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HIV pneumococcal vaccination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178935/pneumococcal-carriage-among-hiv-infected-children-in-accra-ghana
#1
Eric S Donkor, Jennifer A Annan, Ebenezer V Badoe, Nicholas T K D Dayie, Appiah-Korang Labi, Hans-Christian Slotved
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal carriage is the precursor for development of pneumococcal disease, and is also responsible for transmission of the organism from person-to-person. In Africa, little is known about the pneumococcus in relation to people with HIV infection. The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiology of pneumococcal carriage among HIV infected children visiting a tertiary hospital in Ghana, including the carriage prevalence, risk factors and serotype distribution. METHOD: This was a cross sectional study carried out from February to May, 2015 at the HIV Paediatric Clinic of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana...
February 8, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139443/effectiveness-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-against-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-south-african-children-a-case-control-study
#2
Cheryl Cohen, Claire von Mollendorf, Linda de Gouveia, Sarona Lengana, Susan Meiring, Vanessa Quan, Arthermon Nguweneza, David P Moore, Gary Reubenson, Mamokgethi Moshe, Shabir A Madhi, Brian Eley, Ute Hallbauer, Heather Finlayson, Sheeba Varughese, Katherine L O'Brien, Elizabeth R Zell, Keith P Klugman, Cynthia G Whitney, Anne von Gottberg
BACKGROUND: The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was designed to include disease-causing serotypes that are important in low-income and middle-income countries. Vaccine effectiveness estimates are scarce in these settings. South Africa replaced PCV7 with PCV13 in 2011 using a 2 + 1 schedule. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of two or more doses of PCV13 against invasive pneumococcal disease in children with HIV infection and in those not infected with HIV. METHODS: Cases of invasive pneumococcal disease in children aged 5 years or younger were identified through national laboratory-based surveillance...
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121925/prospective-etiological-investigation-of-community-acquired-pulmonary-infections-in-hospitalized-people-living-with-hiv
#3
Claudia Figueiredo-Mello, Pontus Naucler, Marinella D Negra, Anna S Levin
The study of the etiological agents of community-acquired pulmonary infections is important to guide empirical therapy, requires constant updating, and has a substantial impact on the prognosis of patients. The objective of this study is to determine prospectively the etiology of community-acquired pulmonary infections in hospitalized adults living with HIV. Patients were submitted to an extended microbiological investigation that included molecular methods. The microbiological findings were evaluated according to severity of the disease and pneumococcal vaccine status...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079828/vaccination-with-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-infants-according-to-hiv-status
#4
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Shabir A Madhi, Anthonet Koen, Lisa Jose, Nadia van Niekerk, Peter V Adrian, Clare Cutland, Nancy François, Javier Ruiz-Guiñazú, Juan-Pablo Yarzabal, Marta Moreira, Dorota Borys, Lode Schuerman
BACKGROUND: Phase III, open-label, single-center, controlled study in South Africa (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00829010) to evaluate immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+), HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children. METHODS: Children stratified by HIV status received PHiD-CV primary vaccination (age 6/10/14 weeks; coadministered with routine childhood vaccines) and booster dose (age 9-10 months)...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018929/antiretroviral-therapy-as-prevention-of-%C3%A2-pneumococcal-infections
#5
Anaïs Lesourd, Jérémie Leporrier, Valérie Delbos, Guillemette Unal, Patricia Honoré, Manuel Etienne, Olivier Bouchaud, François Caron
BACKGROUND: Despite antiretroviral therapy, it is generally believed that the risk for pneumococcal infections (PnIs) is high among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, most studies in this field have been conducted before 2010, and the proportion of virologically suppressed patients has drastically increased in these latter years thanks to larger indications and more effective antiretroviral regimens. This study aimed to re-evaluate the current risk of PnI among adult patients infected with HIV...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960210/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-latin-america
#6
Hernán A Iannella, Carlos M Luna
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region. Poverty, socioeconomic factors, and malnutrition influence the incidence and outcome of CAP in LAC. In LAC, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent microorganism responsible for CAP, (incidence: 24-78%); the incidence of atypical microorganisms is similar to other regions of the world. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a growing problem in the LAC region, with the Caribbean being the second most affected area worldwide after Sub-Saharan Africa...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895845/a-trial-of-a-7-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-hiv-infected-adults
#7
Neil French, Stephen B Gordon, Thandie Mwalukomo, Sarah A White, Gershom Mwafulirwa, Herbert Longwe, Martin Mwaiponya, Eduard E Zijlstra, Malcolm E Molyneux, Charles F Gilks
