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Protein and resistance exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346813/protein-supplementation-does-not-affect-myogenic-adaptations-to-resistance-training
#1
Paul T Reidy, Christopher S Fry, Sherry Igbinigie, Rachel R Deer, Kristofer Jennings, Mark B Cope, Ratna Mukherjea, Elena Volpi, Blake B Rasmussen
It has been proposed that protein supplementation during resistance exercise training enhances muscle hypertrophy. The degree of hypertrophy during training is controlled in part through activation of satellite cells and myonuclear accretion. PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of protein supplementation (and the type of protein) during traditional resistance training on myofiber cross-sectional-area, satellite cell content and myonuclear addition. METHODS: Healthy young men participated in supervised whole body progressive resistance training 3d/wk for 12 weeks...
February 14, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345766/%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-and-exercise-training-independently-and-additively-decreases-blood-pressure-and-prevents-diastolic-dysfunction-in-obese-zucker-rats
#2
Pierre-Andre Barbeau, Tanya M Holloway, Jamie Whitfield, Brittany Baechler, Joe Quadrilatero, Luc J C van Loon, Adrian Chabowski, Graham P Holloway
While α-linolenic acid (ALA) and endurance exercise training independently attenuate hyperlipidemia-related cardiovascular derangements, there is a paucity of information pertaining to their mechanisms-of-action and efficacy when combined as a preventative therapeutic approach. Therefore, we used obese Zucker rats to investigate the independent and combined effects of these interventions on cardiovascular disease. Specifically, animals were randomly assigned to one of the following: control diet-sedentary (C-Sed), ALA supplemented-sedentary (ALA-Sed), control diet-exercise trained (C-Ex), or ALA supplemented-exercise trained (ALA-Ex)...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333717/effect-of-resistance-exercise-on-muscle-metabolism-and-autophagy-in-sibm
#3
Jae-Hoon Jeong, Dae-Seung Yang, Dong-Ju Hwang, Joon-Yong Cho, Eun-Bum Kang
PURPOSE: Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM), a muscular degenerative disease in the elderly, is an inflammatory myopathy characterized by muscle weakness in the wrist flexor, quadriceps, and tibialis anterior muscles. We aimed to identify the therapeutic effect of resistance exercise (RE) in improving sIBM symptoms in an sIBM animal model. METHODS: Six-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into a sham group (sham, n = 12), chloroquine-control group (CQ-con, n = 12), and chloroquine-RE group (CQ-RE, n = 12)...
March 23, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303243/high-density-lipoprotein-subfractions-and-cholesterol-efflux-capacity-are-not-affected-by-supervised-exercise-but-are-associated-with-baseline-interleukin-6-in-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease
#4
Mazen S Albaghdadi, Zheng Wang, Ying Gao, R Kannan Mutharasan, John Wilkins
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions, efflux capacity, and inflammatory markers at baseline and the effect of supervised exercise on these HDL parameters in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). METHODS: The study to improve leg circulation (SILC) was a randomized trial of supervised treadmill exercise, leg resistance training, or control in individuals with PAD. In a post hoc cross-sectional analysis, we quantified the associations between baseline HDL subfraction concentrations (HDL2 and HDL3), HDL-C efflux capacity, and inflammatory markers [C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)]...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296942/co-ingestion-of-carbohydrate-and-whey-protein-increases-fasted-rates-of-muscle-protein-synthesis-immediately-after-resistance-exercise-in-rats
#5
Wanyi Wang, Zhenping Ding, Geoffrey J Solares, Soon-Mi Choi, Bo Wang, Aram Yoon, Roger P Farrar, John L Ivy
The objective of the study was to investigate whether co-ingestion of carbohydrate and protein as compared with protein alone augments muscle protein synthesis (MPS) during early exercise recovery. Two months old rats performed 10 repetitions of ladder climbing with 75% of body weight attached to their tails. Placebo (PLA), whey protein (WP), or whey protein plus carbohydrate (CP) was then given to rats by gavage. An additional group of sedentary rats (SED) was used as controls. Blood samples were collected immediately and at either 1 or 2 h after exercise...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291948/eccentric-training-for-tendon-healing-after-acute-lesion-a-rat-model
