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Protein and resistance exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919842/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-nutrient-timing
#1
REVIEW
Chad M Kerksick, Shawn Arent, Brad J Schoenfeld, Jeffrey R Stout, Bill Campbell, Colin D Wilborn, Lem Taylor, Doug Kalman, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Richard B Kreider, Darryn Willoughby, Paul J Arciero, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Michael J Ormsbee, Robert Wildman, Mike Greenwood, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Alan A Aragon, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN:Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, fortified foods and dietary supplements. The timing of energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients may enhance recovery and tissue repair, augment muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and improve mood states following high-volume or intense exercise...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914426/resistance-training-status-modifies-inflammatory-response-to-explosive-and-hypertrophic-resistance-exercise-bouts
#2
Johanna K Ihalainen, Juha P Ahtiainen, Simon Walker, Gøran Paulsen, Harri Selänne, Mari Hämäläinen, Eeva Moilanen, Heikki Peltonen, Antti A Mero
The purpose of the present study was to examine the immediate and prolonged immune response in circulating cytokine and adipocytokine concentrations after two different resistance exercise bouts: hypertrophic (HYP1, 5 × 10, 80% of 1RM) and maximal explosive (POW1, 10 × 5, 60% of 1RM) resistance exercise bouts and how 12 weeks of resistance training (RT) modifies these responses (HYP2, POW2). Eight men completed the study. RE-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), leptin, resistin, and adiponectin were measured before (PRE) and immediately (POST0), 24 (POST24) and 48 (POST48) hours after RE bouts before and after RT...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912360/influence-of-past-injurious-exercise-on-fiber-type-specific-acute-anabolic-response-to-resistance-exercise-in-skeletal-muscle
#3
Ryo Takagi, Riki Ogasawara, Junya Takegaki, Arata Tsutaki, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
We investigated influence of past injurious exercise on anabolic response of skeletal muscle fibers to resistance exercise (RE). Wistar rats were divided into exercise (E) and exercise after injury (I-E) groups. At age 10 wk, the right gastrocnemius muscle in each rat in the I-E group was subjected to strenuous eccentric contractions. Subsequently, RE was imposed on the same muscle of each rat at 14 wk of age in both groups. Peak joint torque and total force generation per body mass during RE were similar between the groups...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899903/socs3-expression-in-sf1-cells-regulates-adrenal-differentiation-and-exercise-performance
#4
João Ab Pedroso, Pedro Omori Ribeiro de Mendonça, Marco As Fortes, Igor Tomaz, Vitor L Pecorali, Thais B Auricino, Ismael C Costa, Leandro B Lima, Isadora C Furigo, Debora N Bueno, Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Claudimara Ferini Pacicco Lotfi, Jose Donato
Many hormones/cytokines are secreted in response to exercise and cytokine signaling may play a pivotal role in the training adaptations. To investigate the importance of cytokine signaling during vertical ladder climbing, a resistance exercise model, we produced mice lacking SOCS3 protein exclusively in steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1) cells (SF1 Socs3 KO mice). SF1 expression is found in steroidogenic cells of the adrenal cortex and gonads, as well as in neurons of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899879/pronounced-energy-restriction-with-elevated-protein-intake-results-in-no-change-in-proteolysis-and-reductions-in-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-that-are-mitigated-by-resistance-exercise
#5
Amy J Hector, Chris McGlory, Felipe Damas, Nicole Mazara, Steven K Baker, Stuart M Phillips
Preservation of lean body mass (LBM) may be important during dietary energy restriction (ER) and requires equal rates of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB). Currently, the relative contribution of MPS and MPB to the loss of LBM during ER in humans is unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of dietary protein intake and resistance exercise on MPS and MPB during a controlled short-term energy deficit. Adult men (body mass index, 28.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2); age 22 ± 1 yr) underwent 10 d of 40%-reduced energy intake while performing unilateral resistance exercise and consuming lower protein (1...
September 12, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895933/higher-protein-intake-does-not-improve-lean-mass-gain-when-compared-with-rda-recommendation-in-postmenopausal-women-following-resistance-exercise-protocol-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Luana T Rossato, Paula C Nahas, Flávia M S de Branco, Fernanda M Martins, Aletéia P Souza, Marcelo A S Carneiro, Fábio L Orsatti, Erick P de Oliveira
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a higher protein intake on lean body mass (LBM) gain in postmenopausal women practicing resistance exercise and compare it to the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) recommendation. Twenty-three postmenopausal women (63.2 ± 7.8 years) were randomized into two groups. The group with higher protein intake (n = 11) (HP) received a dietary plan with ~1.2 g·kg(-1)·day(-1) of protein, while the normal protein (NP) group (n = 12) was instructed to ingest ~0.8 g·kg(-1)·day(-1) of protein (RDA recommendation)...
September 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894050/compounds-of-psoriasis-with-obesity-and-overweight
#7
Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Waldemar Placek
Many epidemiological studies have confirmed the relationship of obesity and psoriasis, and it is believed that obesity is an independent risk factor for its development and is associated with a worse prognosis. Furthermore, the reduction of body weight, using low-calorie diet combined with exercise, reduces the severity of psoriasis.Visceral adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, producing proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17) and adipokines (adiponectin, omentin, chemerin). They participate in the development of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and consequently of the cardiovascular diseases...
