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Protein and resistance exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143313/polyglucosan-myopathy-and-functional-characterization-of-a-novel-gyg1-mutation
#1
C Hedberg-Oldfors, A Mensch, K Visuttijai, G Stoltenburg, D Stoevesandt, T Kraya, A Oldfors, S Zierz
OBJECTIVES: Disorders of glycogen metabolism include rare hereditary muscle glycogen storage diseases with polyglucosan, which are characterized by storage of abnormally structured glycogen in muscle in addition to exercise intolerance or muscle weakness. In this study, we investigated the etiology and pathogenesis of a late-onset myopathy associated with glycogenin-1 deficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A family with two affected siblings, 64- and 66-year-olds, was studied...
November 15, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141853/the-effects-of-resistance-exercise-on-biomarkers-of-breast-cancer-prognosis-a-pooled-analysis-of-three-randomized-trials
#2
Kerri Winters-Stone, Lisa J Wood, Sydnee Stoyles, Nathan Dieckmann
BACKGROUND: Using a secondary data analysis from randomized controlled trials comparing one year of resistance exercise (N=109) to a placebo control condition (N=106) in postmenopausal, post-treatment breast cancer survivors, we investigated the influence of resistance training and changes in body composition on markers associated with cancer progression. METHODS: Measures included serum levels of insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP1-3, leptin, serum amyloid A (SAA), adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 and body composition (total, lean and fat mass in kg) by DXA at baseline, 6, and 12-months...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140431/microvascular-adaptations-to-exercise-protective-effect-of-pgc-1-alpha
#3
Andrew O Kadlec, Chad Barnes, Matthew J Durand, David D Gutterman
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular physical activity has independent protective effects on the cardiovascular system, but the mechanisms responsible remain elusive. Recent studies suggest that the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) participates in the response to exercise training. We hypothesized that the arterioles of athletes maintain dilation to flow despite combined inhibition of multiple vasodilators, but loss of PGC-1α renders these vessels susceptible to inhibition of a single vasodilator pathway...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137117/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-proteomics-literature-on-the-response-of-human-skeletal-muscle-to-obesity-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-t2dm-versus-exercise-training
#4
REVIEW
Kanchana Srisawat, Sam O Shepherd, Paulo J Lisboa, Jatin G Burniston
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of proteomics literature that reports human skeletal muscle responses in the context of either pathological decline associated with obesity/T2DM and physiological adaptations to exercise training. Literature was collected from PubMed and DOAJ databases following PRISMA guidelines using the search terms 'proteom*', and 'skeletal muscle' combined with either 'obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance' or 'exercise, training'. Eleven studies were included in the systematic review, and meta-analysis was performed on a sub-set (four studies) of the reviewed literature that reported the necessary primary data...
November 11, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131478/gene-isolation-using-degenerate-primers-targeting-protein-motif-a-laboratory-exercise
#5
Brandon Pei Hui Yeo, Lian Chee Foong, Sheh May Tam, Vivian Lee, Siaw San Hwang
Structures and functions of protein motifs are widely included in many biology-based course syllabi. However, little emphasis is placed to link this knowledge to applications in biotechnology to enhance the learning experience. Here, the conserved motifs of nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeats (NBS-LRR) proteins, successfully used for the isolation and characterization of many plant resistance gene analogues (RGAs), is featured in the development of a series of laboratory experiments using important molecular biology techniques...
November 13, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107291/absence-of-the-kinase-s6k1-mimics-the-effect-of-chronic-endurance-exercise-on-glucose-tolerance-and-muscle-oxidative-stress
#6
C Binsch, T Jelenik, A Pfitzer, M Dille, S Müller-Lühlhoff, S Hartwig, S Karpinski, S Lehr, D G Kabra, A Chadt, M Roden, H Al-Hasani, T R Castañeda
OBJECTIVE: Ribosomal protein S6 Kinase-1 (S6K1) has been linked to resistance exercise-mediated improvements in glycemia. We hypothesized that S6K1 may also play a role in regulating glycemic control in response to endurance exercise training. METHODS: S6k1-knockout (S6K1KO) and WT mice on a 60 cal% high-fat diet were trained for 4 weeks on treadmills, metabolically phenotyped, and compared to sedentary controls. RESULTS: WT mice showed improved glucose tolerance after training...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106812/whey-protein-hydrolysate-supplementation-accelerates-recovery-from-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-in-females
#7
Meghan A Brown, Emma J Stevenson, Glyn Howatson
A number of different forms of protein and their analogues have been investigated for their efficacy in ameliorating exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and recovery. Preliminary data regarding whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) supplementation are promising. However, its efficacy beyond acute eccentric/resistance exercise bouts or longer-term training programmes are limited and all investigations have been conducted in male or mixed-sex groups. This study sought to elucidate whether the benefits of WPH previously reported can be demonstrated in females following repeated-sprint exercise...
