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biofilm in surgical site infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529860/use-of-chlorhexidine-preparations-in-total-joint-arthroplasty
#1
REVIEW
Jaiben George, Alison K Klika, Carlos A Higuera
Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Chlorhexidine is a widely used antiseptic because of its rapid and persistent action. It is well tolerated and available in different formulations at various concentrations. Chlorhexidine can be used for pre-operative skin cleansing, surgical site preparation, hand antisepsis of the surgical team and intra-articular irrigation of infected joints. The optimal intra-articular concentration of chlorhexidine gluconate in irrigation solution is 2%, to provide a persistent decrease in biofilm formation, though cytotoxicity might be an issue...
2017: J Bone Jt Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520517/nanoantibiotics-a-new-paradigm-for-the-treatment-of-surgical-infection
#2
Joseph S Fernandez-Moure, Michael Evangelopoulos, Kayla Colvill, Jeffrey L Van Eps, Ennio Tasciotti
Infections following orthopedic device implantations often impose a substantial health burden and result in high medical costs. Currently, preventative methods are often employed following an orthopedic implant to reduce risk of infection; however, contamination of the surgical site can still occur. Although antibiotics have demonstrated a substantial reduction in bacterial growth and maintenance, biofilm formation around the implant can often minimize efficacy of the antibiotic. Recently, nanotechnology has garnered significant interest, resulting in the development of several antibiotic delivery strategies that exhibit extended release and increased efficacy...
May 18, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448204/future-research-opportunities-in-peri-prosthetic-joint-infection-prevention
#3
Elie Berbari, John Segreti, Javad Parvizi, Sandra I Berríos-Torres
Peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication of prosthetic joint arthroplasty. A better understanding and reversal of modifiable risk factors may lead to a reduction in the incidence of incisional (superficial and deep) and organ/space (e.g., PJI) surgical site infections (SSI). Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) published the Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection. This targeted update applies evidence-based methodology in drafting recommendations for potential strategies to reduce the risk of SSI both across surgical procedures and specifically in prosthetic joint arthroplasty...
April 27, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414173/affinity-interactions-drive-post-implantation-drug-filling-even-in-the-presence-of-bacterial-biofilm
#4
Erika L Cyphert, Sean T Zuckerman, Horst A von Recum, Julius N Korley
Current post-operative standard of care for surgical procedures, including device implantations, dictates prophylactic antimicrobial therapy, but a percentage of patients still develop infections. Systemic antimicrobial therapy needed to treat such infections can lead to downstream tissue toxicities and generate drug-resistant bacteria. To overcome issues associated with systemic drug administration, a polymer incorporating specific drug affinity has been developed with the potential to be filled or refilled with antimicrobials, post-implantation, even in the presence of bacterial biofilm...
April 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396543/a-topical-hydrogel-with-deferiprone-and-gallium-protoporphyrin-targets-bacterial-iron-metabolism-and-has-antibiofilm-activity
#5
Katharina Richter, Nicky Thomas, Jolien Claeys, Jonathan McGuane, Clive A Prestidge, Tom Coenye, Peter-John Wormald, Sarah Vreugde
Many infectious diseases are associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria residing in biofilms that require high antibiotic concentrations. Whilst oral drug-delivery is frequently ineffective, topical treatments have the potential to deliver higher drug concentrations to the infection-site while reducing systemic side-effects.This study determined the antibiofilm activity of a surgical wound-gel loaded with the iron-chelator deferiprone (Def) and the heme-analogue gallium-protoporphyrin (GaPP), alone and in combination with ciprofloxacin...
April 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367029/biofilm-colonization-in-chronic-treatment-refractory-infections-presenting-with-discharging-sinuses-a-study-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-eastern-india
#6
Asmita De, Hirak Jyoti Raj, Jayeeta Haldar, Poulami Mukherjee, Prasanta Kumar Maiti
INTRODUCTION: Treatment refractory chronic recurrent infections mean those chronic infections which recur by same causal agents with similar drug responsiveness after apparent relief following full course of recommended antimicrobial management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty different samples were collected from patients with chronic surgical site infections, laparoscopic port site infections, anal fistula, mesh hernioplasty, chronic dacryocystitis, chronic osteomyelitis, and chronic burn wounds...
