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Protein and resistance exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729395/relationship-between-exercise-volume-and-muscle-protein-synthesis-in-a-rat-model-of-resistance-exercise
#1
Riki Ogasawara, Yuki Arihara, Junya Takegaki, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
Resistance exercise (RE) volume is recognized as an important factor that stimulates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and is considered, at least in part, to be involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-associated signaling. However, the effects of relatively high doses of muscle contractions on mTORC1 and MPS remain unclear. In the present study, we used an animal model of RE to investigate the relationship between RE volume and MPS. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to RE, and muscle samples were obtained 6 h after performing 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 sets of RE...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725197/skeletal-muscle-remodeling-in-response-to-eccentric-vs-concentric-loading-morphological-molecular-and-metabolic-adaptations
#2
REVIEW
Martino V Franchi, Neil D Reeves, Marco V Narici
Skeletal muscle contracts either by shortening or lengthening (concentrically or eccentrically, respectively); however, the two contractions substantially differ from one another in terms of mechanisms of force generation, maximum force production and energy cost. It is generally known that eccentric actions generate greater force than isometric and concentric contractions and at a lower metabolic cost. Hence, by virtue of the greater mechanical loading involved in active lengthening, eccentric resistance training (ECC RT) is assumed to produce greater hypertrophy than concentric resistance training (CON RT)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721837/effects-of-progressive-resistance-training-combined-with-a-protein-enriched-lean-red-meat-diet-on-health-related-quality-of-life-in-elderly-women-secondary-analysis-of-a-4-month-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Susan J Torres, Sian Robinson, Liliana Orellana, Stella L O'Connell, Carley A Grimes, Niamh L Mundell, David W Dunstan, Caryl A Nowson, Robin M Daly
Resistance training (RT) and increased dietary protein are recommended to attenuate age-related muscle loss in the elderly. This study examined the effect of a lean red meat protein-enriched diet combined with progressive resistance training (RT+Meat) on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in elderly women. In this 4-month cluster randomised controlled trial, 100 women aged 60-90 years (mean 73 years) from self-care retirement villages participated in RT twice a week and were allocated either 160 g/d (cooked) lean red meat consumed across 2 meals/d, 6 d/week or ≥1 serving/d (25-30 g) carbohydrates (control group, CRT)...
June 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721834/the-interaction-between-nutrition-and-exercise-for-promoting-health-and-performance
#4
Oliver C Witard, Derek Ball
The theme of The Nutrition Society Spring Conference 2017 was on the interaction between nutrition and exercise for promoting healthy ageing, maintaining cognitive function and improving the metabolic health of the population. The importance of this theme is highlighted by the public health issues surrounding obesity, diabetes and the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia). The opening symposium provided a historical perspective of both invasive and non-invasive methodologies for measuring exercise energetics and energy balance...
July 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711659/exercise-initiated-after-the-onset-of-insulin-resistance-improves-trabecular-microarchitecture-and-cortical-bone-biomechanics-of-the-tibia-in-hyperphagic-otsuka-long-evans-tokushima-fatty-rats
#5
Laura C Ortinau, Melissa A Linden, Rebecca K Dirkes, R Scott Rector, Pamela S Hinton
The present study extends our previous findings that exercise, which prevents the onset of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), also prevents the detrimental effects of T2D on whole-bone and tissue-level strength. Our objective was to determine whether exercise improves bone's structural and material properties if insulin resistance is already present in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The OLETF rat is hyperphagic due to a loss-of-function mutation in cholecystokinin-1 receptor (CCK-1 receptor), which leads to progressive obesity, insulin resistance and T2D after the majority of skeletal growth is complete...
July 12, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698349/a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-periodised-resistance-training-and-protein-supplementation-intervention-in-prostate-cancer-survivors-on-androgen-deprivation-therapy
#6
Jacqueline L Kiwata, Tanya B Dorff, E Todd Schroeder, George J Salem, Christianne J Lane, Judd C Rice, Mitchell E Gross, Christina M Dieli-Conwright
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer survivors (PCS) receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) experience deleterious side effects such as unfavourable changes in cardiometabolic factors that lead to sarcopenic obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). While loss of lean body mass (LBM) compromises muscular strength and quality of life, MetS increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and may influence cancer recurrence. Exercise can improve LBM and strength, and may serve as an alternative to the pharmacological management of MetS in PCS on ADT...
July 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698222/a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-of-the-effect-of-protein-supplementation-on-resistance-training-induced-gains-in-muscle-mass-and-strength-in-healthy-adults
#7
REVIEW
Robert W Morton, Kevin T Murphy, Sean R McKellar, Brad J Schoenfeld, Menno Henselmans, Eric Helms, Alan A Aragon, Michaela C Devries, Laura Banfield, James W Krieger, Stuart M Phillips
OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression to determine if dietary protein supplementation augments resistance exercise training (RET)-induced gains in muscle mass and strength. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL and SportDiscus. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Only randomised controlled trials with RET ≥6 weeks in duration and dietary protein supplementation. DESIGN: Random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions with four a priori determined covariates...
