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Protein and resistance exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213823/long-term-resistance-exercise-induced-muscular-hypertrophy-is-associated-with-autophagy-modulation-in-rats
#1
Insu Kwon, Yongchul Jang, Joon-Yong Cho, Young C Jang, Youngil Lee
Elevation of anabolism and concurrent suppression of catabolism are critical metabolic adaptations for muscular hypertrophy in response to resistance exercise (RE). Here, we investigated if RE-induced muscular hypertrophy is acquired by modulating a critical catabolic process autophagy. Male Wistar Hannover rats (14 weeks old) were randomly assigned to either sedentary control (SC, n = 10) or resistance exercise (RE, n = 10). RE elicited significant hypertrophy of flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles in parallel with enhancement in anabolic signaling pathways (phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, and p70S6K)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209386/dietary-therapy-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-and-or-left-ventricular-diastolic-dysfunction-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Helene von Bibra, Alexander Ströhle, Martin St John Sutton, Nicolai Worm
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is an ongoing epidemic of left ventricular (LV) dilatation and/or dysfunction due to the increasing prevalence of predisposing risk factors such as age, physical inactivity, (abdominal) obesity, and type-2-diabetes. Approximately half of these patients have diastolic heart failure (HFpEF). The prognosis of HFpEF is comparable to that of systolic heart failure, but without any known effective treatment. DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION: A biomathematically corrected diagnostic approach is presented that quantifies diastolic dysfunction via the predominant age dependency of LV diastolic function and unmasks (metabolic) risk factors, that are independent of age and, therefore, potential targets for therapy...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207880/skeletal-muscle-metabolic-adaptations-to-endurance-exercise-training-are-attainable-in-mice-with-simvastatin-treatment
#3
William M Southern, Anna S Nichenko, Daniel D Shill, Corey C Spencer, Nathan T Jenkins, Kevin K McCully, Jarrod A Call
We tested the hypothesis that a 6-week regimen of simvastatin would attenuate skeletal muscle adaptation to low-intensity exercise. Male C57BL/6J wildtype mice were subjected to 6-weeks of voluntary wheel running or normal cage activities with or without simvastatin treatment (20 mg/kg/d, n = 7-8 per group). Adaptations in in vivo fatigue resistance were determined by a treadmill running test, and by ankle plantarflexor contractile assessment. The tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and plantaris muscles were evaluated for exercised-induced mitochondrial adaptations (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202648/living-in-flowing-water-increases-resistance-to-ultraviolet-b-radiation
#4
Ensiyeh Ghanizadeh-Kazerouni, Craig E Franklin, Frank Seebacher
Ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) is an important environmental driver that can affect locomotor performance negatively by inducing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Prolonged regular exercise increases antioxidant activities, which may alleviate the negative effects of UV-B-induced ROS. Animals naturally performing exercise, such as humans performing regular exercise or fish living in flowing water, may therefore be more resilient to the negative effects of UV-B. We tested this hypothesis in a fully factorial experiment, where we exposed mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) to UV-B and control (no UV-B) conditions in flowing and still water...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199417/physical-activity-prevents-alterations-in-mitochondrial-ultrastructure-and-glucometabolic-parameters-in-a-high-sugar-diet-model
#5
Karina Barbosa de Queiroz, Kinulpe Honorato-Sampaio, Joamyr Victor Rossoni Júnior, Diego Andrade Leal, Angélica Barbosa G Pinto, Lenice Kappes-Becker, Elisio Alberto Evangelista, Renata Guerra-Sá
Endurance exercise is a remarkable intervention for the treatment of many diseases. Mitochondrial changes on skeletal muscle are likely important for many of the benefits provided by exercise. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects that a regular physical activity (swimming without workload) has on mitochondrial morphological alterations and glucometabolic parameters induced by a high-sugar diet (HSD). Weaned male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet or a HSD (68% carbohydrate) were subjected to 60 minutes of regular physical activity by swimming (without workload) for four- (20 sessions) or eight-week (40 sessions) periods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192673/the-benefit-of-a-supplement-with-the-antioxidant-melatonin-on-redox-status-and-muscle-damage-in-resistance-trained-athletes
#6
Roberto C Leonardo-Mendonça, Javier Ocaña-Wilhelmi, Tomás de Haro, Carlos de Teresa-Galván, Eduardo Guerra-Hernández, Iryna Rusanova, Marisol Fernández-Ortiz, Ramy Ka Sayed, Germaine Escames, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo
Previous data showed that the administration of high doses of melatonin improved the circadian system in athletes. Here, we investigated in the same experimental paradigm whether the antioxidant properties of melatonin has also beneficial effects against exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle damage in athletes. Twenty-four athletes were treated with 100 mg.day-1 of melatonin or placebo 30 min before bedtime during four weeks in a randomized double-blind scheme. Exercise intensity was higher during the study that before starting it...
