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Protein and resistance exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438892/brain-metabolism-in-health-aging-and%C3%A2-neurodegeneration
#1
REVIEW
Simonetta Camandola, Mark P Mattson
Brain cells normally respond adaptively to bioenergetic challenges resulting from ongoing activity in neuronal circuits, and from environmental energetic stressors such as food deprivation and physical exertion. At the cellular level, such adaptive responses include the "strengthening" of existing synapses, the formation of new synapses, and the production of new neurons from stem cells. At the molecular level, bioenergetic challenges result in the activation of transcription factors that induce the expression of proteins that bolster the resistance of neurons to the kinds of metabolic, oxidative, excitotoxic, and proteotoxic stresses involved in the pathogenesis of brain disorders including stroke, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases...
April 24, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430140/-eat-as-if-you-could-save-the-planet-and-win-sustainability-integration-into-nutrition-for-exercise-and-sport
#2
Nanna Meyer, Alba Reguant-Closa
Today's industrial food production contributes significantly to environmental degradation. Meat production accounts for the largest impact, including greenhouse gas emissions, land and water use. While food production and consumption are important aspects when addressing climate change, this article focuses predominantly on dietary change that promotes both health for planet and people with focus on athletes. Healthy, sustainable eating recommendations begin to appear in various governmental guidelines. However, there remains resistance to the suggested reductions in meat consumption...
April 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422532/effects-of-post-exercise-protein-intake-on-muscle-mass-and-strength-during-resistance-training-is-there-an-optimal-ratio-between-fast-and-slow-proteins
#3
Marina Fabre, Christophe Hausswirth, Eve Tiollier, Odeline Molle, Julien Louis, Alexandre Durguerian, Nathalie Neuveux, Xavier Bigard
While effects of the two classes of proteins found in milk (i.e. soluble proteins, including whey, and casein) on muscle protein synthesis have been well investigated after a single bout of resistance exercise (RE), the combined effects of these two proteins on the muscle responses to resistance training (RT) have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of protein supplementation varying by the ratio between milk soluble proteins (fast-digested protein) and casein (slow-digested protein) on the muscle to a 9-week RT program...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415067/effect-of-whey-protein-in-conjunction-with-a-caloric-restricted-diet-and-resistance-training
#4
Wesley D Dudgeon, Elizabeth P Kelley, Timothy P Scheett
Dudgeon, WD, Kelley, EP, and Scheett, TP. Effect of whey protein in conjunction with a caloric-restricted diet and resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1353-1361, 2017-Caloric-restricted weight loss, especially rapid weight loss, results from a decrease in both lean and fat mass (FM). The goal for many is to lose FM while retaining lean body mass (LBM) and muscular performance thus many turn to supplements. Sixteen resistance-trained men (24 ± 1.6 years of age) completed a 4 d·wk body building style split resistance training program for 8 weeks in conjunction with a pre-exercise, periexercise, and postexercise ingestion of whey protein (WHEY) nutritional supplement or carbohydrate (CON)-based nutritional supplement...
May 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413958/anti-fatigue-effects-of-active-ingredients-from-traditional-chinese-medicine-a-review
#5
Si-Si Zhou, Jian-Guo Jiang
Fatigue, a phenomenon which is believed to be caused by body exercise, can lead to the failure of predetermined exercise intensity maintenance and sport ability declination. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of fatigue has long been practiced in clinical and showed significant effects. This article covers related literatures in recent years and sorts the effective ingredients from TCM for treating fatigue into a few categories including alkaloids, saponins, polysaccharides, polyphenols, polypeptide, terpene, proteins and other active ingredients...
April 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404813/cycling-our-way-to-fit-fat
#6
REVIEW
Logan K Townsend, Carly M Knuth, David C Wright
Adipose tissue is increasingly being recognized as a key regulator of whole body carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In conditions of obesity and insulin resistance mitochondrial content in this tissue is reduced, while treatment with insulin sensitizing drugs such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs) increase mitochondrial content. It has been known for decades that exercise increases mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle and now several laboratories have shown similar effects in adipose tissue. To date the specific mechanisms mediating this effect have not been fully identified...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400914/physical-exercise-on-inflammatory-markers-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#7
REVIEW
Luciana Costa Melo, Jaime Dativo-Medeiros, Carlos Eduardo Menezes-Silva, Fabiano Timbó Barbosa, Célio Fernando de Sousa-Rodrigues, Luiza A Rabelo
Background. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a serious disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Scientific findings showed that physical exercise is an option for treatment of these patients. This study's objective is to investigate the effects of supervised aerobic and/or resistance physical training on inflammatory markers in subjects with T2DM. Methods. A systematic review was conducted on four databases, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, LILACS, and Scopus, and manual search from 21 to 30 November 2016. Randomized clinical trials involving individuals diagnosed with T2DM, who have undergone supervised training protocols, were selected in this study...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400677/the-potential-role-of-aerobic-exercise-induced-pentraxin-3-on-obesity-related-inflammation-and-metabolic-dysregulation
#8
REVIEW
Aaron L Slusher, Chun-Jung Huang, Edmund O Acevedo
Obesity is defined as the excess accumulation of intra-abdominal body fat, resulting in a state of chronic, low-grade proinflammation that can directly contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute-phase protein that is expressed by a variety of tissue and cell sources and provides an anti-inflammatory property to downregulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Although PTX3 may therapeutically aid in altering the proinflammatory milieu in obese individuals, and despite elevated expression of PTX3 mRNA observed in adipose tissue, the circulating level of PTX3 is reduced with obesity...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400445/microrna-23a-and-microrna-27a-mimic-exercise-by-ameliorating-ckd-induced-muscle-atrophy
#9
Bin Wang, Cong Zhang, Aiqing Zhang, Hui Cai, S Russ Price, Xiaonan H Wang
Muscle atrophy is a frequent complication of CKD, and exercise can attenuate the process. This study investigated the role of microRNA-23a (miR-23a) and miR-27a in the regulation of muscle mass in mice with CKD. These miRs are located in a gene cluster that is regulated by the transcription factor NFAT. CKD mice expressed less miR-23a in muscle than controls, and resistance exercise (muscle overload) increased the levels of miR-23a and miR-27a in CKD mice. Injection of an adeno-associated virus encoding the miR-23a/27a/24-2 precursor RNA into the tibialis anterior muscles of normal and CKD mice led to increases in mature miR-23a and miR-27a but not miR-24-2 in the muscles of both cohorts...
