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biofilm in surgical site infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225711/reactive-oxygen-therapy-a-novel-therapy-in-soft-tissue-infection
#1
Matthew Dryden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The global burden of disease in skin and soft tissue lesions is enormous. Many chronic, poorly healing lesions get treated with antibiotics despite the lack of evidence for long-term antibiotics. There is a global antibiotic resistance crisis driven largely by inappropriate use of large volumes of antibiotics. One solution is to reduce the selection pressure on bacteria by reducing the volume of antibiotic use in medicine, agriculture and the environment. There are few novel antimicrobials...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219826/hot-topics-in-reactive-oxygen-therapy-antimicrobial-and-immunological-mechanisms-safety-and-clinical-applications
#2
REVIEW
Matthew Dryden, Jonathan Cooke, Rami Salib, Rebecca Holding, Sylvia Pender, Jill Brooks
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), when combined with various delivery mechanisms, has the potential to become a powerful novel therapeutic agent against difficult-to-treat infections, especially those involving biofilm. It is important in the context of the global antibiotic resistance crisis. ROS is rapidly active in vitro against all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. ROS also has antifungal and antiviral properties. ROS prevents the formation of biofilms caused by a range of bacterial species in wounds and respiratory epithelium...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155060/fast-resorbable-antibiotic-loaded-hydrogel-coating-to-reduce-post-surgical-infection-after-internal-osteosynthesis-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Kostantinos Malizos, Michael Blauth, Adrian Danita, Nicola Capuano, Riccardo Mezzoprete, Nicola Logoluso, Lorenzo Drago, Carlo Luca Romanò
BACKGROUND: Infection is one of the main reasons for failure of orthopedic implants. Antibacterial coatings may prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, according to various preclinical studies. The aim of the present study is to report the first clinical trial on an antibiotic-loaded fast-resorbable hydrogel coating (Defensive Antibacterial Coating, DAC(®)) to prevent surgical site infection, in patients undergoing internal osteosynthesis for closed fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this multicenter randomized controlled prospective study, a total of 256 patients in five European orthopedic centers who were scheduled to receive osteosynthesis for a closed fracture, were randomly assigned to receive antibiotic-loaded DAC or to a control group (without coating)...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154812/qivas-therapy-for-treatment-of-implant-associated-mdr-bacterial-infection
#4
Varun Chouhan
INTRODUCTION: Orthopedic implant-associated infections are difficult to treat, both physically and psychologically, for the patient and the surgeon as well. Organisms capable of forming biofilms tend to be more virulent and have ability of causing chronic infections. Chronic implant associated infections are very difficult to treat, requires a lot of time, money and other resources. Chronic infections produce a lot of morbidity and sometimes mortality to the patient. CASE REPORT: A 40-year-old male treated for bilateral acetabular fracture sustained after fall from height due to an episode of seizure...
April 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102784/model-systems-for-the-study-of-enterococcal-colonization-and-infection
#5
H M Sharon Goh, M H Adeline Yong, Kelvin Kian Long Chong, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract, as well as frequent opportunistic pathogens. Enterococci cause a range of infections including, most frequently, infections of the urinary tract, catheterized urinary tract, bloodstream, wounds and surgical sites, and heart valves in endocarditis. Enterococcal infections are often biofilm-associated, polymicrobial in nature, and resistant to antibiotics of last resort. Understanding Enterococcal mechanisms of colonization and pathogenesis are important for identifying new ways to manage and intervene with these infections...
January 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057476/operative-treatment-of-early-infection-after-internal-fixation-of-limb-fractures-exclusive-of-severe-open-fractures
#6
REVIEW
P Bonnevialle
Early infection after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of a limb bone is defined as bacteriologically documented, deep and/or superficial surgical-site infection (SSI) diagnosed within 6months after the surgical procedure. This interval is arbitrarily considered sufficient to obtain fracture healing. The treatment of early infection after ORIF should be decided by a multidisciplinary team. The principles are the same as for revision arthroplasty. Superficial SSIs should be differentiated from deep SSIs, based on the results of bacteriological specimens collected using flawless technique...