#6
Jean-François Kaux, Vincent Libertiaux, Pierre Leprince, Marianne Fillet, Vincent Denoel, Clémence Wyss, Christelle Lecut, André Gothot, Caroline Le Goff, Jean-Louis Croisier, Jean-Michel Crielaard, Pierre Drion
BACKGROUND: The tendon is a dynamic entity that remodels permanently. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection has been shown to have a beneficial effect on tendon healing after lesion in rats. Furthermore, eccentric exercise seems to improve the mechanical quality of the tendon. HYPOTHESIS: A combination of PRP injection and eccentric training might be more effective than either treatment alone. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Adult male rats were anesthetized, an incision was performed in the middle of their left patellar tendon and an injection of physiological fluid (PF) or homologous PRP was randomly made at the lesion level...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288611/benefits-of-resistance-exercise-in-lean-women-with-fibromyalgia-involvement-of-igf-1-and-leptin
#7
Jan L Bjersing, Anette Larsson, Annie Palstam, Malin Ernberg, Indre Bileviciute-Ljungar, Monika Löfgren, Björn Gerdle, Eva Kosek, Kaisa Mannerkorpi
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain and fatigue improves by exercise in fibromyalgia (FM) but underlying mechanisms are not known. Obesity is increased among FM patients and associates with higher levels of pain. Symptom improvement after aerobic exercise is affected by body mass index (BMI) in FM. Metabolic factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and leptin may be involved. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the role of metabolic factors in lean, overweight and obese women during resistance exercise, in relation to symptom severity and muscle strength in women with FM...
March 14, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286988/exercise-and-nutritional-approaches-to-prevent-frail-bones-falls-and-fractures-an-update
#8
REVIEW
R M Daly
Osteoporosis (low bone strength) and sarcopenia (low muscle mass, strength and/or impaired function) often co-exist (hence the term 'sarco-osteoporosis') and have similar health consequences with regard to disability, falls, frailty and fractures. Exercise and adequate nutrition, particularly with regard to vitamin D, calcium and protein, are key lifestyle approaches that can simultaneously optimize bone, muscle and functional outcomes in older people, if they are individually tailored and appropriately prescribed in terms of the type and dose...
April 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280974/post-absorptive-muscle-protein-turnover-affects-resistance-training-hypertrophy
#9
Paul T Reidy, Michael S Borack, Melissa M Markofski, Jared M Dickinson, Christopher S Fry, Rachel R Deer, Elena Volpi, Blake B Rasmussen
PURPOSE: Acute bouts of resistance exercise and subsequent training alters protein turnover in skeletal muscle. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in basal post-absorptive protein turnover and its impact on muscle hypertrophy following resistance exercise training are unknown. Our goal was to determine whether post-absorptive muscle protein turnover following 12 weeks of resistance exercise training (RET) plays a role in muscle hypertrophy. In addition, we were interested in determining potential molecular mechanisms responsible for altering post-training muscle protein turnover...
March 9, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273480/enhanced-protein-translation-underlies-improved-metabolic-and-physical-adaptations-to-different-exercise-training-modes-in-young-and-old-humans
#10
Matthew M Robinson, Surendra Dasari, Adam R Konopka, Matthew L Johnson, S Manjunatha, Raul Ruiz Esponda, Rickey E Carter, Ian R Lanza, K Sreekumaran Nair
The molecular transducers of benefits from different exercise modalities remain incompletely defined. Here we report that 12 weeks of high-intensity aerobic interval (HIIT), resistance (RT), and combined exercise training enhanced insulin sensitivity and lean mass, but only HIIT and combined training improved aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration. HIIT revealed a more robust increase in gene transcripts than other exercise modalities, particularly in older adults, although little overlap with corresponding individual protein abundance was noted...