February 13, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183816/two-weeks-of-moderate-intensity-continuous-training-but-not-high-intensity-interval-training-increases-insulin-stimulated-intestinal-glucose-uptake
#7
Kumail Kumar Motiani, Anna M Savolainen, Jari-Joonas Eskelinen, Jussi Toivanen, Tamiko Ishizu, Minna Yli-Karjanmaa, Kirsi A Virtanen, Riitta Parkkola, Jukka Kapanen, Tove J Gronroos, Merja Haaparanta-Solin, Olof Solin, Nina Savisto, Markku Ahotupa, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Juhani Knuuti, Pirjo Nuutila, Kari K Kalliokoski, Jarna C Hannukainen
Similar to muscles, the intestine is also insulin resistant in obese subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Exercise training improves muscle insulin sensitivity, but its effects on intestinal metabolism are not known. We studied the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on intestinal glucose and free fatty acid uptake from circulation in humans. Twenty-eight healthy middle-aged sedentary men were randomized for two weeks of HIIT or MICT...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179492/indicator-amino-acid-derived-estimate-of-dietary-protein-requirement-for-male-bodybuilders-on-a-nontraining-day-is-several-fold-greater-than-the-current-recommended-dietary-allowance
#8
Arash Bandegan, Glenda Courtney-Martin, Mahroukh Rafii, Paul B Pencharz, Peter Wr Lemon
Background: Despite a number of studies indicating increased dietary protein needs in bodybuilders with the use of the nitrogen balance technique, the Institute of Medicine (2005) has concluded, based in part on methodologic concerns, that "no additional dietary protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise."Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the dietary protein requirement of healthy young male bodybuilders ( with ≥3 y training experience) on a nontraining day by measuring the oxidation of ingested l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine to (13)CO2 in response to graded intakes of protein [indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique]...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178968/imatinib-relaxes-the-pulmonary-venous-bed-of-guinea-pigs
#9
Nina A Maihöfer, Said Suleiman, Daniela Dreymüller, Paul W Manley, Rolf Rossaint, Stefan Uhlig, Christian Martin, Annette D Rieg
BACKGROUND: Recently, the IMPRES study revealed that systemic imatinib improves exercise capacity in patients with advanced pulmonary arterial hypertension. Imatinib blocks the tyrosine kinase activity of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-receptor (PDGFR), acts antiproliferative and relaxes pulmonary arteries. However so far, the relaxant effects of imatinib on pulmonary veins (PVs) and on the postcapillary resistance are unknown, although pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to left heart disease (LHD) is most common and primarily affects PVs...