April 11, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393440/effects-of-a-multifactorial-intervention-comprising-resistance-exercise-nutritional-and-psychosocial-programs-on-frailty-and-functional-health-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-cross-over-trial
#10
Satoshi Seino, Mariko Nishi, Hiroshi Murayama, Miki Narita, Yuri Yokoyama, Yu Nofuji, Yu Taniguchi, Hidenori Amano, Akihiko Kitamura, Shoji Shinkai
AIM: To examine the effects of a multifactorial intervention on frailty and functional health among community-dwelling older adults, a 6-month randomized, controlled, cross-over trial was carried out within the Hatoyama Cohort Study. METHODS: A total of 77 pre-frail or frail older adults (mean age 74.6 years) were randomly allocated to an immediate intervention group (IIG; n = 38) or delayed intervention group (DIG; n = 39). The IIG participated in a twice-weekly multifactorial intervention comprising resistance exercise, nutritional education and psychosocial programs...
April 10, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390878/protective-effects-of-different-exercise-modalities-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-like-model
#11
Dilek Özbeyli, Gülce Sarı, Naziye Özkan, Betül Karademir, Meral Yüksel, Özlem Tuğçe Çilingir Kaya, Özgür Kasımay Çakır
Our aim was to investigate the probable protective effects of aerobic, resistance and combined exercise methods on ovariectomy and d-galactose induced Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-like model. d-galactose (100mg/kg) or saline were administered intraperitoneally for 6 weeks to ovariectomized or sham-operated rats (n=8/group). Aerobic (AE), resistance (RE) and combined exercises (CE) (aerobic+resistance) were performed for 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Anxiety level and cognitive functions were evaluated via hole-board and object recognition tests...
April 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388372/protein-delivery-in-the-intensive-care-unit-optimal-or-suboptimal
#12
Daren K Heyland, Peter J M Weijs, Jorge A Coss-Bu, Beth Taylor, Arnold S Kristof, Grant E O'Keefe, Robert G Martindale
Emerging evidence suggests that exogenous protein/amino acid supplementation has the potential to improve the recovery of critically ill patients. After a careful review of the published evidence, experts have concluded that critically ill patients should receive up to 2.0-2.5 g/kg/d of protein. Despite this, however, recent review of current International Nutrition Survey data suggests that protein in critically ill patients is underprescribed and grossly underdelivered. Furthermore, the survey suggests that most of protein administration comes from enteral nutrition (EN) despite the availability of products and protocols that enhance the delivery of protein/amino acids in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting...
