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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530205/phantom-experiments-using-soft-prior-regularization-eit-for-breast-cancer-imaging
#1
Ethan K Murphy, Aditya Mahara, Xiaotian Wu, Ryan J Halter
OBJECTIVE: A soft-prior regularization (SR) electrical impedance tomography (EIT) technique for breast cancer imaging is described, which shows an ability to accurately reconstruct tumor/inclusion conductivity values within a dense breast model investigated using a cylindrical and a breast-shaped tank. APPROACH: The SR-EIT method relies on knowing the spatial location of a suspicious lesion initially detected from a second imaging modality. Standard approaches (using Laplace smoothing and total variation regularization) without prior structural information are unable to accurately reconstruct or detect the tumors...
June 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527736/the-effects-of-non-invasive-radiofrequency-electric-field-hyperthermia-on-biotransport-and-biodistribution-of-fluorescent-60-fullerene-derivative-in-a-murine-orthotopic-model-of-breast-adenocarcinoma
#2
Norman A Lapin, Martyna Krzykawska-Serda, Sean Dilliard, Yuri Mackeyev, Maciej Serda, Lon J Wilson, Steven A Curley, Stuart J Corr
The aim of this study is to understand the combined and differential biokinetic effects of radiofrequency (RF) electric-field hyperthermia as an adjunctive therapy to [60]fullerene nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems in targeting the micro-vasculature and micro-environments of breast cancer tumors. Intravital microscopy (IVM) is an ideal tool to provide the spatial and temporal resolution needed for quantification in this investigation. The water-soluble and fluorescent [60]fullerene derivative (C60-serPF) was designed to be an amphiphilic nanostructure, which is able to cross several biological membranes and accumulate in tumor tissues by passing through abnormally leaky tumor blood vessels...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525328/establishment-of-5-fluorouracil-resistant-canine-mammary-tumor-cell-line
#3
B Zhou, D Zhang, S M Pei, H Zhang, H C Du, Y P Jin, D G Lin
Canine mammary tumors are the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs. The surgery cannot always solve the problem, chemotherapy are recommend to these patients. However, chemotherapy could always fail because of multidrug resistance (MDR). Through stepwise increasing 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) concentration in the culture medium, a 5-FU-resistant canine mammary tumor cell line CMT7364/5-FU was established to disclose the molecular mechanism of the drug resistance. Cell morphology, cell sensitivity to drugs, growth curves, expression of proteins, and chemo-sensitivity in vivo were compared between the parental cell line and resistant cell line...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523075/mouse-mammary-tumour-virus-mmtv-and-human-breast-cancer-with-neuroendocrine-differentiation
#4
Lawson Js, Ngan Cc, Glenn Wk, Tran Dd
BACKGROUND: Mouse mammary tumour viruses (MMTVs) may have a role in a subset of human breast cancers. MMTV positive human breast cancers have similar histological characteristics to neuroendocrine breast cancers and to MMTV positive mouse mammary tumours. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of neuroendocrine biomarkers - synaptophysin and chromogranin, to determine if these histological characteristics and biomarker expression were due to the influences of MMTV...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522938/mucin-1-antibody-conjugated-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-for-selective-breast-cancer-detection-in-a-mucin-1-transgenic-murine-mouse-model
#5
Didier Dréau, Laura Jeffords Moore, Merlis P Alvarez-Berrios, Mubin Tarannum, Pinku Mukherjee, Juan L Vivero-Escoto
Mucin-1 (MUC1), a transmembrane glycoprotein is aberrantly expressed on ~90% of breast cancer and is an excellent target for nanoparticulate targeted imaging. In this study, the development of a dye-doped NIR emitting mesoporous silica nanoparticles platform conjugated to tumor-specific MUC1 antibody (ab-tMUC1-NIR-MSN) for in vivo optical detection of breast adenocarcinoma tissue is reported. The structural properties, the in vitro and in vivo performance of this nanoparticle-based probe were evaluated. In vitro studies showed that the MSN-based optical imaging nanoprobe is non-cytotoxic and targets efficiently mammary cancer cells overexpressing human tMUC1 protein...