February 8, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177709/effects-of-resistance-training-and-estrogen-replacement-on-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-ovariectomized-rats
#10
Maria Fernanda Cury Rodrigues, Fabiano Candido Ferreira, Natália Santanielo Silva-Magosso, Marina Rodrigues Barbosa, Markus Vinicius Campos Souza, Mateus Moraes Domingos, Gustavo Henrique Rigo Canevazzi, Uliana Sbeguen Stotzer, Sabrina Messa Peviani, Fábio Santos de Lira, Heloísa Sobreiro Selistre de Araújo, Sérgio Eduardo de Andrade Perez
Estrogen deficiency is directly related to central obesity and low-grade inflammation. Hormonal replacement and exercise training are both able to decrease fat accumulation and inflammation in postmenopausal women. However, the efficiency of resistance training (RT) and estrogen replacement (ER) in minimizing adiposity and inflammation in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of ovariectomized (OVX) rats has not yet been elucidated. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following six groups: the sham-operated sedentary (Sham-Sed), ovariectomized sedentary (OVX-Sed), sham-operated resistance training (Sham-RT), OVX-RT, OVX-Sed-ER and OVX-RT-ER groups...
January 25, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177674/exercise-restores-bioavailability-of-hydrogen-sulfide-and-promotes-autophagy-influx-in-livers-of-mice-fed-with-high-fat-diet
#11
Bing Wang, Jing Zeng, Qi Gu
In the gold standard treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), exercise training has been shown to effectively improve NASH. However, limited data are available about the underlying mechanisms involved. This work was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of exercise training on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD in mice. Male mice were fed with HFD and given moderate-intensity exercise for 24 weeks. Exercise training lowered weight gain, attenuated systemic insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, mitigated hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in mice fed with HFD...
January 10, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168013/exercise-training-attenuates-the-dysregulated-expression-of-adipokines-and-oxidative-stress-in-white-adipose-tissue
#12
REVIEW
Takuya Sakurai, Junetsu Ogasawara, Ken Shirato, Tetsuya Izawa, Shuji Oh-Ishi, Yoshinaga Ishibashi, Zsolt Radák, Hideki Ohno, Takako Kizaki
Obesity-induced inflammatory changes in white adipose tissue (WAT), which caused dysregulated expression of inflammation-related adipokines involving tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Moreover, current literature reports state that WAT generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the enhanced production of ROS in obese WAT has been closely associated with the dysregulated expression of adipokines in WAT. Therefore, the reduction in excess WAT and oxidative stress that results from obesity is thought to be one of the important strategies in preventing and improving lifestyle-related diseases...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166780/effect-of-a-high-protein-diet-and-or-resistance-exercise-on-the-preservation-of-fat-free-mass-during-weight-loss-in-overweight-and-obese-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Amely M Verreijen, Mariëlle F Engberink, Robert G Memelink, Suzanne E van der Plas, Marjolein Visser, Peter J M Weijs
BACKGROUND: Intentional weight loss in obese older adults is a risk factor for accelerated muscle mass loss. We investigated whether a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise preserves fat free mass (FFM) during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults. METHODS: We included 100 overweight and obese adults (55-80 year) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a 2 × 2 factorial design and intention-to-treat analysis. During a 10-week weight loss program all subjects followed a hypocaloric diet...
February 6, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166447/nutrition-support-for-persistent-inflammation-immunosuppression-and-catabolism-syndrome
#14
Frederick A Moore, Stuart Phillips, Craig McClain, Jayshil J Patel, Robert Martindale
Despite tremendous advances in critical care, multiple-organ failure continues to be a significant problem. However, in recent years, far fewer patients with multiple-organ failure die early, but many experience ongoing immune dysregulation and are developing persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism syndrome (PICS). Most PICS patients are discharged to nonhome destinations, fail to rehabilitate, and succumb to indolent death. From a nutrition perspective, patients with PICS experience persistent inflammation-induced cachexia despite evidenced-based recommended intensive care unit nutrition support...
February 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160545/impact-of-resistance-training-on-the-autophagy-inflammation-apoptosis-crosstalk-in-elderly-subjects
#15
Yubisay Mejías-Peña, Brisamar Estébanez, Paula Rodriguez-Miguelez, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo, Mar Almar, José A de Paz, Javier González-Gallego, María J Cuevas
Aging is associated with a decline in autophagy and a state of low-grade inflammation which further affects apoptosis and autophagy. Importantly, these alterations could reverse with regular physical activity. This study assessed the effects of a resistance exercise training program on autophagy, NLRP3 inflammasome, and apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from old subjects. Twenty-six healthy women and men (age, 69.6±1.5 yr) were randomized to a training (TG) or a control (CG) group. TG performed an 8-week resistance training program, while CG followed their daily routines...