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading and serious coinfection in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, particularly in Africa. Prevention of this disease by vaccination with the current 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine is suboptimal. Protein conjugate vaccines offer a further option for protection, but data on their clinical efficacy in adults are needed. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical efficacy trial, we studied the efficacy of a 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in predominantly HIV-infected Malawian adolescents and adults who had recovered from documented invasive pneumococcal disease...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847374/multiplex-urinary-antigen-detection-for-13-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotypes-improves-diagnosis-of-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-south-african-hiv-infected-adults
#8
Werner C Albrich, Michael W Pride, Shabir A Madhi, Jan Callahan, Peter V Adrian, Roger French, Nadia van Niekerk, Shite Sebastian, Victor Souza, Jean-Noel Telles, Glaucia Paranhos-Baccalà, Kathrin U Jansen, Keith P Klugman
A serotype-specific urinary antigen detection (UAD) assay for 13 serotypes included in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was recently reported as a useful diagnostic tool for pneumococcal pneumonia. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the UAD in HIV-infected South African adults. Urine specimens from a well-defined cohort of HIV-infected South African adults with pneumonia were evaluated retrospectively in the UAD assay. Pneumonia was considered pneumococcal if either sputum Gram stain, sputum culture, blood culture, or the immunochromatographic (ICT) BinaxNow S...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753766/impact-of-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-conjugate-vaccines-on-nasopharyngeal-carriage-in-hiv-infected-children-and-their-parents-from-west-bengal-india
#9
Bikas K Arya, Sangeeta Das Bhattacharya, Catherine G Sutcliffe, Swapan Kumar Niyogi, Subhasish Bhattacharyya, Sunil Hemram, William J Moss, Samiran Panda, Ranjan Saurav Das, Sutapa Mandal, Dennis Robert, Pampa Ray
BACKGROUND: In addition to reducing Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in vaccinated individuals, the Hib conjugate vaccine (HibCV) has indirect effects; it reduces Hib disease in unvaccinated individuals by decreasing carriage. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children are at increased risk for Hib disease and live in families where multiple members may have HIV. The aim of this study is to look at the impact of 2 doses of the HibCV on nasopharyngeal carriage of Hib in HIV-infected Indian children (2-15 years) and the indirect impact on carriage in their parents...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749111/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-among-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-adults-in-a-large-integrated-healthcare-system
#10
Julia L Marcus, Roger Baxter, Wendy A Leyden, Dharushana Muthulingam, Arnold Yee, Michael A Horberg, Daniel B Klein, William J Towner, Chun R Chao, Charles P Quesenberry, Michael J Silverberg
It is unclear whether HIV-infected individuals remain at higher risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. We conducted a cohort study of HIV-infected and demographically matched HIV-uninfected adults within Kaiser Permanente Northern California during the period 1996-2011. We used Poisson models to obtain rate ratios (RRs) for incident IPD associated with HIV infection and other risk factors. Among 13,079 HIV-infected and 137,643 HIV-uninfected adults, the IPD rate per 100,000 person-years was 160 (n = 109 events) for HIV-infected and 8 (n = 75 events) for HIV-uninfected subjects, with an adjusted RR of 13...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741092/hospitalization-for-culture-confirmed-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-the-era-of-childhood-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-immunization
#11
Vijay G Mammen, Ziyaad Dangor, David P Moore, Alane Izu, Natalie Beylis, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: Children hospitalized with culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) frequently present with acute symptoms, possibly because of superimposed pneumococcal pneumonia. We undertook a time-series analysis to determine whether routine immunization of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was temporally associated with changes in the incidence of hospitalization for PTB in South African children. METHODS: PCV was introduced in the South African public immunization program in April 2009, with coverage for the third dose of PCV of 10%, 64% and 89% in 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively...
January 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733852/the-immune-system-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#12
Bahaa Abu-Raya, Tobias R Kollmann, Arnaud Marchant, Duncan M MacGillivray
Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648488/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-ipd-in-hiv-infected-patients-in-israel-since-the-introduction-of-pneumococcal-conjugated-vaccines-pcv-analysis-of-a-nationwide-surveillance-study-2009-2014
#13
Michal Chowers, Gili Regev-Yochay, Orna Mor, Ronit Cohen-Poradosu, Klaris Riesenberg, Oren Zimhony, Daniel Chemtob, Michal Stein, Ron Dagan, Itzchak Levy
STUDY AIM: to assess the incidence, risk factors and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among the Israeli HIV population. A matched case-control study nested in a nationwide, prospective, population-based, cohort of adult IPD was performed. In addition, the HIV-IPD patients were compared to the general adult HIV population in Israel. STUDY PERIOD: from the introduction of PCV into the national immunization program (NIP) in July 2009 to June 2014. Each HIV patient within the IPD cohort was matched to 4 non-HIV controls...