December 2016: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522586/antitumor-synergism-and-enhanced-survival-with-a-tumor-vasculature-targeted-enzyme-prodrug-system-rapamycin-and-cyclophosphamide
#6
John J Krais, Needa Virani, Partick H McKernan, Quang Nguyen, Kar-Ming Fung, Vassilios I Sikavitsas, Carla D Kurkjian, Roger G Harrison
Mutant cystathionine gamma-lyase was targeted to phosphatidylserine exposed on tumor vasculature through fusion with annexin A1 or annexin A5.  Cystathionine gamma-lyase E58N, R118L, and E338N mutations impart non-native methionine gamma-lyase activity, resulting in tumor-localized generation of highly toxic methylselenol upon systemic administration of non-toxic selenomethionine.  The described therapeutic system circumvents systemic toxicity issues using a novel drug delivery/generation approach and avoids the administration of non-native proteins and/or DNA required with other enzyme prodrug systems...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521483/use-of-laser-capture-microdissection-allows-detection-of-loss-of-heterozygosity-in-chromosome-9p-in-breast-cancer
#7
Margarida Figueiredo Dias, Robert Blumenstein, Jose Russo
The present study was designed to determine whether loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the p arm of chromosome 9 in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast is detected during the neoplastic progression of the disease. Using laser capture microdissection (LCM) epithelial cells were isolated from 14 invasive ductal carcinoma cases (IDC), ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), normal mammary lobules, skin and/or lymph nodes of paraffin embedded tissue sections. LOH analysis of chromosome 9p was performed utilizing the microsatellite markers D9S199, D9S157, D9S171, D9S265 and D9S270...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521467/upregulation-of-maspin-expression-in-human-cervical-carcinoma-cells-by-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-through-the-convergence-of-smad-and-non-smad-signaling-pathways
#8
Ariyaphong Wongnoppavich, Nahathai Dukaew, Sirinthip Choonate, Kongthawat Chairatvit
Mammary serine protease inhibitor (maspin), encoded by the serpin family B member 5 gene, serves as a tumor suppressor through the inhibition of cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Paradoxically, maspin levels are upregulated in a number of types of malignant cells. Therefore, the regulation of maspin expression may depend on the genetic or epigenetic background and the specific microenvironment of carcinoma cells. In the present study, it was demonstrated that transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) induced maspin expression at the transcript and protein levels in the human cervical carcinoma HeLa and human oral squamous carcinoma HSC4 cell lines...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514727/nuclear-receptor-nr4a1-is-a-tumor-suppressor-down-regulated-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#9
Hongmei Wu, Jiong Bi, Yan Peng, Lei Huo, Xiaobin Yu, Zhihui Yang, Yunyun Zhou, Li Qin, Yixiang Xu, Lan Liao, Yang Xie, Orla M Conneely, Jos Jonkers, Jianming Xu
The nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily contains hormone-inducible transcription factors that regulate many physiological and pathological processes through regulating gene expression. NR4A1 is an NR family member that still does not have an identified endogenous ligand, and its role in cancer is also currently unclear and controversial. In this study, we aimed to define the expression profiles and specific role of NR4A1 in the highly malignant triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which still lacks available targeted therapies...
April 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506312/pathomimetic-avatars-reveal-divergent-roles-of-microenvironment-in-invasive-transition-of-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ
#10
Mansoureh Sameni, Dora Cavallo-Medved, Omar E Franco, Anita Chalasani, Kyungmin Ji, Neha Aggarwal, Arulselvi Anbalagan, Xuequn Chen, Raymond R Mattingly, Simon W Hayward, Bonnie F Sloane
BACKGROUND: The breast tumor microenvironment regulates progression of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). However, it is unclear how interactions between breast epithelial and stromal cells can drive this progression and whether there are reliable microenvironmental biomarkers to predict transition of DCIS to IDC. METHODS: We used xenograft mouse models and a 3D pathomimetic model termed mammary architecture and microenvironment engineering (MAME) to study the interplay between human breast myoepithelial cells (MEPs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) on DCIS progression...
