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HIV pneumococcal vaccination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118167/invasive-disease-caused-simultaneously-by-dual-serotypes-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#1
Kedibone Ndlangisa, Mignon du Plessis, Mushal Allam, Nicole Wolter, Linda de Gouveia, Keith P Klugman, Cheryl Cohen, Rebecca A Gladstone, Anne von Gottberg
There are at least 98 known pneumococcal serotypes. Invasive pneumococcal (IPD) disease is usually caused by a single serotype, and dual serotype IPD is rare. To assess factors associated with dual serotype IPD, patient information obtained through laboratory-based surveillance for IPD from 2005 through 2014 in South Africa was reviewed. Genomes of isolate pairs from co-infected individuals were sequenced to determine their molecular characteristics. For 30 (91%) of 33 patients with dual serotypes, one or both isolates were a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotype...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052434/a-virtual-clinic-improves-pneumococcal-vaccination-coverage-among-patients-living-with-hiv-at-a-veterans-affairs-medical-center
#2
Charles M Burns, Richard E Banks, Brigid M Wilson, Rebecca R Carter, Robin L P Jump, Federico Perez
People living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should receive pneumococcal vaccinations as part of their routine health maintenance. Our goal was to create a "virtual clinic" to help increase rates of pneumococcal vaccination among people living with HIV without adding substantially to the workload of primary providers. We used administrative data from our Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center to identify a cohort of veterans living with HIV who were not current with either the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) or both...
October 20, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961675/nasopharyngeal-pneumococcal-colonization-and-impact-of-a-single-dose-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-indian-children-with-hiv-and-their-unvaccinated-parents
#3
Bikas K Arya, Sangeeta Das Bhattacharya, Catherine G Sutcliffe, Feroze Ganaie, Arun Bhaskar, Subhasish Bhattacharyya, Swapan Kumar Niyogi, William J Moss, Samiran Panda, K L Ravikumar, Ranjan Saurav Das, Sutapa Mandal
BACKGROUND: HIV infection increases risk of invasive disease from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) prevent invasive disease and acquisition of vaccine type (VT) pneumococcus in the nasopharynx. OBJECTIVE: To look at the safety and impact of one dose of PCV13 on acquisition of VT pneumococcal carriage in Indian children with HIV. METHOD: We conducted a cohort study in families of HIV-infected children (CLH) and families of HIV-uninfected children (HUC) in West Bengal...
September 27, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867842/pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-and-hospitalization-of-children-for-pneumonia-a-time-series-analysis-south-africa-2006-2014
#4
Alane Izu, Fatima Solomon, Susan A Nzenze, Azwifarwi Mudau, Elizabeth Zell, Katherine L O'Brien, Cynthia G Whitney, Jennifer Verani, Michelle Groome, Shabir A Madhi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among children in Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: We used data collected at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto between 2006 and 2014 - i.e. before and after April 2009, when a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was first included in South Africa's routine immunization programme. Using a Bayesian generalized seasonal autoregressive moving-average model and the data collected in 2006-2008, we estimated the numbers of children that would have been hospitalized for pneumonia between 2010 and 2014 if no pneumococcal conjugate vaccines had been used...
September 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688781/immunogenicity-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-among-children-with-underlying-medical-conditions
#5
Sabelle Jallow, Shabir A Madhi, Richard Madimabe, Nosisa Sipambo, Avy Violari, Udai Kala, Karen Petersen, Sanushka Naidoo, Charl Verwey, David P Moore, Marta C Nunes
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable disease in children under 5years. Immunocompromised children and those with underlying diseases are at increased risk of severe complications from vaccine-preventable infections. We studied the humoral immune response to the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in children with HIV-infection, kidney or lung disease and compared this to the response in healthy control children. METHODS: Children aged 12-71months with underlying conditions including HIV-infection and those with kidney and lung diseases (at-risk children), and a healthy control group were vaccinated with PCV13...
