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Protein and resistance exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771273/does-protein-supplementation-really-augment-hypertrophy-in-older-persons-with-resistance-exercise-training
#1
Robert W Morton, Stuart M Phillips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764464/daytime-and-nighttime-casein-supplements-similarly-increase-muscle-size-and-strength-in-response-to-resistance-training-earlier-in-the-day-a-preliminary-investigation
#2
Jordan M Joy, Roxanne M Vogel, K Shane Broughton, Urszula Kudla, Nathaniel Y Kerr, Jason M Davison, Robert E C Wildman, Nancy M DiMarco
BACKGROUND: Casein protein consumed before sleep has been suggested to offer an overnight supply of exogenous amino acids for anabolic processes. The purpose of this study was to compare supplemental casein consumed earlier in the day (DayTime, DT) versus shortly before bed (NightTime, NT) on body composition, strength, and muscle hypertrophy in response to supervised resistance training. METHODS: Thirteen males participated in a 10-week exercise and dietary intervention while receiving 35 g casein daily...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757673/rapamycin-insensitive-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-regulates-basal-and-resistance-exercise-induced-muscle-protein-synthesis
#3
Riki Ogasawara, Takeshi Suginohara
We investigated whether rapamycin-insensitive mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling plays a role in regulating resistance exercise-induced muscle protein synthesis. We used a rodent model of resistance exercise and compared the effect of rapamycin, an allosteric mTOR inhibitor, with the effect of AZD8055, an ATP-competitive mTOR kinase inhibitor. The right gastrocnemius muscle of male Sprague-Dawley rats age 11 wk was contracted isometrically via percutaneous electrical stimulation (100 Hz, 5 sets of ten 3-s contractions, 7 s of rest between contractions, 3 min of rest between sets), and the left gastrocnemius muscle served as control...
May 14, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755574/branched-chain-amino-acids-in-health-and-disease-metabolism-alterations-in-blood-plasma-and-as-supplements
#4
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are essential amino acids with protein anabolic properties, which have been studied in a number of muscle wasting disorders for more than 50 years. However, until today, there is no consensus regarding their therapeutic effectiveness. In the article is demonstrated that the crucial roles in BCAA metabolism play: (i) skeletal muscle as the initial site of BCAA catabolism accompanied with the release of alanine and glutamine to the blood; (ii) activity of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD); and (iii) amination of branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) to BCAAs...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755474/exercise-increases-insulin-sensitivity-and-skeletal-muscle-ampk-expression-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Fabiana B Benatti, Cíntia N H Miyake, Wagner S Dantas, Vanessa O Zambelli, Samuel K Shinjo, Rosa M R Pereira, Maria Elizabeth R Silva, Ana Lúcia Sá-Pinto, Eduardo Borba, Eloisa Bonfá, Bruno Gualano
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients may show increased insulin resistance (IR) when compared with their healthy peers. Exercise training has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in other insulin-resistant populations, but it has never been tested in SLE. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of a moderate-intensity exercise training program on insulin sensitivity and potential underlying mechanisms in SLE patients with mild/inactive disease. A 12-week, randomized controlled trial was conducted...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750574/exercise-training-during-chemotherapy-preserves-skeletal-muscle-fiber-area-capillarization-and-mitochondrial-content-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#6
Sara Mijwel, Daniele A Cardinale, Jessica Norrbom, Mark Chapman, Niklas Ivarsson, Yvonne Wengström, Carl Johan Sundberg, Helene Rundqvist
Exercise has been suggested to ameliorate the detrimental effects of chemotherapy on skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different exercise regimens with usual care on skeletal muscle morphology and mitochondrial markers in patients being treated with chemotherapy for breast cancer. Specifically, we compared moderate-intensity aerobic combined with high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT) and resistance combined with high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT) with usual care (UC)...