April 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362873/chitosan-propolis-nanoparticle-formulation-demonstrates-anti-bacterial-activity-against-enterococcus-faecalis-biofilms
#7
Teik Hwa Ong, Ebenezer Chitra, Srinivasan Ramamurthy, Rajinikanth Paruvathanahalli Siddalingam, Kah Hay Yuen, Stephen Periathamby Ambu, Fabian Davamani
Propolis obtained from bee hives is a natural substance with antimicrobial properties. It is limited by its insolubility in aqueous solutions; hence ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Malaysian propolis were prepared. Both the extracts displayed antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against Enterococcus faecalis, a common bacterium associated with hospital-acquired infections. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of propolis revealed the presence of flavonoids like kaempferol and pinocembrin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225711/reactive-oxygen-therapy-a-novel-therapy-in-soft-tissue-infection
#8
Matthew Dryden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The global burden of disease in skin and soft tissue lesions is enormous. Many chronic, poorly healing lesions get treated with antibiotics despite the lack of evidence for long-term antibiotics. There is a global antibiotic resistance crisis driven largely by inappropriate use of large volumes of antibiotics. One solution is to reduce the selection pressure on bacteria by reducing the volume of antibiotic use in medicine, agriculture and the environment. There are few novel antimicrobials...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219826/hot-topics-in-reactive-oxygen-therapy-antimicrobial-and-immunological-mechanisms-safety-and-clinical-applications
#9
REVIEW
Matthew Dryden, Jonathan Cooke, Rami Salib, Rebecca Holding, Sylvia L F Pender, Jill Brooks
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), when combined with various delivery mechanisms, has the potential to become a powerful novel therapeutic agent against difficult-to-treat infections, especially those involving biofilm. It is important in the context of the global antibiotic resistance crisis. ROS is rapidly active in vitro against all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. ROS also has antifungal and antiviral properties. ROS prevents the formation of biofilms caused by a range of bacterial species in wounds and respiratory epithelium...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155060/fast-resorbable-antibiotic-loaded-hydrogel-coating-to-reduce-post-surgical-infection-after-internal-osteosynthesis-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Kostantinos Malizos, Michael Blauth, Adrian Danita, Nicola Capuano, Riccardo Mezzoprete, Nicola Logoluso, Lorenzo Drago, Carlo Luca Romanò
BACKGROUND: Infection is one of the main reasons for failure of orthopedic implants. Antibacterial coatings may prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, according to various preclinical studies. The aim of the present study is to report the first clinical trial on an antibiotic-loaded fast-resorbable hydrogel coating (Defensive Antibacterial Coating, DAC(®)) to prevent surgical site infection, in patients undergoing internal osteosynthesis for closed fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this multicenter randomized controlled prospective study, a total of 256 patients in five European orthopedic centers who were scheduled to receive osteosynthesis for a closed fracture, were randomly assigned to receive antibiotic-loaded DAC or to a control group (without coating)...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154812/qivas-therapy-for-treatment-of-implant-associated-mdr-bacterial-infection
#11
Varun Chouhan
INTRODUCTION: Orthopedic implant-associated infections are difficult to treat, both physically and psychologically, for the patient and the surgeon as well. Organisms capable of forming biofilms tend to be more virulent and have ability of causing chronic infections. Chronic implant associated infections are very difficult to treat, requires a lot of time, money and other resources. Chronic infections produce a lot of morbidity and sometimes mortality to the patient. CASE REPORT: A 40-year-old male treated for bilateral acetabular fracture sustained after fall from height due to an episode of seizure...
April 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102784/model-systems-for-the-study-of-enterococcal-colonization-and-infection
#12
H M Sharon Goh, M H Adeline Yong, Kelvin Kian Long Chong, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract, as well as frequent opportunistic pathogens. Enterococci cause a range of infections including, most frequently, infections of the urinary tract, catheterized urinary tract, bloodstream, wounds and surgical sites, and heart valves in endocarditis. Enterococcal infections are often biofilm-associated, polymicrobial in nature, and resistant to antibiotics of last resort. Understanding Enterococcal mechanisms of colonization and pathogenesis are important for identifying new ways to manage and intervene with these infections...
January 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057476/operative-treatment-of-early-infection-after-internal-fixation-of-limb-fractures-exclusive-of-severe-open-fractures
#13
REVIEW
P Bonnevialle
Early infection after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of a limb bone is defined as bacteriologically documented, deep and/or superficial surgical-site infection (SSI) diagnosed within 6months after the surgical procedure. This interval is arbitrarily considered sufficient to obtain fracture healing. The treatment of early infection after ORIF should be decided by a multidisciplinary team. The principles are the same as for revision arthroplasty. Superficial SSIs should be differentiated from deep SSIs, based on the results of bacteriological specimens collected using flawless technique...