August 24, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888087/modulation-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-follistatin-signaling-and-white-adipose-browning-therapeutic-implications-for-obesity-related-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Shehla Pervin, Vineeta Singh, Alexandria Tucker, Javier Collazo, Rajan Singh
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease and other related metabolic conditions. Obesity develops from perturbations in overall cellular bioenergetics when energy intake chronically exceeds total energy expenditure. Lifestyle interventions based on reducing total energy uptake and increasing activities including exercise have proved ineffective in the prevention and treatment of obesity because of poor adherence to such interventions for an extended period of time...
September 9, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887058/does-resistance-exercise-performed-during-dialysis-modulate-nrf2-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
C C Abreu, L F M F Cardozo, M B Stockler-Pinto, M Esgalhado, J E Barboza, R Frauches, D Mafra
Studies have shown that nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) can be modulated by physical exercise. However, the impact of resistance exercise has never been investigated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance exercise programs on the expression of transcription factors Nrf2 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in CKD patients on hemodialysis (HD). Patients on an HD program were randomly assigned to an exercise group of 25 patients (54...
September 5, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880219/influence-of-skeletal-muscle-carnosine-content-on-fatigue-during-repeated-resistance-exercise-in-recreationally-active-women
#10
Alyssa N Varanoske, Jay R Hoffman, David D Church, Ran Wang, Kayla M Baker, Sarah J Dodd, Nicholas A Coker, Leonardo P Oliveira, Virgil L Dawson, David H Fukuda, Jeffrey R Stout
Carnosine is a naturally occurring intramuscular dipeptide that is thought to attenuate fatigue during high-intensity exercise. Carnosine content is influenced by various factors, including gender and diet. Despite research reporting that carnosine content is lower in women compared to men and lower in vegetarians compared to omnivores, no investigations have examined carnosine content in women based on dietary protein intake and its effect on muscle fatigue. Twenty recreationally active women were assigned to either a high (HI; n = 5), moderate (MOD; n = 10), or low (LO; n = 5) group based upon intramuscular carnosine content of the vastus lateralis...
September 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878131/physiological-adaptations-to-resistance-exercise-as-a-function-of-age
#11
Bethan E Phillips, John P Williams, Paul L Greenhaff, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton
BACKGROUND: The impact of resistance exercise training (RE-T) across the life span is poorly defined. METHODS: To resolve this, we recruited three distinct age cohorts of young (18-28 years; n = 11), middle-aged (45-55 years; n = 20), and older (nonsarcopenic; 65-75 years; n = 17) individuals to a cross-sectional intervention study. All subjects participated in 20 weeks of fully supervised whole-body progressive RE-T, undergoing assessment of body composition, muscle and vascular function, and metabolic health biomarkers before and after RE-T...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871849/resistance-training-combined-with-diet-decreases-body-fat-while-preserving-lean-mass-independent-of-resting-metabolic-rate-a-randomized-trial
#12
Todd Miller, Stephanie Mull, Alan Albert Aragon, James Krieger, Brad Jon Schoenfeld
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training only (RT n=10), dietary intervention only (DIET n=10), resistance training plus diet (RT+DIET n=10) and control (CON n=10) on body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of 40 premenopausal female volunteers. Subjects in DIET and RT+DIET were provided with daily macronutrient and calorie goals based on DXA and RMR tests, with protein maintained at 1.4 g/kg/day. Subjects in the RT and RT+DIET groups performed a supervised progressive RT program consisting of exercises for all the major muscle groups of the body...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869034/plasticity-and-function-of-human-skeletal-muscle-in-relation-to-disuse-and-rehabilitation-influence-of-ageing-and-surgery
#13
Charlotte Suetta
In order to study the influence of disuse and aging on skeletal muscle homeostasis, different human models were employed. Effects of chronic disuse were investigated in elderly patients suffering from uni-lateral hip-osteoarthritis, whereas the effect of short-term disuse (4 and 14 days of unilateral lower limb immobilisation) was assessed in healthy young and old individuals. In summary, chronic muscle disuse in the elderly was associated with marked quantitative as well as qualitative neuromuscular impairments...
