iPSC-CMs exhibit a relatively hyperdynamic epigenetic status, whereas iCMs exhibit a maturation status that more closely resembles that of adult CMs...
September 26, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852100/mechanisms-of-stem-cell-based-cardiac-repair-gap-junctional-signaling-promotes-the-cardiac-lineage-specification-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Heiko Lemcke, Ralf Gaebel, Anna Skorska, Natalia Voronina, Cornelia Aquilina Lux, Janine Petters, Sarah Sasse, Nicole Zarniko, Gustav Steinhoff, Robert David
Different subtypes of bone marrow-derived stem cells are characterized by varying functionality and activity after transplantation into the infarcted heart. Improvement of stem cell therapeutics requires deep knowledge about the mechanisms that mediate the benefits of stem cell treatment. Here, we demonstrated that co-transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) led to enhanced synergistic effects on cardiac remodeling. While HSCs were associated with blood vessel formation, MSCs were found to possess transdifferentiation capacity...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796340/application-of-differentiated-human-tonsil-derived-stem-cells-to-trembler-j-mice
#15
Saeyoung Park, Yoonyoung Choi, Geon Kwak, Young Bin Hong, Namhee Jung, Jieun Kim, Byung-Ok Choi, Sung-Chul Jung
INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into various cell types. METHODS: In this study we investigated the potential of human tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSCs) for neuromuscular regeneration in trembler-J (Tr-J) mice, a model for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). RESULTS: T-MSCs differentiated toward skeletal myocytes with increased expression of skeletal muscle-related markers (including troponin I type 1, and myogenin), and the formation of myotubes in vitro...
August 10, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733351/multicellular-transcriptional-analysis-of-mammalian-heart-regeneration
#16
Gregory A Quaife-Ryan, Choon Boon Sim, Mark Ziemann, Antony Kaspi, Haloom Rafehi, Mirana Ramialison, Assam El-Osta, James E Hudson, Enzo R Porrello
BACKGROUND: The inability of the adult mammalian heart to regenerate following injury represents a major barrier in cardiovascular medicine. In contrast, the neonatal mammalian heart retains a transient capacity for regeneration, which is lost shortly after birth. Defining the molecular mechanisms that govern regenerative capacity in the neonatal period remains a central goal in cardiac biology. Here, we assemble a transcriptomic framework of multiple cardiac cell populations during postnatal development and following injury, which enables comparative analyses of the regenerative (neonatal) versus nonregenerative (adult) state for the first time...
September 19, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729454/multimodal-regulation-of-cardiac-myocyte-proliferation
#17
REVIEW
Xuejun Yuan, Thomas Braun
Efficient cardiac regeneration is closely associated with the ability of cardiac myocytes to proliferate. Fetal or neonatal mouse hearts containing proliferating cardiac myocytes regenerate even extensive injuries, whereas adult hearts containing mostly post-mitotic cardiac myocytes have lost this ability. The same correlation is seen in some homoiotherm species such as teleost fish and urodelian amphibians leading to the hypothesis that cardiac myocyte proliferation is a major driver of heart regeneration...
July 21, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687961/allogeneic-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-enhances-the-expression-of-angiogenic-factors-in-a-mouse-acute-hindlimb-ischemic-model
#18
Ngoc Bich Vu, Ha Thi-Ngan Le, Thuy Thi-Thanh Dao, Lan Thi Phi, Ngoc Kim Phan, Van Thanh Ta
Cell migration and molecular mechanisms during healing of damaged vascular or muscle tissues are emerging fields of interest worldwide. The study herein focuses on evaluating the role of allogenic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in restoring damaged tissues. Using a hindlimb ischemic mouse model, ADMSC-mediated induction of cell migration and gene expression related to myocyte regeneration and angiogenesis were evaluated. ADMSCs were labeled with GFP (ADMSC-GFP). The proximal end of the femoral blood vessel of mice (over 6 months of age) are ligated at two positions then cut between the two ties...
July 8, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659386/fate-predetermination-of-cardiac-myocytes-during-zebrafish-heart-regeneration
#19
Isil Tekeli, Anna Garcia-Puig, Mario Notari, Cristina García-Pastor, Isabelle Aujard, Ludovic Jullien, Angel Raya
Adult zebrafish have the remarkable ability to regenerate their heart upon injury, a process that involves limited dedifferentiation and proliferation of spared cardiomyocytes (CMs), and migration of their progeny. During regeneration, proliferating CMs are detected throughout the myocardium, including areas distant to the injury site, but whether all of them are able to contribute to the regenerated tissue remains unknown. Here, we developed a CM-specific, photoinducible genetic labelling system, and show that CMs labelled in embryonic hearts survive and contribute to all three (primordial, trabecular and cortical) layers of the adult zebrafish heart...
June 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655642/the-use-and-abuse-of-cre-lox-recombination-to-identify-adult-cardiomyocyte-renewal-rate-and-origin
#20
REVIEW
Iolanda Aquila, Fabiola Marino, Eleonora Cianflone, Pina Marotta, Michele Torella, Vincenzo Mollace, Ciro Indolfi, Bernardo Nadal-Ginard, Daniele Torella
The adult mammalian heart, including the human, is unable to regenerate segmental losses after myocardial infarction. This evidence has been widely and repeatedly used up-to-today to suggest that the myocardium, contrary to most adult tissues, lacks an endogenous stem cell population or more specifically a bona-fide cardiomyocyte-generating progenitor cell of biological significance. In the last 15 years, however, the field has slowly evolved from the dogma that no new cardiomyocytes were produced from shortly after birth to the present consensus that new cardiomyocytes are formed throughout lifespan...
June 24, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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