May 15, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505193/the-drosophila-orthologue-of-the-int6-onco-protein-regulates-mitotic-microtubule-growth-and-kinetochore-structure
#11
Fioranna Renda, Claudia Pellacani, Anton Strunov, Elisabetta Bucciarelli, Valeria Naim, Giuseppe Bosso, Elena Kiseleva, Silvia Bonaccorsi, David J Sharp, Alexey Khodjakov, Maurizio Gatti, Maria Patrizia Somma
INT6/eIF3e is a highly conserved component of the translation initiation complex that interacts with both the 26S proteasome and the COP9 signalosome, two complexes implicated in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. The INT6 gene was originally identified as the insertion site of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), and later shown to be involved in human tumorigenesis. Here we show that depletion of the Drosophila orthologue of INT6 (Int6) results in short mitotic spindles and deformed centromeres and kinetochores with low intra-kinetochore distance...
May 15, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504970/osteoclast-proton-pump-regulator-atp6v1c1-enhances-breast-cancer-growth-by-activating-the-mtorc1-pathway-and-bone-metastasis-by-increasing-v-atpase-activity
#12
Matthew McConnell, Shengmei Feng, Wei Chen, Guochun Zhu, Dejun Shen, Selvarangan Ponnazhagan, Lianfu Deng, Yi-Ping Li
It is known that V-ATPases (vacuolar H+-ATPase) are involved in breast cancer growth and metastasis. Part of this action is similar to their role in osteoclasts, where they're involved in extracellular acidification and matrix destruction; however, the roles of their subunits in cancer cell proliferation, signaling, and other pro-tumor actions are not well established. Analysis of TCGA data shows that V-ATPase subunit Atp6v1c1 is overexpressed or amplified in 34% of human breast cancer cases, with a 2-fold decrease in survival at 12 years...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504653/metabolic-shifts-in-residual-breast-cancer-drive-tumor-recurrence
#13
Kristina M Havas, Vladislava Milchevskaya, Ksenija Radic, Ashna Alladin, Eleni Kafkia, Marta Garcia, Jens Stolte, Bernd Klaus, Nicole Rotmensz, Toby J Gibson, Barbara Burwinkel, Andreas Schneeweiss, Giancarlo Pruneri, Kiran R Patil, Rocio Sotillo, Martin Jechlinger
Tumor recurrence is the leading cause of breast cancer-related death. Recurrences are largely driven by cancer cells that survive therapeutic intervention. This poorly understood population is referred to as minimal residual disease. Here, using mouse models that faithfully recapitulate human disease together with organoid cultures, we have demonstrated that residual cells acquire a transcriptionally distinct state from normal epithelium and primary tumors. Gene expression changes and functional characterization revealed altered lipid metabolism and elevated ROS as hallmarks of the cells that survive tumor regression...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501931/effect-of-allyl-isothiocyanate-on-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-7-12-dimethylbenz-a-anthracene-and-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea-induced-mammary-carcinogenesis
#14
Thangarasu Rajakumar, Pachaiappan Pugalendhi, Rajendran Jayaganesh, Dhanabalan Ananthakrishnan, Krishnaswamy Gunasekaran
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the process of carcinogenesis and phytochemicals have anti-inflammatory properties gaining more importance in cancer chemoprevention. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)- and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that inflammatory markers such as NF-κB p65, TNF-α, and IL-6 were overexpressed in mammary tumor tissues...
May 13, 2017: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501760/stromal-pdgfr-%C3%AE-activation-enhances-matrix-stiffness-impedes-mammary-ductal-development-and-accelerates-tumor-growth
#15
Anisha M Hammer, Gina M Sizemore, Vasudha C Shukla, Alex Avendano, Steven T Sizemore, Jonathan J Chang, Raleigh D Kladney, Maria C Cuitiño, Katie A Thies, Quinn Verfurth, Arnab Chakravarti, Lisa D Yee, Gustavo Leone, Jonathan W Song, Samir N Ghadiali, Michael C Ostrowski
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical for mammary ductal development and differentiation, but how mammary fibroblasts regulate ECM remodeling remains to be elucidated. Herein, we used a mouse genetic model to activate platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRα) specifically in the stroma. Hyperactivation of PDGFRα in the mammary stroma severely hindered pubertal mammary ductal morphogenesis, but did not interrupt the lobuloalveolar differentiation program. Increased stromal PDGFRα signaling induced mammary fat pad fibrosis with a corresponding increase in interstitial hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen deposition...