August 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860165/influence-of-nutrient-ingestion-on-amino-acid-transporters-and-protein-synthesis-in-human-skeletal-muscle-after-sprint-exercise
#14
Håkan Claes Rundqvist, Mona Esbjörnsson, Olav Rooyackers, Ted Osterlund, Marcus Moberg, William Apró, Eva Blomstrand, Eva Jansson
Nutrient ingestion is known to increase the exercise-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise. Less is known about the effect of nutrients on muscle protein synthesis following sprint exercise. At two occasions separated by one month, twelve healthy subjects performed three 30-s sprints with 20-min rest between bouts. In randomized order, they consumed a drink with essential amino acids and maltodextrin (nutrient) or flavored water (placebo). Muscle biopsies were obtained 80 and 200 min after the last sprint and blood samples were taken repeatedly during the experiment...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859014/comparisons-in-the-recovery-response-from-resistance-exercise-between-young-and-middle-aged-men
#15
Joseph A Gordon, Jay R Hoffman, Eliott Arroyo, Alyssa N Varanoske, Nicholas A Coker, Yftach Gepner, Adam J Wells, Jeffrey R Stout, David H Fukuda
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a bout of high-volume isokinetic resistance exercise (HVP) on lower-body strength and markers of inflammation and muscle damage during recovery between young and middle-aged men. Nineteen recreationally-trained men were classified as either a young adult (YA: 21.8 ± 2.0 y; 90.7 ± 11.6 kg) or middle-aged adult (MA: 47.0 ± 4.4 y; 96.0 ± 21.5 kg) group. The HVP consisted of 8 sets of 10 repetitions, with one minute of rest between each set, performed on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°·sec...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855275/dynamic-proteome-profiling-of-individual-proteins-in-human-skeletal-muscle-after-a-high-fat-diet-and-resistance-exercise
#16
Donny M Camera, Jatin G Burniston, Mark A Pogson, William J Smiles, John A Hawley
It is generally accepted that muscle adaptation to resistance exercise (REX) training is underpinned by contraction-induced, increased rates of protein synthesis and dietary protein availability. By using dynamic proteome profiling (DPP), we investigated the contribution of both synthesis and breakdown to changes in abundance on a protein-by-protein basis in human skeletal muscle. Age-matched, overweight males consumed 9 d of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet during which time they either undertook 3 sessions of REX or performed no exercise...
August 30, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846611/high-intensity-exercise-can-it-protect-you-from-a-fast-food-diet
#17
Christian Duval, Marc-Antoine Rouillier, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Antony D Karelis
The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of high intensity exercise to counteract the deleterious effects of a fast food diet on the cardiometabolic profile of young healthy men. Fifteen men were subjected to an exclusive fast food diet from a popular fast food restaurant chain (three extra value meals/day + optional snack) for 14 consecutive days. Simultaneously, participants were asked to perform each day high intensity interval training (HIIT) (15 × 60 sec sprint intervals (~90% of maximal heart rate)) on a treadmill...
August 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846563/temporal-response-of-angiogenesis-and-hypertrophy-to-resistance-training-in-young-men
#18
Tanya M Holloway, Tim Snijders, Janneau van Kranenburg, Luc Jc van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
While endurance exercise training promotes angiogenesis and improves metabolic health, the effect of resistance training on this process is less well defined. We hypothesised that capillarization would increase proportionally, and concurrently, with muscle fiber hypertrophy in response to resistance training in young men. METHODS: In this double blind, randomized control trial, 36 males (22 ± 1 y) were randomized to placebo or protein supplementation, and participated in 12-wk of resistance training...
August 25, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839146/piezo1-channels-sense-whole-body-physical-activity-to-reset-cardiovascular-homeostasis-and-enhance-performance
#19
Baptiste Rode, Jian Shi, Naima Endesh, Mark J Drinkhill, Peter J Webster, Sabine J Lotteau, Marc A Bailey, Nadira Y Yuldasheva, Melanie J Ludlow, Richard M Cubbon, Jing Li, T Simon Futers, Lara Morley, Hannah J Gaunt, Katarzyna Marszalek, Hema Viswambharan, Kevin Cuthbertson, Paul D Baxter, Richard Foster, Piruthivi Sukumar, Andrew Weightman, Sarah C Calaghan, Stephen B Wheatcroft, Mark T Kearney, David J Beech
Mammalian biology adapts to physical activity but the molecular mechanisms sensing the activity remain enigmatic. Recent studies have revealed how Piezo1 protein senses mechanical force to enable vascular development. Here, we address Piezo1 in adult endothelium, the major control site in physical activity. Mice without endothelial Piezo1 lack obvious phenotype but close inspection reveals a specific effect on endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric resistance artery. Strikingly, the Piezo1 is required for elevated blood pressure during whole body physical activity but not blood pressure during inactivity...
August 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839007/curcumin-limits-weight-gain-adipose-tissue-growth-and-glucose-intolerance-following-the-cessation-of-exercise-and-caloric-restriction-in-rats
#20
Trevor Teich, Jacklyn A Pivovarov, Deanna P Porras, Emily C Dunford, Michael C Riddell
Weight regain, adipose tissue growth, and insulin resistance can occur within days after the cessation of regular dieting and exercise. We investigated the effect of curcumin on preserving metabolic health and limiting adipose tissue growth following the cessation of daily exercise and caloric restriction (CR). Sprague-Dawley rats (6-7 wks old) underwent a 'training' protocol of 24 hr voluntary running wheel access and CR (15-20 g/day) for 3 wks ('All Trained') or were sedentary and fed ad libitum ('Sed'). After 3 wks, 'All Trained' were randomly divided into one group which was terminated immediately ('Trained'), and two detrained groups which had their wheels locked and were reintroduced to ad libitum feeding for 1 wk...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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