August 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671978/estimated-severe-pneumococcal-disease-cases-and-deaths-before-and-after-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-introduction-in-children-younger-than-5-years-of-age-in-south-africa
#6
Claire von Mollendorf, Stefano Tempia, Anne von Gottberg, Susan Meiring, Vanessa Quan, Charles Feldman, Jeane Cloete, Shabir A Madhi, Katherine L O'Brien, Keith P Klugman, Cynthia G Whitney, Cheryl Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of severe bacterial infections globally. A full understanding of the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) on pneumococcal disease burden, following its introduction in 2009 in South Africa, can support national policy on PCV use and assist with policy decisions elsewhere. METHODS: We developed a model to estimate the national burden of severe pneumococcal disease, i.e. disease requiring hospitalisation, pre- (2005-2008) and post-PCV introduction (2012-2013) in children aged 0-59 months in South Africa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660356/community-acquired-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-hiv-infected-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-predictors-in-a-contemporary-cohort-study
#7
Cristiane C Lamas, Lara E Coelho, Beatriz J Grinsztejn, Valdilea G Veloso
Community-acquired pneumonia represents the most frequent bacterial infection in patients with HIV/AIDS. PURPOSE: We aimed to assess variables associated with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) among HIV-infected adults using ART. METHODS: A cohort study of HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years, enrolled from 2000 to 2015, on ART for at least 60 days, with primary outcome as the 1st episode of LRTI during follow-up. The independent variables included were sex at birth, age, race/skin color, educational level, tobacco smoking, alcohol use, cocaine use, diabetes mellitus, CD4 count, HIV viral load, influenza and pneumococcal vaccination...
June 28, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482004/imputing-the-direct-and-indirect-effectiveness-of-childhood-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-against-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-by-surveying-temporal-changes-in-nasopharyngeal-pneumococcal-colonization
#8
Susan A Nzenze, Shabir A Madhi, Tinevimbo Shiri, Keith P Klugman, Linda de Gouveia, David P Moore, Alan S Karstaedt, Stefano Tempia, Marta C Nunes, Anne von Gottberg
The limited capability in most low- to middle-income countries to study the benefit of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in protecting against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) calls for alternate strategies to assess this. We used a mathematical model to predict the direct and indirect effectiveness of PCV by analyzing serotype-specific colonization prevalence and IPD incidence prior to and following childhood PCV immunization in South Africa. We analyzed IPD incidence from 2005 to 2012 and colonization studies undertaken in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected and HIV-infected child-mother dyads from 2007 to 2009 (pre-PCV era), in 2010 (7-valent PCV era), and in 2012 (13-valent PCV era)...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464042/immune-activation-and-hiv-specific-t-cell-responses-are-modulated-by-a-cyclooxygenase-2-inhibitor-in-untreated-hiv-infected-individuals-an-exploratory-clinical-trial
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Christian Prebensen, Marius Trøseid, Thor Ueland, Anders Dahm, Per Morten Sandset, Ingeborg Aaberge, Kristian Waalen, Anne Ma Dyrhol-Riise, Kjetil Taskén, Dag Kvale
Pathologically elevated immune activation and inflammation contribute to HIV disease progression and immunodeficiency, potentially mediated by elevated levels of prostaglandin E2, which suppress HIV-specific T cell responses. We have previously shown that a high dose of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib can reduce HIV-associated immune activation and improve IgG responses to T cell-dependent vaccines. In this follow-up study, we included 56 HIV-infected adults, 28 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve and 28 on ART with undetectable plasma viremia but CD4 counts below 500 cells/μL...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463977/production-of-igg-antibodies-to-pneumococcal-polysaccharides-is-associated-with-expansion-of-icos-circulating-memory-t-follicular-helper-cells-which-is-impaired-by-hiv-infection
#10
Laila N Abudulai, Sonia Fernandez, Karli Corscadden, Sally A Burrows, Michael Hunter, M Christian Tjiam, Lea-Ann S Kirkham, Jeffrey J Post, Martyn A French
Dysfunction of T follicular-helper (TFH) cells is a possible cause of impaired germinal centre (GC) and IgG antibody responses in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection and might contribute to decreased magnitude and isotype diversification of IgG antibodies to pneumococcal polysaccharides (PcPs). We examined the production of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies to PcPs 4, 6B, 9V and 14 by enumerating antibody secreting cells (ASCs) at day (D) 7 and determining fold-increase in serum antibody levels at D28 after vaccination with unconjugated PcPs in HIV seronegative subjects (n = 20) and in HIV patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) (n = 28) or who were ART-naive (n = 11) and determined their association with ICOS+ and ICOS- circulating memory TFH (cmTFH) cells (CD4+CD45RA-CD27+CXCR5+PD-1+) and short lived plasmablasts (SPBs) at D7, and with PcP-specific and total IgM+ and IgG+ memory B cells at D0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425818/immunization-with-10-valent-pneumococcal-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-protein-d-conjugate-vaccine-phid-cv-according-to-different-schedules-in-infants-in-south-africa-a-phase-iii-trial
#11
Shabir A Madhi, Anthonet Koen, Lisa Jose, Marta Moreira, Nadia van Niekerk, Clare Cutland, Nancy François, Javier Ruiz-Guiñazú, Juan Pablo Yarzabal, Dorota Borys, Lode Schuerman
BACKGROUND: Limited clinical data exists to assess differences between various infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine schedules. In this trial, we evaluated immunogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) administered using 3 different immunization schedules in HIV unexposed-uninfected infants in South Africa. METHODS: In this phase III, open, single-center, controlled study (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00829010), 300 infants were randomized (1:1:1) to 1 of 3 PHiD-CV schedules: 3-dose priming and booster (3 + 1); 3-dose priming without booster (3 + 0); or 2-dose priming and booster (2 + 1)...