January 2, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580688/immunological-efficacy-of-pneumococcal-vaccine-strategies-in-hiv-infected-adults-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
C Sadlier, S O'Dea, K Bennett, J Dunne, N Conlon, C Bergin
The aim of this study was to compare the immunologic response to a prime-boost immunization strategy combining the 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) with the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPSV23) versus the PPSV23 alone in HIV-infected adults. HIV-infected adults were randomized to receive PCV13 at week 0 followed by PPSV23 at week 4 (n = 31, prime-boost group) or PPSV23 alone at week 4 (n = 33, PPSV23-alone group). Serotype specific IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC) and functional oposonophagocytic (OPA) geometric mean titer (GMT) were compared for 12 pneumococcal serotypes shared by both vaccines at week 8 and week 28...
September 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542868/vaccination-status-of-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-outpatient-care-in-fortaleza-cear%C3%A3-brazil
#15
Gilmara Holanda da Cunha, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz Galvão, Camila Martins de Medeiros, Ryvanne Paulino Rocha, Maria Amanda Correia Lima, Francisco Vagnaldo Fechine
Antiretroviral therapy has increased the survival of patients with HIV/AIDS, thus necessitating health promotion practice with immunization. Vaccines are critical components for protecting people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The purpose of study was to analyze the vaccination status of PLWHA in outpatient care in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Cross-sectional study performed from June 2014 to June 2015. The screening was done with patients in antiretroviral therapy, 420 patients underwent screening, but only 99 met the inclusion criteria...
September 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428577/pneumococcal-vaccination-of-hiv-infected-young-adults-is-an-important-global-priority
#16
Francesca Chiodi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276181/risk-factors-for-presumed-bacterial-pneumonia-among-hiv-uninfected-children-hospitalized-in-soweto-south-africa
#17
Jennifer R Verani, Michelle J Groome, Heather J Zar, Elizabeth R Zell, Constant N Kapongo, Susan A Nzenze, Christine Mulligan, David P Moore, Cynthia G Whitney, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a leading cause of child morbidity and death. Data on risk factors can guide prevention efforts. Within a study on pneumococcal conjugate vaccine effectiveness, we investigated risk factors for presumed bacterial pneumonia (PBP). METHODS: PBP cases were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) uninfected children with lower respiratory tract infection and consolidation on chest radiograph or nonconsolidated infiltrate with C-reactive protein ≥40 mg/L hospitalized at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital (CHBAH) in Soweto...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27258647/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-versus-the-23-valent-polysaccharide-vaccine-in-unvaccinated-hiv-infected-adults-a-pilot-prospective-controlled-study
#18
Francesca Lombardi, Simone Belmonti, Massimiliano Fabbiani, Matteo Morandi, Barbara Rossetti, Giacinta Tordini, Roberto Cauda, Andrea De Luca, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Francesca Montagnani
OBJECTIVES: Definition of the optimal pneumococcal vaccine strategy in HIV-infected adults is still under evaluation. We aimed to compare immunogenicity and safety of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) versus the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in HIV-infected adults. METHODS: We performed a pilot, prospective controlled study enrolling HIV-infected pneumococcal vaccine-naïve outpatients, aged 18-65 years with CD4 counts ≥200 cells/μL...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215560/23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-uptake-in-the-united-states-air-force-hiv-program
#19
Thad F Ocampo, Tuan Le, Peter E Matthews, Jason F Okulicz
Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is a predominant cause of bacterial infection in HIV-infected individuals. However, reported rates of pneumococcal vaccination with 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) are variable. We evaluated uptake of PPV23 in patients diagnosed with HIV between 1996 and 2012 (n = 507) in the United States Air Force, a centralized HIV program with free access to care including vaccines and medications. A total of 411 (81.1%) patients received at least 1 PPV23 dose. The PPV23 vaccination within 1 year of diagnosis was greater for those diagnosed between 2004 and 2012 (n = 184, 86%) compared with 1996 to 2003 (n = 104, 56...
July 2016: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215541/nasopharyngeal-pneumococcal-carriage-rates-among-hiv-infected-adults-following-widespread-pediatric-use-of-conjugate-pneumococcal-vaccine-13
#20
Theresa D Feola, Cynthia A Bonville, Donald A Cibula, Sherly Jose, Geetha Nattanmai, Joseph B Domachowske, Manika Suryadevara
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage rates among HIV-infected adults has not been described since conjugate pneumococcal vaccine-13 (PCV13) was added to the universal infant and childhood vaccination schedule in 2010. METHODS: HIV-infected adults presenting for routine health care visits to the Designated AIDS Center in Syracuse, NY between December 2013 and June 2015 were eligible for enrollment. Demographic, medical, and social history were recorded after obtaining informed consent...
September 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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