February 2, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158925/mirnas-in-human-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-effects-of-weight-loss-induced-by-hypocaloric-diet-and-exercise
#16
Malene M Kristensen, Peter K Davidsen, Andreas Vigelsø, Christina N Hansen, Lars J Jensen, Niels Jessen, Jens M Bruun, Flemming Dela, Jørn W Helge
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is central in the development of insulin resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms still need elucidation. Dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs; post-transcriptional regulators) in adipose tissue may present an important link. METHODS: The miRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 19 individuals with severe obesity (10 women and 9 men) before and after a 15-week weight loss intervention was studied using genome-wide microarray analysis...
February 3, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155127/attenuation-of-exercise-induced-heat-shock-protein-72-expression-blunts-improvements-in-whole-body-insulin-resistance-in-rats-with-type-2-diabetes
#17
Takamasa Tsuzuki, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Toshinori Yoshihara, Ryo Kakigi, Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine, Hisashi Naito
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in insulin resistance and improve the cellular stress response via HSP induction by exercise to treat type 2 diabetes. In this study, the effects of exercise-induced HSP72 expression levels on whole-body insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats were investigated. Male 25-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were divided into three groups: sedentary (Sed), trained in a thermal-neutral environment (NTr: 25 °C), and trained in a cold environment (CTr: 4 °C)...
February 2, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143367/does-a-resistance-exercise-session-with-continuous-or-intermittent-blood-flow-restriction-promote-muscle-damage-and-increase-oxidative-stress
#18
Gabriel R Neto, Jefferson S Novaes, Verônica P Salerno, Michel M Gonçalves, Gilmário R Batista, Maria S Cirilo-Sousa
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of low-load resistance exercise (LLRE) with continuous and intermittent blood flow restriction (BFR) on the creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), protein carbonyl (PC), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) and uric acid (UA) levels in military men. The study included 10 recreationally trained men aged 19 ± 0.82 years who underwent the following experimental protocols in random order on separate days (72-96 h): 4 LLRE sessions at a 20% 1RM (one-repetition maximum [1RM]) with continuous BFR (LLRE + CBFR); 4 LLRE sessions at 20% 1RM with intermittent BFR (LLRE + IBFR) and 4 high-intensity resistance exercise (HIRE) sessions at 80% 1RM...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138261/the-effects-of-exercise-training-and-caloric-restriction-on-the-cardiac-oxytocin-natriuretic-peptide-system-in-the-diabetic-mouse
#19
Tom L Broderick, Marek Jankowski, Jolanta Gutkowska
BACKGROUND: Regular exercise training (ET) and caloric restriction (CR) are the frontline strategies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with the aim at reducing cardiometabolic risk. ET and CR improve body weight and glycemic control, and experimental studies indicate that these paradigms afford cardioprotection. In this study, the effects of combined ET and CR on the cardioprotective oxytocin (OT)-natriuretic peptide (NP) system were determined in the db/db mouse, a model of type 2 diabetes associated with insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and obesity...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129234/inflammation-relates-to-resistance-training-induced-hypertrophy-in-elderly-patients
#20
Kristoffer Larsen Norheim, Christopher Kjaer Cullum, Jesper Loevind Andersen, Michael Kjaer, Anders Karlsen
PURPOSE: Aging is associated with a gradual loss of muscle mass, which some have suggested to be accelerated by short periods of muscle disuse due to medical illness. We investigated the effect of hospitalization on skeletal muscle mass in acutely ill geriatric patients with focus on the relationship between systemic inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and changes in muscle mass, as well as the influence of resistance training upon muscle mass. METHOD: Unilateral leg press resistance exercise was conducted daily during the hospital period...
January 26, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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