June 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381345/vaccination-recommendations-for-the-adult-immunosuppressed-patient-a-systematic-review-and-comprehensive-field-synopsis
#12
REVIEW
Anthony Lopez, Xavier Mariette, Hervé Bachelez, Alexandre Belot, Bernard Bonnotte, Eric Hachulla, Morad Lahfa, Olivier Lortholary, Pierre Loulergue, Stéphane Paul, Xavier Roblin, Jean Sibilia, Mariela Blum, Silvio Danese, Stefanos Bonovas, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressed patients are at risk of severe viral infections-related complications. National and international vaccination guidelines have been developed to decrease the mortality risk associated with these infections. However, a summary of these guidelines and the value of immunisation in this population is missing. OBJECTIVES: To summarize specific guidelines regarding vaccination in immunosuppressed patients. METHODS: We performed a literature search based on last update vaccine guidelines in immunosuppressed adult patients published between 1/1/2005-1/31/2016 in English or French language using PubMed, Cochrane and Embase, as well as relevant medical society websites...
June 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372531/panel-1-epidemiology-and-diagnosis
#13
REVIEW
Preben Homøe, Kari Kværner, Janet R Casey, Roger A M J Damoiseaux, Thijs M A van Dongen, Hasantha Gunasekera, Ramon G Jensen, Ellen Kvestad, Peter S Morris, Heather M Weinreich
Objective To create a literature review between 2011 and June 1, 2015, on advances in otitis media (OM) epidemiology and diagnosis (including relevant audiology studies). Data Sources Electronic search engines (PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library) with a predefined search strategy. Review Methods Articles with appropriate epidemiologic methodology for OM, including acute mastoiditis and eustachian tube dysfunction. Items included OM worldwide and in high-risk populations, OM-related hearing loss, news in OM diagnostics, prenatal risk factors and comorbidities, postnatal risk factors, genetics, microbiological epidemiology, guidelines, and quality of life...
April 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351187/pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-hiv-infected-and-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children
#14
REVIEW
Sabelle Jallow, Shabir A Madhi
Incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among HIV-infected children is 20-40 fold greater compared to HIV-uninfected children, including among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Also, HIV-exposed, uninfected children have 2.7-fold greater risk of IPD compared to HIV-unexposed children. Areas covered: We reviewed studies identified on Pubmed database with the terms 'PCV' and 'HIV'; studies involving adults only were excluded. Expert commentary: While ART and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have reduced IPD morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children, ART-naïve and immunosuppressed children have inferior immunogenicity to most PCV serotypes; highlighting the need for concomitant use of ART with PCV...
May 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302673/pneumococcal-vaccine-response-after-exposure-to-parasites-in-utero-in-infancy-or-mid-childhood
#15
Monica Nayakwadi Singer, Claire Heath, Jackson Muinde, Virginia Gildengorin, Francis M Mutuku, David Vu, Dunstan Mukoko, Christopher L King, Indu J Malhotra, Charles H King, A Desirée LaBeaud
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of mortality before age 5, but few studies examine details of childhood response to pneumococcal vaccine in less-developed settings. Although malnutrition, HIV, and concurrent infections can impair response, evidence suggests that chronic parasitic infections can also contribute to poor vaccination results. The objective of this study was to determine whether response to pneumococcal vaccine varied among children either exposed to parasitic infections in utero, previously infected in infancy, or infected at the time of immunization...