March 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264047/plasma-and-adipose-tissue-level-of-angiopoietin-like-7-angptl7-are-increased-in-obesity-and-reduced-after-physical-exercise
#11
Mohamed Abu-Farha, Preethi Cherian, Irina Al-Khairi, Dhanya Madhu, Ali Tiss, Samia Warsam, Asma Alhubail, Devarajan Sriraman, Faisal Al-Refaei, Jehad Abubaker
OBJECTIVE: ANGPTL7 is a member of the Angiopoietin-like (ANGPTL) protein family that is composed of eight proteins (1-8). Increasing evidence is associating ANGPTL proteins to obesity and insulin resistance. The biological role of ANGPTL7 is yet to be understood except for a recently proposed role in the pathophysiology of glaucoma. This study was designed to shed light on the function of ANGPTL7 in obesity and its modulation by physical exercise as well as its potential association with lipid profile...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263310/deficiency-of-the-hepatokine-selenoprotein-p-increases-responsiveness-to-exercise-in-mice-through-upregulation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-muscle
#12
Hirofumi Misu, Hiroaki Takayama, Yoshiro Saito, Yuichiro Mita, Akihiro Kikuchi, Kiyo-Aki Ishii, Keita Chikamoto, Takehiro Kanamori, Natsumi Tajima, Fei Lan, Yumie Takeshita, Masao Honda, Mutsumi Tanaka, Seiji Kato, Naoto Matsuyama, Yuya Yoshioka, Kaito Iwayama, Kumpei Tokuyama, Nobuhiko Akazawa, Seiji Maeda, Kazuhiro Takekoshi, Seiichi Matsugo, Noriko Noguchi, Shuichi Kaneko, Toshinari Takamura
Exercise has numerous health-promoting effects in humans; however, individual responsiveness to exercise with regard to endurance or metabolic health differs markedly. This 'exercise resistance' is considered to be congenital, with no evident acquired causative factors. Here we show that the anti-oxidative hepatokine selenoprotein P (SeP) causes exercise resistance through its muscle receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). SeP-deficient mice showed a 'super-endurance' phenotype after exercise training, as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferative activated receptor γ coactivator (Ppargc)-1α (also known as PGC-1α; encoded by Ppargc1a) expression in skeletal muscle...
February 27, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254758/role-of-mct1-and-caii-in-skeletal-muscle-ph-homeostasis-energetics-and-function-in-vivo-insights-from-mct1-haploinsufficient-mice
#13
Benjamin Chatel, David Bendahan, Christophe Hourdé, Luc Pellerin, Sylvain Lengacher, Pierre Magistretti, Yann Le Fur, Christophe Vilmen, Monique Bernard, Laurent A Messonnier
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a partial suppression of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-1 on skeletal muscle pH, energetics, and function (MCT1(+/-) mice). Twenty-four MCT1(+/-) and 13 wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to a rest-exercise-recovery protocol, allowing assessment of muscle energetics (by magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and function. The study included analysis of enzyme activities and content of protein involved in pH regulation. Skeletal muscle of MCT1(+/-) mice had lower MCT1 (-61%; P < 0...
March 2, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253973/methods-to-study-lysosomal-ampk-activation
#14
C-S Zhang, M Li, S-C Lin
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of metabolic homeostasis. It is activated by the upstream kinase LKB1 (liver kinase B1) when the AMP/ATP ratio is increased during starvation or heightened exercises. Based on reconstitution experiments using purified individual proteins, AMPK was demonstrated to be directly phosphorylated on its conserved residue Thr172 by LKB1, which was promoted by increased levels of AMP. However, recent studies have engendered a paradigm shift for how AMPK is activated inside the cell or animal tissues, unraveling that AXIN binds to LKB1 and tethers it to AMPK located on the surface of late endosome and lysosome (hereafter, only lysosome is discussed) in response to glucose starvation...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253030/case-study-the-effect-of-32-weeks-of-figure-contest-preparation-on-a-self-proclaimed-drug-free-female-s-lean-body-and-bone-mass
#15
John Petrizzo, Frederick J DiMenna, Kimberly Martins, John Wygand, Robert M Otto
To achieve the criterion appearance prior to competing in a physique competition, athletes undergo preparatory regimens involving high-volume intense resistance and aerobic exercise with hypocaloric energy intake. As the popularity of "drug-free" competition increases, more athletes are facing this challenge without the recuperative advantage provided by performance-enhancing drugs. Consequently, the likelihood of loss of lean body and/or bone mass is increased. The purpose of this investigation was to monitor changes in body composition for a 29-year-old self-proclaimed drug-free female figure competitor during a 32-week preparatory regimen comprising high-volume resistance and aerobic exercise with hypocaloric energy intake...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252552/effects-of-resistance-training-and-protein-supplementation-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#16
Takudzwa A Madzima, Michael J Ormsbee, Erica A Schleicher, Robert J Moffatt, Lynn B Panton
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate 12 wk of resistance training (RT; n=16) and protein supplementation (RT+protein; n=17) on muscular strength, body composition and blood biomarkers of muscle (insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)), fat (adiponectin), and inflammation [human C-reactive protein (CRP)] in breast cancer survivors (BCS). METHODS: Thirty-three BCS (59±8yr) were measured pre and post training for one-repetition maximum (1-RM) muscular strength (chest press: leg extension); body composition (lean mass (LM); fat mass (FM)) via DXA and serum concentrations of IGF-1, adiponectin, and CRP...