May 11, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500840/cystatin-c-deficiency-suppresses-tumor-growth-in-a-breast-cancer-model-through-decreased-proliferation-of-tumor-cells
#16
Janja Završnik, Miha Butinar, Mojca Trstenjak Prebanda, Aleksander Krajnc, Robert Vidmar, Marko FonoviÄ, Anders Grubb, Vito Turk, Boris Turk, Olga Vasiljeva
Cysteine cathepsins are proteases that, in addition to their important physiological functions, have been associated with multiple pathologies, including cancer. Cystatin C (CstC) is a major endogenous inhibitor that regulates the extracellular activity of cysteine cathepsins. We investigated the role of cystatin C in mammary cancer using CstC knockout mice and a mouse model of breast cancer induced by expression of the polyoma middle T oncoprotein (PyMT) in the mammary epithelium. We showed that the ablation of CstC reduced the rate of mammary tumor growth...
April 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499439/the-role-of-tgf-%C3%AE-and-its-crosstalk-with-rac1-rac1b-signaling-in-breast-and-pancreas-carcinoma
#17
REVIEW
Catharina Melzer, Ralf Hass, Juliane von der Ohe, Hendrik Lehnert, Hendrik Ungefroren
This article focusses on the role of TGF-β and its signaling crosstalk with the RHO family GTPases RAC1 and RAC1b in the progression of breast and pancreatic carcinoma. The aggressive nature of these tumor types is mainly due to metastatic dissemination. Metastasis is facilitated by desmoplasia, a peculiar tumor microenvironment and the ability of the tumor cells to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and to adopt a motile and invasive phenotype. These processes are controlled entirely or in part by TGF-β and the small RHO GTPase RAC1 with both proteins acting as tumor promoters in late-stage cancers...
May 12, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499392/experimental-tumor-growth-of-canine-osteosarcoma-cell-line-on-chick-embryo-chorioallantoic-membrane-in-vivo-studies
#18
Magdalena Walewska, Izabella Dolka, Anna Małek, Anna Wojtalewicz, Agata Wojtkowska, Artur Żbikowski, Roman Lechowski, Katarzyna Zabielska-Koczywąs
The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model is extensively used in human medicine in preclinical oncological studies. The CAM model has several advantages: low cost, simple experimental approach, time saving and following "3R principles". Research has shown that the human osteosarcoma cell lines U2OS, MMNG-HOS, and SAOS can form tumors on the CAM. In veterinary medicine, this has been described only for feline fibrosarcomas, feline mammary carcinomas and canine osteosarcomas. However, in case of canine osteosarcomas, it has been shown that only non-adherent osteosarcoma stem cells isolated from KTOSA5 and CSKOS cell lines have the ability to form microtumors on the CAM after an incubation period of 5 days, in contrast to adherent KTOSA5 and CSKOS cells...
May 12, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498365/inhibition-of-twist1-mediated-invasion-by-chk2-promotes-premature-senescence-in-p53-defective-cancer-cells
#19
Debasis Nayak, Anmol Kumar, Souneek Chakraborty, Reyaz Ur Rasool, Hina Amin, Archana Katoch, Veena Gopinath, Vidushi Mahajan, Mahesh K Zilla, Bilal Rah, Sumit G Gandhi, Asif Ali, Lekha Dinesh Kumar, Anindya Goswami
Twist1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor is implicated as a key mediator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastatic dissemination in p53-deficient cancer cells. On the other hand, checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), a major cell cycle regulatory protein provides a barrier to tumorigenesis due to DNA damage response by preserving genomic stability of the cells. Here we demonstrate that Chk2 induction proficiently abrogates invasion, cell scattering and invadopodia formation ability of p53-mutated invasive cells by suppressing Twist1, indicating Chk2 confers vital role in metastasis prevention...
May 12, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497566/cest-mri-of-3-o-methyl-d-glucose-on-different-breast-cancer-models
#20
Michal Rivlin, Gil Navon
PURPOSE: To test the ability of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMG) to detect tumors in several breast cancer models of murine and human origin, for different routes of administration of the agent and to compare the method with glucoCEST and with (18) FDG-PET on the same animals. METHODS: In vivo CEST MRI experiments were performed with a 7T Biospec animal MRI scanner on implanted orthotopic mammary tumors of mice before and after administration of 3OMG...
May 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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