January 2, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974013/a-narrative-review-of-microbial-biofilm-in-postoperative-surgical-site-infections-clinical-presentation-and-treatment
#7
C E Edmiston, A J McBain, M Kiernan, D J Leaper
OBJECTIVE: The global impact of surgical site infections (SSIs) on health-care systems is considerable: many are related to the formation of a microbial biofilm. Biofilm plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of implantable device-related infections and are also important in persistent postoperative skin and soft tissue wound infections. METHOD: PubMed and OVID databases were searched for relevant articles regarding biofilm-associated infection in surgery, including epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and management...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922894/antimicrobial-prophylaxis-practice-patterns-in-breast-augmentation-a-national-survey-of-current-practice
#8
Karan Chopra, Arvind U Gowda, Colton H L McNichols, Emile N Brown, Sheri Slezak, Yvonne Rasko
BACKGROUND: Breast augmentation is one of the most commonly performed aesthetic surgery procedures worldwide. Bacterial contamination is of paramount concern due to its role in biofilm formation and capsular contracture. Plastic surgeons have adopted a variety of perioperative interventions in efforts to reduce implant contamination, however definitive evidence supporting these practices is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess current practice patterns aimed at reducing implant-related infections in breast augmentation and comparing them to current evidence-based medicine recommendations...
December 5, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742997/bacterial-contribution-in-chronicity-of-wounds
#9
Kashif Rahim, Shamim Saleha, Xudong Zhu, Liang Huo, Abdul Basit, Octavio Luiz Franco
A wound is damage of a tissue usually caused by laceration of a membrane, generally the skin. Wound healing is accomplished in three stages in healthy individuals, including inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling stages. Healing of wounds normally starts from the inflammatory phase and ends up in the remodeling phase, but chronic wounds remain in an inflammatory stage and do not show progression due to some specific reasons. Chronic wounds are classified in different categories, such as diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), venous leg ulcers (VLU) and pressure ulcer (PU), surgical site infection (SSI), abscess, or trauma ulcers...
October 14, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736645/enterococcal-metabolite-cues-facilitate-interspecies-niche-modulation-and-polymicrobial-infection
#10
Damien Keogh, Wei Hong Tay, Yao Yong Ho, Jennifer L Dale, Siyi Chen, Shivshankar Umashankar, Rohan B H Williams, Swaine L Chen, Gary M Dunny, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis is frequently associated with polymicrobial infections of the urinary tract, indwelling catheters, and surgical wound sites. E. faecalis co-exists with Escherichia coli and other pathogens in wound infections, but mechanisms that govern polymicrobial colonization and pathogenesis are poorly defined. During infection, bacteria must overcome multiple host defenses, including nutrient iron limitation, to persist and cause disease. In this study, we investigated the contribution of E. faecalis to mixed-species infection when iron availability is restricted...
October 12, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703990/candida-albicans-transcriptional-profiling-within-biliary-fluid-from-a-patient-with-cholangitis-before-and-after-antifungal-treatment-and-surgical-drainage
#11
Cornelius J Clancy, Camille Meslin, Hassan Badrane, Shaoji Cheng, Liliana C Losada, William C Nierman, Pascalis Vergidis, Nathan L Clark, M Hong Nguyen
We used ribonucleic acid sequencing to profile Candida albicans transcription within biliary fluid from a patient with cholangitis; samples were collected before and after treatment with fluconazole and drainage. Candida albicans transcriptomes at the infection site distinguished treated from untreated cholangitis. After treatment, 1131 C. albicans genes were differentially expressed in biliary fluid. Up-regulated genes were enriched in hyphal growth, cell wall organization, adhesion, oxidation reduction, biofilm, and fatty acid and ergosterol biosynthesis...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609547/a-case-report-of-a-cochlear-implant-infection-a-reason-to-explant-the-device
#12
Jiri Skrivan, Pavel Drevinek
CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Case history of a paediatric patient with a cochlear implant and a surgical site infection that developed as a result of acute otitis media is presented. INTERVENTION: After conservative management including wound debridement it was decided to explant a functioning device. OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: In a number of cases, it is necessary to remove the infected albeit functioning device, especially in the event of formation of the biofilm has occurred...
September 2016: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482480/salvaging-the-infected-breast-tissue-expander-a-standardized-multidisciplinary-approach
#13
George M Viola, Jesse C Selber, Melissa Crosby, Issam I Raad, Charles E Butler, Mark T Villa, Steven J Kronowitz, Mark W Clemens, Patrick Garvey, Wei Yang, Donald P Baumann
BACKGROUND: Infections of breast tissue expander (TE) are complex, often requiring TE removal and hospitalization, which can delay further adjuvant therapy and add to the overall costs of breast reconstruction. Therefore, to reduce the rate of TE removal, hospitalization, and costs, we created a standardized same-day multidisciplinary outpatient quality improvement protocol for diagnosing and treating patients with early signs of TE infection. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 26 consecutive patients who developed a surgical site infection between February 2013 and April 2014...