March 1, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241808/modified-lingguizhugan-decoction-incorporated-with-dietary-restriction-and-exercise-ameliorates-hyperglycemia-hyperlipidemia-and-hypertension-in-a-rat-model-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Limei Yao, Jingjing Wei, Si Shi, Kunbin Guo, Xiangyu Wang, Qi Wang, Dingsheng Chen, Weirong Li
BACKGROUND: Modified Lingguizhugan Decoction (MLD) came from famous Chinese medicine Linggui Zhugan Decoction. The MLD is used for the treatment of metabolic syndrome in the clinical setting. Our study focuses on the comprehensive treatment of MLD incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome (MS). METHODS: Rats were divided into five groups: control group (Cont), high-fat diet group (HFD), high-fat diet incorporated with dietary restriction group (HFD-DR), exercise incorporated with dietary restriction group (HFD-DR-Ex) and MLD incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise group (HFD-DR-Ex-MLD)...
February 28, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236109/effect-of-administration-of-high-protein-diet-in-rats-submitted-to-resistance-training
#18
Thiago da Rosa Lima, Eudes Thiago Pereira Ávila, Géssica Alves Fraga, Mariana de Souza Sena, Arlyson Batista de Souza Dias, Paula Caroline de Almeida, Joice Cristina Dos Santos Trombeta, Roberto Carlos Vieira Junior, Amílcar Sabino Damazo, James Wilfred Navalta, Jonato Prestes, Fabrício Azevedo Voltarelli
PURPOSE: Although there is limited evidence regarding the pathophysiological effects of a high-protein diet (HD), it is believed that this type of diet could overload the body and cause damage to the organs directly involved with protein metabolism and excretion. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of HD on biochemical and morphological parameters of rats that completed a resistance training protocol (RT; aquatic jump) for 8 weeks. METHODS: Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 8 for each group): sedentary normal protein diet (SN-14%), sedentary high-protein diet (SH-35%), trained normal protein diet (TN-14%), and trained high-protein diet (TH-35%)...
February 24, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235790/short-term-regular-aerobic-exercise-reduces-oxidative-stress-produced-by-acute-high-intraluminal-pressure-in-the-adipose-microvasculature
#19
Austin T Robinson, Ibra S Fancher, Varadarajan Sudhahar, Jing Tan Bian, Marc Cook, Abeer M Mahmoud, Mohamed Ali, Masuko Ushio-Fukai, Michael D Brown, Tohru Fukai, Shane A Phillips
High blood pressure has been shown to elicit impaired dilation in the vasculature. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the mechanisms through which high pressure may elicit vascular dysfunction, and determine the mechanisms through which regular aerobic exercise protects arteries against high pressure. METHODS: Male C57Bl6 mice were subjected to two weeks of voluntary running (~ 6km/day) for comparison to sedentary controls. Hind limb adipose resistance arteries were dissected from mice for measurement of flow-induced dilation (FID; with or without high intraluminal pressure exposure); or protein expression of NADPH oxidase II (NOX II) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)...
February 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229646/special-nutrition-intervention-is-required-for-muscle-protective-efficacy-of-physical-exercise-in-elderly-people-at-highest-risk-of-sarcopenia
#20
A Molnár, I Jónásné Sztruhár, Á A Csontos, Cs Ferencz, Sz Várbíró, B Székács
Progressive loss of muscle mass and strength is a physiological consequence of aging, and without interventions, it usually deteriorates into sarcopenia. In this study, the hypothesis that combined special nutritional-physiotherapeutical intervention to prevent or reverse this biological deterioration in elderly people was tested. The effects of the regular resistance muscle training (PT, n = 17) alone and the combined exercise + special nutrition therapy containing whey protein and vitamin D (PT + NT, n = 17) were monitored for 3 months in 34 elderly patients (12 men and 22 women; mean age: 66...
September 2016: Physiol Int
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