July 11, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696380/whey-protein-supplementation-enhances-whole-body-protein-metabolism-and-performance-recovery-after-resistance-exercise-a-double-blind-crossover-study
#8
Daniel W D West, Sidney Abou Sawan, Michael Mazzulla, Eric Williamson, Daniel R Moore
No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h) and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD)) performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey) or an energy-matched placebo (CHO) immediately post-exercise (0 h), and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery)...
July 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694500/resistance-exercise-initiates-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-mtor-translocation-and-protein-complex-co-localisation-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#9
Zhe Song, Daniel R Moore, Nathan Hodson, Carl Ward, Jessica R Dent, Mary F O'Leary, Andrew M Shaw, D Lee Hamilton, Sovan Sarkar, Yann-Gaël Gangloff, Troy A Hornberger, Lawrence L Spriet, George J Heigenhauser, Andrew Philp
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central mediator of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. We utilized immunofluorescence approaches to study mTOR cellular distribution and protein-protein co-localisation in human skeletal muscle in the basal state as well as immediately, 1 and 3 h after an acute bout of resistance exercise in a fed (FED; 20 g Protein/40 g carbohydrate/1 g fat) or energy-free control (CON) state. mTOR and the lysosomal protein LAMP2 were highly co-localised in basal samples...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692631/increased-protein-requirements-in-female-athletes-after-variable-intensity-exercise
#10
Denise J Wooding, Jeff E Packer, Hiroyuki Kato, Daniel W D West, Glenda Courtney-Martin, Paul B Pencharz, Daniel R Moore
PURPOSE: Protein requirements are primarily studied in the context of resistance or endurance exercise with little research devoted to variable-intensity intermittent exercise characteristic of many team sports. Further, female populations are underrepresented in dietary sports science studies. We aimed to determine a dietary protein requirement in active females performing variable-intensity intermittent exercise using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. We hypothesized that these requirements would be greater than current IAAO-derived estimates in non-active adult males...
July 7, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690550/targeting-inflammation-and-downstream-protein-metabolism-in-sarcopenia-a-brief-up-dated-description-of-concurrent-exercise-and-leucine-based-multimodal-intervention
#11
REVIEW
Zhi Xia, Jason Cholewa, Yan Zhao, Hua-Yu Shang, Yue-Qin Yang, Kassiana Araújo Pessôa, Quan-Sheng Su, Fernanda Lima-Soares, Nelo Eidy Zanchi
Sarcopenia is defined as the progressive loss of muscle mass with age, and poses a serious threat to the physiological and psychological health of the elderly population with consequential economic and social burdens. Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a central role in the development of sarcopenia such that it alters cellular protein metabolism to favor proteolysis over synthesis, and thereby accelerates muscular atrophy. The purpose of this review is to highlight how exercise and nutrition intervention strategies can attenuate or treat sarcopenia...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689564/sarcopenia
#12
REVIEW
Jean Woo
Sarcopenia refers to age-related muscle loss, defined using a combination of appendicular muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance measures. The pathogenesis depends on a balance between positive and negative regulators of muscle growth. Sarcopenia increases the risk for falls, fractures, dependency, use of hospital services, institutionalization, poor quality of life, and mortality. In clinical practice, brief screening tools, such as the 5-item SARC-F score, may be useful. Although pharmacologic treatments are actively being studied, the current mainstay consists of optimizing nutrition status, in particular protein and vitamin D status, and resistance exercises...
August 2017: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687176/the-impact-of-a-single-bout-of-high-intensity-circuit-training-on-myokines-concentrations-and-cognitive-functions-in-women-of-different-age
#13
A Gmiat, K Micielska, M Kozłowska, D J Flis, M Smaruj, S Kujach, J Jaworska, P Lipińska, E Ziemann
The study aimed to assess effect of a single bout of high-intensity circuit training (HICT) on myokines concentration: interleukin-6 and irisin, inteleukin-10, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), heat shock proteins (HSP27, HSP70) and cognitive functions among women participated in HICT. It also attempted evaluating whether vitamin D could have modified the effect of HICT. Fourteen healthy, non-active women participating in the experiment were assigned to a young or middle-aged group. They performed a single session HICT using body weight as a resistance, based on the ACSM recommendations...