June 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436387/correlation-of-mupirocin-resistance-with-biofilm-production-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-from-surgical-site-infections-in-a-tertiary-centre-egypt
#14
Ghada I Barakat, Yasmin M Nabil
The aim of this study was to detect mupirocin-resistant isolates from pus/wound swabs taken postoperatively in a tertiary centre in Egypt and to determine their ability to form biofilm in order to establish its correlation with mupirocin resistance. This was a prospective study including 513pus/wound swabs from patients suffering from postoperative surgical site infections over the period July 2013-January 2015. Samples were cultured and isolates were identified by coagulase activity, DNase test, mannitol fermentation by mannitol salt agar followed by API Staph 32...
March 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355023/next-generation-sequencing-analysis-of-biofilms-from-three-dogs-with-postoperative-surgical-site-infection
#15
L M König, R Klopfleisch, D Höper, A D Gruber
The composition of biofilms in chronic wound infections of dogs is unclear. In the present study, histologically identified biofilms attached to sutures in chronically infected wounds of three dogs were examined by next generation sequencing of total DNA extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples. The analysis identified an inhomogeneous bacterial composition in three tissues containing biofilms. Some of the identified bacterial families such as Staphylococci and Streptococci have been found before in biofilms associated with human and canine wounds but in this study were quantitatively in the minority...
2014: International Scholarly Research Notices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262848/the-role-of-biofilm-on-orthopaedic-implants-the-holy-grail-of-post-traumatic-infection-management
#16
REVIEW
C Mauffrey, B Herbert, H Young, M L Wilson, M Hake, P F Stahel
The development of post-traumatic infection is potentially a limb threatening condition. The orthopaedic trauma literature lags behind the research performed by our arthroplasty colleagues on the topic of implant-related infections. Surgical site infections in the setting of a recent ORIF are notoriously hard to eradicate due to biofilm formation around the implant. This bacteria-friendly, dynamic, living pluri-organism structure has the ability to morph and adapt to virtually any environment with the aim to maintain the causative organism alive...
August 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27227309/the-staphylococcal-biofilm-adhesins-regulation-and-host-response
#17
Alexandra E Paharik, Alexander R Horswill
The staphylococci comprise a diverse genus of Gram-positive, nonmotile commensal organisms that inhabit the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other mammals. In general, staphylococci are benign members of the natural flora, but many species have the capacity to be opportunistic pathogens, mainly infecting individuals who have medical device implants or are otherwise immunocompromised. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are major sources of hospital-acquired infections and are the most common causes of surgical site infections and medical device-associated bloodstream infections...
April 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27127034/gentamicin-loaded-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-microparticles-for-the-prevention-of-maxillofacial-and-orthopedic-implant-infections
#18
Claudia Flores, Stephanie Degoutin, Feng Chai, Gwenael Raoul, Jean-Chritophe Hornez, Bernard Martel, Juergen Siepmann, Joel Ferri, Nicolas Blanchemain
Trauma and orthopedic surgery can cause infections as any open surgical procedures. Such complications occur in only1 to 5% of the cases, but the treatment is rather complicated due to bacterial biofilm formation and limited drug access to the site of infection upon systemic administration. An interesting strategy to overcome this type of complications is to prevent bacterial proliferation and biofilm formation via the local and controlled release of antibiotic drugs from the implant itself. Obviously, the incorporation of the drug into the implant should not affect the latter's biological and mechanical properties...
July 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27099694/evaluation-of-biofilm-formation-among-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-and-molecular-characterization-by-eric-pcr
#19
Kimia Seifi, Hossein Kazemian, Hamid Heidari, Fereshteh Rezagholizadeh, Yasaman Saee, Fariba Shirvani, Hamidreza Houri
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is among the most frequently recovered etiologic agents from nosocomial infections. This opportunistic pathogen can generate a thick layer of biofilm as one of its important virulence factors, enabling the bacteria to attach to living or abiotic surfaces, which contributes to drug resistance. OBJECTIVES: The resistance of biofilm-mediated infections to effective chemotherapy has adverse effects on patient outcomes and survival. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the biofilm-formation capacity of clinical K...
January 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27064296/understanding-preventing-and-eradicating-klebsiella-pneumoniae-biofilms
#20
REVIEW
Suzana Meira Ribeiro, Marlon Henrique Cardoso, Elizabete de Souza Cândido, Octávio Luiz Franco
The ability of pathogenic bacteria to aggregate and form biofilm represents a great problem for public health, since they present extracellular components that encase these micro-organisms, making them more resistant to antibiotics and host immune attack. This may become worse when antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains form biofilms. However, antibiofilm screens with different compounds may reveal potential therapies to prevent/treat biofilm infections. Here, we focused on Klebsiella pneumoniae, an opportunistic bacterium that causes different types of infections, including in the bloodstream, meninges, lungs, urinary system and at surgical sites...
2016: Future Microbiology
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