April 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382744/exercise-and-bdnf-reduce-a%C3%AE-production-by-enhancing-%C3%AE-secretase-processing-of-app
#13
Saket M Nigam, Shaohua Xu, Joanna S Kritikou, Krisztina Marosi, Lennart Brodin, Mark P Mattson
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by aggregation of toxic forms of amyloid β peptide (Aβ). Treatment strategies have largely been focused on inhibiting the enzymes (β- and γ-secretases) that liberate Aβ from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). While evidence suggests that individuals who exercise regularly are at reduced risk for AD and studies of animal models demonstrate that running can ameliorate brain Aβ pathology and associated cognitive deficits, the underlying mechanisms are unknown...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381463/chronic-kidney-disease-induces-autophagy-leading-to-dysfunction-of-mitochondria-in-skeletal-muscle
#14
Zhen Su, Janet D Klein, Jie DU, Harold A Franch, Liping Zhang, Faten Hassounah, Matthew B Hudson, Xiaonan H Wang
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes loss of lean body mass by multiple mechanisms. This study examines whether autophagy-mediated proteolysis contributes to CKD-induced muscle wasting. We tested autophagy in the muscle of CKD mice with plantaris muscle overloading to mimic resistance exercise or with acupuncture plus low frequency electrical stimulation (Acu/LFES) treatment. In CKD muscle, Bnip3, Beclin-1, LC3II mRNAs and proteins were increased compared with control muscle, indicating autophagosome-lysosome formation induction...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379838/influence-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-skeletal-muscle-protein-metabolism-and-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-in-older-adults
#15
Antigoni Z Lalia, Surendra Dasari, Matthew M Robinson, Hinnah Abid, Dawn M Morse, Katherine A Klaus, Ian R Lanza
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFA) are recognized for their anti-inflammatory effects and may be beneficial in the context of sarcopenia. We determined the influence of n3-PUFA on muscle mitochondrial physiology and protein metabolism in older adults. Twelve young (18-35 years) and older (65-85 years) men and women were studied at baseline. Older adults were studied again following n3-PUFA supplementation (3.9g/day, 16 weeks). Muscle biopsies were used to evaluate respiratory capacity (high resolution respirometry) and oxidant emissions (spectrofluorometry) in isolated mitochondria...
April 5, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377156/protein-supplementation-augments-muscle-fiber-hypertrophy-but-does-not-modulate-satellite-cell-content-during-prolonged-resistance-type-exercise-training-in-frail-elderly
#16
Marlou L Dirks, Michael Tieland, Lex B Verdijk, Mario Losen, Rachel Nilwik, Marco Mensink, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Luc J C van Loon
OBJECTIVE: Protein supplementation increases gains in lean body mass following prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail older adults. We assessed whether the greater increase in lean body mass can be attributed to muscle fiber type specific hypertrophy with concomitant changes in satellite cell (SC) content. DESIGN: A total of 34 frail elderly individuals (77 ± 1 years, n = 12 male adults) participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 2 arms in parallel...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367506/regulation-of-protein-and-mrna-expression-of-the-mtorc1-repressor-redd1-in-response-to-leucine-and-serum
#17
Adam J Black, Bradley S Gordon, Michael D Dennis, Leonard S Jefferson, Scot R Kimball
Expression of the mTORC1 repressor, Regulated in DNA Damage and Development 1 (REDD1), is elevated in skeletal muscle during various catabolic conditions including fasting, hindlimb immobilization, and sepsis. Conversely, REDD1 expression is suppressed by anabolic stimuli such as resistance exercise or nutrient consumption following a fast. Though it is known that nutrient consumption reduces REDD1 expression, it is largely unknown how nutrients and hormones individually contribute to the reduction in REDD1 expression...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359098/attenuation-of-resting-but-not-load-mediated-protein-synthesis-in-prostate-cancer-patients-on-androgen-deprivation
#18
Erik D Hanson, André R Nelson, Daniel W D West, John A Violet, Lannie O'Keefe, Stuart M Phillips, Alan Hayes
Context: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a common prostate cancer (PCa) treatment but results in muscular atrophy. Periodic increases in muscle protein synthesis (MPS) that occur after resistance exercise or protein intake may ameliorate this muscle loss, but the impact of these anabolic stimuli during ADT is unclear. Objective: To determine the acute MPS response to whey protein supplementation with and without resistance exercise during ADT. Design: Acute response in PCa patients vs age-matched controls (CON)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349667/exercise-training-induced-improvement-in-skeletal-muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-mediated-fat-metabolism-is-independent-of-dietary-glycemic-index
#19
Anny Mulya, Jacob M Haus, Thomas P J Solomon, Karen R Kelly, Steven K Malin, Michael Rocco, Hope Barkoukis, John P Kirwan
OBJECTIVE: This study hypothesized that a low-glycemic diet combined with exercise would increase expression of nuclear regulators of fat transport and oxidation in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle. METHOD: Nineteen subjects (64 ± 1 y; 34 ± 1 kg/m(2) ) were randomized to receive isocaloric high-glycemic-index (HiGIX; 80 ± 0.6 units, n = 10) or low-glycemic-index (LoGIX; 40 ± 0.3 units, n = 9) diets combined with supervised exercise (1 h/d, 5 d/wk at ∼85% HRmax ) for 12 weeks...
April 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349254/%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-prevents-the-intestinal-epithelial-monolayer-damage-under-heat-stress-conditions-model-experiments-in-caco-2-cells
#20
Soheil Varasteh, Johanna Fink-Gremmels, Johan Garssen, Saskia Braber
PURPOSE: Under conditions of high ambient temperatures and/or strenuous exercise, humans and animals experience considerable heat stress (HS) leading among others to intestinal epithelial damage through induction of cellular oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of α-Lipoic Acid (ALA) on HS-induced intestinal epithelial injury using an in vitro Caco-2 cell model. METHODS: A confluent monolayer of Caco-2 cells was pre-incubated with ALA (24 h) prior to control (37 °C) or HS conditions (42 °C) for 6 or 24 h and the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), heat shock factor-1 (HSF1), and the antioxidant Nrf2 were investigated...
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
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