November 6, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106772/effects-of-aerobic-interval-training-on-arterial-stiffness-and-microvascular-function-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#8
Ricardo Mora-Rodriguez, Miguel Ramirez-Jimenez, Valentin E Fernandez-Elias, Maria V Guio de Prada, Felix Morales-Palomo, Jesus G Pallares, Rachael K Nelson, Juan F Ortega
The authors determined the effect of high-intensity aerobic interval training on arterial stiffness and microvascular dysfunction in patients with metabolic syndrome with hypertension. Applanation tonometry was used to measure arterial stiffness and laser Doppler flowmetry to assess microvascular dysfunction before and after 6 months of stationary cycling (training group; n = 23) in comparison to a group that remained sedentary (control group; n = 23). While no variable improved in controls, hypertension fell from 79% (59%-91%) to 41% (24%-61%) in the training group, resulting in lower systolic and diastolic pressures than controls (-12 ± 3 and -6 ± 2 mm Hg, P < ...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105312/acute-effect-of-a-resistance-exercise-session-on-markers-of-cartilage-breakdown-and-inflammation-in-women-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Ana Carolina Pereira Nunes Pinto, Jamil Natour, Charlles Heldan de Moura Castro, Marina Eloi, Império Lombardi Junior
AIM: To assess the acute effect of resistance exercise (RE) on circulating biomarkers of cartilage breakdown and inflammation in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Thirty-four volunteers (17 with and 17 without RA), participated in a 25 min RE session (knee extension, knee flexion, hip abduction and hip adduction) with one set of 12 repetitions at 50% of one repetition maximum (1RM) and one set of eight repetitions at 75% of 1RM. Blood samples were collected 30 and 5 min before, immediately after and 1, 2 and 24 h after the session...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099523/a-potential-strategy-for-counteracting-age-related-sarcopenia-preliminary-evidence-of-combined-exercise-training-and-leucine-supplementation
#10
Z Xia, J M Cholewa, Y Zhao, Y Yang, H Shang, H Jiang, Q Su, N E Zanchi
Previous research has demonstrated the positive effects of concurrent/combined aerobic and resistance exercise or leucine supplementation on skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and hypertrophy in aging organisms. However, the effects of a multimodal intervention which combines both aerobic and resistance exercise and leucine supplementation has not been fully elucidated. Eighteen month old and 2 month old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to aging control (AC, n = 8), aging and multimodal intervention (AMI, n = 8) and young control (YC, n = 8)...
November 3, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055404/chasing-the-top-quartile-of-cross-sectional-data-is-it-possible-with-resistance-training
#11
Samuel L Buckner, Scott J Dankel, J Grant Mouser, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, Jeremy P Loenneke
Resistance exercise is believed to be important for improving several biomarkers of health and contributing to decreased all-cause mortality. However, a careful examination of the literature reveals a growing body of cross-sectional studies finding stronger associations between strength independent of physical activity on these various outcomes and biomarkers (i.e., C - reactive protein, homocysteine, total cholesterol) of health. Considering that engagement in resistance type exercise is associated with an increase in strength, such cross-sectional data is often used to promote engagement in resistance training...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047079/molecular-basis-of-nitrative-stress-in-the-pathogenesis-of-pulmonary-hypertension
#12
Colin E Evans, You-Yang Zhao
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a lung vascular disease with marked increases in pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary artery pressure (>25 mmHg at rest). In PH patients, increases in pulmonary vascular resistance lead to impaired cardiac output and reduced exercise tolerance. If untreated, PH progresses to right heart failure and premature lethality. The mechanisms that control the pathogenesis of PH are incompletely understood, but evidence from human and animal studies implicate nitrative stress in the development of PH...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036763/effect-of-treadmill-exercise-on-skeletal-muscle-autophagy-in-rats-with-obesity-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#13
Do Keun Cho, Dong Hun Choi, Joon Yong Cho
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on body weight, blood biochemistry, and autophagy. METHODS: Triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin, and glucose levels were measured, the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) score was calculated, and the soleus muscle was analyzed for autophagy-related factors (Beclin-1, p62, LC3, Lamp-2) in rats with obesity induced by a high-fat diet...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036761/effects-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-n-3-and-resistance-training-on-muscle-quality-and-expression-of-atrophy-related-ubiquitin-ligases-in-middle-aged-mice-with-high-fat-dietinduced-obesity
#14
Seung-Lyul Oh, Sang-Rok Lee, Jeong-Su Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)/n-3 supplements and resistance exercise training (RT) for 20 weeks on muscle quality and genes related to protein synthesis/degradation in middle-aged mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. METHODS: Nine-month-old C57BL/6 male mice were randomly assigned to five groups: 1) normal diet (C), 2) high-fat diet (H), 3) H+RT (HRT), 4) H+CLA/n-3 (H-CN), and 5) H+RT+CLA/n-3 (H-RTCN). HFD groups were given a diet containing 60% fat for 20 weeks, and exercised groups underwent progressive RT using weighted ladder climbing...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032504/resistance-exercise-improves-cardiac-function-and-mitochondrial-efficiency-in-diabetic-rat-hearts
#15
Tae Hee Ko, Jubert C Marquez, Hyoung Kyu Kim, Seung Hun Jeong, SungRyul Lee, Jae Boum Youm, In Sung Song, Dae Yun Seo, Hye Jin Kim, Du Nam Won, Kyoung Im Cho, Mun Gi Choi, Byoung Doo Rhee, Kyung Soo Ko, Nari Kim, Jong Chul Won, Jin Han
Metabolic disturbance and mitochondrial dysfunction are a hallmark of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Resistance exercise (RE) not only enhances the condition of healthy individuals but could also improve the status of those with disease. However, the beneficial effects of RE in the prevention of DC and mitochondrial dysfunction are uncertain. Therefore, this study investigated whether RE attenuates DC by improving mitochondrial function using an in vivo rat model of diabetes. Fourteen Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were assigned to sedentary control (SC, n = 7) and RE (n = 7) groups at 28 weeks of age...