February 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974013/a-narrative-review-of-microbial-biofilm-in-postoperative-surgical-site-infections-clinical-presentation-and-treatment
#14
REVIEW
C E Edmiston, A J McBain, M Kiernan, D J Leaper
OBJECTIVE: The global impact of surgical site infections (SSIs) on health-care systems is considerable: many are related to the formation of a microbial biofilm. Biofilm plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of implantable device-related infections and are also important in persistent postoperative skin and soft tissue wound infections. METHOD: PubMed and OVID databases were searched for relevant articles regarding biofilm-associated infection in surgery, including epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and management...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922894/antimicrobial-prophylaxis-practice-patterns-in-breast-augmentation-a-national-survey-of-current-practice
#15
Karan Chopra, Arvind U Gowda, Colton H L McNichols, Emile N Brown, Sheri Slezak, Yvonne Rasko
BACKGROUND: Breast augmentation is one of the most commonly performed aesthetic surgery procedures worldwide. Bacterial contamination is of paramount concern due to its role in biofilm formation and capsular contracture. Plastic surgeons have adopted a variety of perioperative interventions in efforts to reduce implant contamination, however definitive evidence supporting these practices is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess current practice patterns aimed at reducing implant-related infections in breast augmentation and comparing them to current evidence-based medicine recommendations...
June 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742997/bacterial-contribution-in-chronicity-of-wounds
#16
REVIEW
Kashif Rahim, Shamim Saleha, Xudong Zhu, Liang Huo, Abdul Basit, Octavio Luiz Franco
A wound is damage of a tissue usually caused by laceration of a membrane, generally the skin. Wound healing is accomplished in three stages in healthy individuals, including inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling stages. Healing of wounds normally starts from the inflammatory phase and ends up in the remodeling phase, but chronic wounds remain in an inflammatory stage and do not show progression due to some specific reasons. Chronic wounds are classified in different categories, such as diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), venous leg ulcers (VLU) and pressure ulcer (PU), surgical site infection (SSI), abscess, or trauma ulcers...
April 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736645/enterococcal-metabolite-cues-facilitate-interspecies-niche-modulation-and-polymicrobial-infection
#17
Damien Keogh, Wei Hong Tay, Yao Yong Ho, Jennifer L Dale, Siyi Chen, Shivshankar Umashankar, Rohan B H Williams, Swaine L Chen, Gary M Dunny, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis is frequently associated with polymicrobial infections of the urinary tract, indwelling catheters, and surgical wound sites. E. faecalis co-exists with Escherichia coli and other pathogens in wound infections, but mechanisms that govern polymicrobial colonization and pathogenesis are poorly defined. During infection, bacteria must overcome multiple host defenses, including nutrient iron limitation, to persist and cause disease. In this study, we investigated the contribution of E. faecalis to mixed-species infection when iron availability is restricted...
October 12, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703990/candida-albicans-transcriptional-profiling-within-biliary-fluid-from-a-patient-with-cholangitis-before-and-after-antifungal-treatment-and-surgical-drainage
#18
Cornelius J Clancy, Camille Meslin, Hassan Badrane, Shaoji Cheng, Liliana C Losada, William C Nierman, Pascalis Vergidis, Nathan L Clark, M Hong Nguyen
We used ribonucleic acid sequencing to profile Candida albicans transcription within biliary fluid from a patient with cholangitis; samples were collected before and after treatment with fluconazole and drainage. Candida albicans transcriptomes at the infection site distinguished treated from untreated cholangitis. After treatment, 1131 C. albicans genes were differentially expressed in biliary fluid. Up-regulated genes were enriched in hyphal growth, cell wall organization, adhesion, oxidation reduction, biofilm, and fatty acid and ergosterol biosynthesis...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609547/a-case-report-of-a-cochlear-implant-infection-a-reason-to-explant-the-device
#19
Jiri Skrivan, Pavel Drevinek
CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Case history of a paediatric patient with a cochlear implant and a surgical site infection that developed as a result of acute otitis media is presented. INTERVENTION: After conservative management including wound debridement it was decided to explant a functioning device. OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: In a number of cases, it is necessary to remove the infected albeit functioning device, especially in the event of formation of the biofilm has occurred...
September 2016: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482480/salvaging-the-infected-breast-tissue-expander-a-standardized-multidisciplinary-approach
#20
George M Viola, Jesse C Selber, Melissa Crosby, Issam I Raad, Charles E Butler, Mark T Villa, Steven J Kronowitz, Mark W Clemens, Patrick Garvey, Wei Yang, Donald P Baumann
BACKGROUND: Infections of breast tissue expander (TE) are complex, often requiring TE removal and hospitalization, which can delay further adjuvant therapy and add to the overall costs of breast reconstruction. Therefore, to reduce the rate of TE removal, hospitalization, and costs, we created a standardized same-day multidisciplinary outpatient quality improvement protocol for diagnosing and treating patients with early signs of TE infection. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 26 consecutive patients who developed a surgical site infection between February 2013 and April 2014...
June 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
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