July 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685860/exercise-mediated-modulation-of-autophagy-in-skeletal-muscle
#14
REVIEW
Marcos Martin-Rincon, David Morales-Alamo, Jose A L Calbet
Although exercise exerts multiple beneficial health effects, it may also damage cellular structures. Damaged elements are continuously degraded and its constituents recycled to produce renovated structures through a process called autophagy, which is essential for the adaptation to training. Autophagy is particularly active in skeletal muscle, where it can be evaluated by using specific molecular markers of activation (unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) phosphorylation) and specific proteins indicating increased autophagosome content (increased total LC3, LC3-II, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio)...
July 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683706/sarcopenia-what-should-a-pharmacist-know
#15
Alfonso J Cruz-Jentoft
Sarcopenia (or muscle insufficiency) is a geriatric syndrome characterized by a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and function which has adverse consequences, particularly physical disability, falls and death. It can develop slowly, as a chronic condition that emerges over many years, or acutely, generally due to immobilization associated with an acute disease. The physiopathology of sarcopenia is complex, and affects both the muscle and its neurological and hormonal regulation...
July 1, 2017: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683291/lack-of-glycogenin-causes-glycogen-accumulation-and-muscle-function-impairment
#16
Giorgia Testoni, Jordi Duran, Mar García-Rocha, Francisco Vilaplana, Antonio L Serrano, David Sebastián, Iliana López-Soldado, Mitchell A Sullivan, Felipe Slebe, Marta Vilaseca, Pura Muñoz-Cánoves, Joan J Guinovart
Glycogenin is considered essential for glycogen synthesis, as it acts as a primer for the initiation of the polysaccharide chain. Against expectations, glycogenin-deficient mice (Gyg KO) accumulate high amounts of glycogen in striated muscle. Furthermore, this glycogen contains no covalently bound protein, thereby demonstrating that a protein primer is not strictly necessary for the synthesis of the polysaccharide in vivo. Strikingly, in spite of the higher glycogen content, Gyg KO mice showed lower resting energy expenditure and less resistance than control animals when subjected to endurance exercise...
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679623/high-but-not-low-exercise-volume-shifts-the-balance-of-renin-angiotensin-system-towards-ace2-mas-receptor-axis-in-skeletal-muscle-in-obese-rats
#17
Eliete Dalla Corte Frantz, Isabele Gomes Giori, Marcus Vinícius Machado, D'Angelo Carlo Magliano, Fernanda Marques Freitas, Mariana Sodré Boêta Andrade, Aline Bomfim Vieira, Antonio Claudio Lucas Claudio Lucas da Nóbrega, Eduardo Tibirica
Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic risk factors which is linked to central obesity, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidemia, where the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) may provide a link among them. This study aimed to evaluate volume exercise effects comparing low versus high volume of chronic aerobic exercise on RAS axes in skeletal muscle in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model. For this, male Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed a standard chow diet (SC) or a high-fat diet (HF) for 32 weeks...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676863/muscle-lipid-metabolism-role-of-lipid-droplets-and-perilipins
#18
REVIEW
Pablo Esteban Morales, Jose Luis Bucarey, Alejandra Espinosa
Skeletal muscle is one of the main regulators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in our organism, and therefore, it is highly susceptible to changes in glucose and fatty acid (FA) availability. Skeletal muscle is an extremely complex tissue: its metabolic capacity depends on the type of fibers it is made up of and the level of stimulation it undergoes, such as acute or chronic contraction. Obesity is often associated with increased FA levels, which leads to the accumulation of toxic lipid intermediates, oxidative stress, and autophagy in skeletal fibers...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676551/increased-fndc5-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#19
Brianne L Guilford, Jake C Parson, Caleb W Grote, Stephanie N Vick, Janelle M Ryals, Douglas E Wright
FNDC5/irisin, has recently been identified as a novel protein that stimulates the "browning" of white adipose by inducing thermogenesis via increased uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). We tested the hypothesis that high fat diet-induced prediabetic mice would exhibit increased FNDC5 and this effect would be attenuated by chronic exercise. C57BL/6 mice were randomized into three groups for the 4 week intervention: Standard diet (Std, n = 12), High fat diet (HF, n = 14), or High fat diet and free access to a running wheel (HFEX, n = 14)...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666850/neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-mediates-insulin-and-oxidative-stress-induced-glucose-uptake-in-skeletal-muscle-myotubes
#20
Dean L Kellogg, Karen M McCammon, Kathryn S Hinchee-Rodriguez, Martin L Adamo, Linda J Roman
Previously published studies strongly suggested that insulin- and exercise-induced skeletal muscle glucose uptake require nitric oxide (NO) production. However, the signal transduction mechanisms by which insulin and contraction regulated NO production and subsequent glucose transport are not known. In the present study, we utilized the myotube cell lines treated with insulin or hydrogen peroxide, the latter to mimic contraction-induced oxidative stress, to characterize these mechanisms. We found that insulin stimulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) phosphorylation, NO production, and GLUT4 translocation were all significantly reduced by inhibition of either nNOS or Akt2...
June 27, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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