October 14, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028650/fast-digestive-proteins-and-sarcopenia-of-aging
#16
Yves Boirie, Christelle Guillet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The speed of dietary protein digestion influences postprandial amino acid availability which is crucial for improving altered anabolic response of skeletal muscle one feature of sarcopenia during aging. RECENT FINDINGS: By analogy with carbohydrate and in reference to their absorption rate, dietary proteins can be classified as 'fast' or 'slow' proteins depending on matrix food structure and technological processes, which can influence amino acids availability and their subsequent metabolic actions...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025901/effects-of-age-and-exercise-training-on-coronary-microvascular-smooth-muscle-phenotype-and-function
#17
Judy M Muller-Delp, Kazuki Hotta, Bei Chen, Bradley Jon Behnke, Joshua J Maraj, Michael D Delp, Tiffani R Lucero, Jeremy A Bramy, David B Alarcon, Hannah E Morgan, Morgan R Cowan, Anthony D Haynes
Coronary microvascular function and blood flow responses during acute exercise are impaired in the aged heart, but can be restored by exercise training. Coronary microvascular resistance is directly dependent on vascular smooth muscle function in coronary resistance arterioles; therefore, we hypothesized that age impairs contractile function and alters the phenotype of vascular smooth muscle in coronary arterioles. We further hypothesized that exercise training restores contractile function and reverses age-induced phenotypic alterations of arteriolar smooth muscle...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021828/endurance-exercise-training-decreased-serum-levels-of-surfactant-protein-d-and-improved-aerobic-fitness-of-obese-women-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Sajjad Rezaei, Mahdieh Molanouri Shamsi, Mehdi Mahdavi, Azadeh Jamali, Jonato Prestes, Ramires Alsamir Tibana, James Wilfred Navalta, Fabrício Azevedo Voltarelli
BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a member of the collectin family and is an important component of the pulmonary innate host defense. To find the relationship between exercise training and SP-D in diabetes, we examined the possible effects of a 10-week endurance exercise-training program on serum levels of SP-D, leptin, lipid profile and insulin resistance in obese women with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Twenty-two obese women with T2DM were randomly assigned to either exercise training (ET) or control (C) group...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018628/combined-moderate-and-high-intensity-exercise-with-dietary-restriction-improves-cardiac-autonomic-function-associated-with-a-reduction-in-central-and-systemic-arterial-stiffness-in-obese-adults-a-clinical-trial
#19
Min Hu, Shen Wang, Dan Wang, Qinhao Lai, Xiaoying Chen, Shiwei Duan, Mengke Zhao, Junhao Huang
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to assess the effects of exercise with dietary restriction on cardiac autonomic activity, arterial stiffness, and cardiovascular biomarkers in obese individuals. METHODS: Seventeen obese adults completed an 8-week exercise and dietary program. Anthropometry, body composition, and multiple biochemical markers were measured. We used carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), central blood pressure, and augmentation index (AIx) to assess arterial stiffness...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993146/exercise-training-reverses-the-negative-effects-of-chronic-l-arginine-supplementation-on-insulin-sensitivity
#20
Rafael Barrera Salgueiro, Frederico Gerlinger-Romero, Lucas Guimarães-Ferreira, Thais de Castro Barbosa, Maria Tereza Nunes
L-Arginine has emerged as an important supplement for athletes and non-athletes in order to improve performance. Arginine has been extensively used as substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, leading to increased vasodilatation and hormonal secretion. However, the chronic consumption of arginine has been shown to impair insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether chronic arginine supplementation associated with exercise training would have a beneficial impact on insulin sensitivity...
October 6, 2017: Life Sciences
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