April 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302496/community-acquired-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-adult-patients-a-matched-case-control-study
#16
Catia Cillóniz, Antoni Torres, Christian Manzardo, Albert Gabarrús, Juan Ambrosioni, Adriana Salazar, Felipe García, Adrián Ceccato, Josep Mensa, Jorge Puig de la Bella Casa, Asunción Moreno, Jose M Miró
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate whether the clinical presentations and outcomes (length of stay, ICU admission, and 30-day mortality) of pneumococcal pneumonia in virologically suppressed patients who were HIV-infected on ART with a CD4+ T-cell count > 350 cells/mm(3) are comparable to those seen in patients with HIV, using a case-control design. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out in Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain (2001-2016). Control patients were matched by age (±10 years), sex, comorbidities, and pneumonia diagnosis in the same calendar period...
August 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228053/hiv-related-pneumococcal-disease-prevention-in-adults
#17
REVIEW
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson, Theresa Rossouw
HIV-infected persons are particularly susceptible to the development of severe pneumococcal disease, even in the setting of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), due to slow, incomplete recovery of anti-pneumococcal host defenses. This risk is increased by avoidable aspects of lifestyle, particularly smoking, which intensify immunosuppression. Clearly, more effective preventive measures are needed to counter this threat. Areas covered: This is a detailed review of the published literature focusing on currently available strategies for prevention of pneumococcal infection in HIV-infected patients, including cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, cART, pneumococcal vaccination, and smoking cessation strategies...
March 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178935/pneumococcal-carriage-among-hiv-infected-children-in-accra-ghana
#18
Eric S Donkor, Jennifer A Annan, Ebenezer V Badoe, Nicholas T K D Dayie, Appiah-Korang Labi, Hans-Christian Slotved
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal carriage is the precursor for development of pneumococcal disease, and is also responsible for transmission of the organism from person-to-person. In Africa, little is known about the pneumococcus in relation to people with HIV infection. The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiology of pneumococcal carriage among HIV infected children visiting a tertiary hospital in Ghana, including the carriage prevalence, risk factors and serotype distribution. METHOD: This was a cross sectional study carried out from February to May, 2015 at the HIV Paediatric Clinic of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana...
February 8, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139443/effectiveness-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-against-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-south-african-children-a-case-control-study
#19
Cheryl Cohen, Claire von Mollendorf, Linda de Gouveia, Sarona Lengana, Susan Meiring, Vanessa Quan, Arthermon Nguweneza, David P Moore, Gary Reubenson, Mamokgethi Moshe, Shabir A Madhi, Brian Eley, Ute Hallbauer, Heather Finlayson, Sheeba Varughese, Katherine L O'Brien, Elizabeth R Zell, Keith P Klugman, Cynthia G Whitney, Anne von Gottberg
BACKGROUND: The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was designed to include disease-causing serotypes that are important in low-income and middle-income countries. Vaccine effectiveness estimates are scarce in these settings. South Africa replaced PCV7 with PCV13 in 2011 using a 2 + 1 schedule. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of two or more doses of PCV13 against invasive pneumococcal disease in children with HIV infection and in those not infected with HIV. METHODS: Cases of invasive pneumococcal disease in children aged 5 years or younger were identified through national laboratory-based surveillance...
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121925/prospective-etiological-investigation-of-community-acquired-pulmonary-infections-in-hospitalized-people-living-with-hiv
#20
Claudia Figueiredo-Mello, Pontus Naucler, Marinella D Negra, Anna S Levin
The study of the etiological agents of community-acquired pulmonary infections is important to guide empirical therapy, requires constant updating, and has a substantial impact on the prognosis of patients. The objective of this study is to determine prospectively the etiology of community-acquired pulmonary infections in hospitalized adults living with HIV. Patients were submitted to an extended microbiological investigation that included molecular methods. The microbiological findings were evaluated according to severity of the disease and pneumococcal vaccine status...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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