May 11, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731703/metabolic-syndrome-and-neuroprotection
#7
REVIEW
Melisa Etchegoyen, Mariana H Nobile, Francisco Baez, Barbara Posesorski, Julian González, Néstor Lago, José Milei, Matilde Otero-Losada
Introduction: Over the years the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has drastically increased in developing countries as a major byproduct of industrialization. Many factors, such as the consumption of high-calorie diets and a sedentary lifestyle, bolster the spread of this disorder. Undoubtedly, the massive and still increasing incidence of MetS places this epidemic as an important public health issue. Hereon we revisit another outlook of MetS beyond its classical association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DM2), for MetS also poses a risk factor for the nervous tissue and threatens neuronal function...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725856/skeletal-muscle-amino-acid-transporter-and-bcat2-expression-prior-to-and-following-interval-running-or-resistance-exercise-in-mode-specific-trained-males
#8
Paul A Roberson, Cody T Haun, C Brooks Mobley, Matthew A Romero, Petey W Mumford, Jeffrey S Martin, Michael D Roberts
Endurance (END)- and resistance (RES)-trained males performed interval running or resistance exercise during three consecutive days (bouts 1-3). Muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline, 2 h post-bout 1, and 72 h post-bout 3. Amino acid transporter SNAT2 mRNA was 75% greater in END (group p = 0.008), and increased ~ 70% 2 h post in both groups (time p = 0.023). Amino acid transporter PAT1 mRNA was 2.7-fold greater in RES (group p = 0.002). Baseline protein levels of the mitochondrial aminotransferase BCAT2 were 79% greater in END (p = 0...
May 3, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722847/dietary-acid-load-and-bone-turnover-during-long-duration-spaceflight-and-bed-rest
#9
Sara R Zwart, Barbara L Rice, Holly Dlouhy, Linda C Shackelford, Martina Heer, Matthew D Koslovsky, Scott M Smith
Background: Bed rest studies document that a lower dietary acid load is associated with lower bone resorption. Objective: We tested the effect of dietary acid load on bone metabolism during spaceflight. Design: Controlled 4-d diets with a high or low animal protein-to-potassium (APro:K) ratio (High and Low diets, respectively) were given to 17 astronauts before and during spaceflight. Each astronaut had 1 High and 1 Low diet session before flight and 2 High and 2 Low sessions during flight, in addition to a 4-d session around flight day 30 (FD30), when crew members were to consume their typical in-flight intake...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722584/no-difference-between-the-effects-of-supplementing-with-soy-protein-versus-animal-protein-on-gains-in-muscle-mass-and-strength-in-response-to-resistance-exercise
#10
Mark Messina, Heidi Lynch, Jared M Dickinson, Katharine E Reed
Much attention has been given to determining the influence of total protein intake and protein source on gains in lean body mass (LBM) and strength in response to resistance exercise training (RET). Acute studies indicate that whey protein, likely related to its higher leucine content, stimulates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to a greater extent than proteins such as soy and casein. Less clear is the extent to which the type of protein supplemented impacts strength and LBM in longer term studies (≥6 weeks)...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722252/creatine-monohydrate-supplementation-during-eight-weeks-of-progressive-resistance-training-increases-strength-in-as-little-as-two-weeks-without-reducing-markers-of-muscle-damage
#11
Mojtaba Kaviani, Aboozar Abassi, Philip D Chilibeck
BACKGROUND: Creatine supplementation (Cr) increases strength during resistance training, but the time course of this strength increase is unclear. The aim was to determine the precise time course by which Cr could increase strength and whether Cr prevents muscle damage during eight weeks of resistance training. METHODS: Young males were randomized (double blind) to Cr (n=9, 0.07g/kg/d) and placebo (n=9) during 8-weeks of resistance training (3d/week). Strength was assessed across six exercises every two weeks...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698742/age-and-the-effect-of-exercise-nutrition-and-cognitive-training-on-oxidative-stress-the-vienna-active-aging-study-vaas-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Bernhard Franzke, Barbara Schober-Halper, Marlene Hofmann, Stefan Oesen, Anela Tosevska, Trine Henriksen, Henrik E Poulsen, Eva-Maria Strasser, Barbara Wessner, Karl-Heinz Wagner
The purpose of this study was to investigated the effect of age - over or under life-expectancy (LE) - on six months resistance training alone or combined with a nutritional supplement, and cognitive training by analyzing markers for oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in institutionalized elderly, living in Vienna. Three groups (n=117, age=83.1±6.1 years) - resistance training (RT), RT combined with protein and vitamin supplementation (RTS) or cognitive training (CT) - performed two guided training sessions per week for six months...
April 23, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698111/arachidonic-acid-supplementation-transiently-augments-the-acute-inflammatory-response-to-resistance-exercise-in-trained-men
#13
James F Markworth, Randall F D'Souza, Kirsten M M Aasen, Sarah M Mitchell, Brenan R Durainayagam, Andrew J Sinclair, Jonathan M Peake, Ingrid Marie Egner, Truls Raastad, David Cameron-Smith, Cameron J Mitchell
Strenuous exercise can result in skeletal muscle damage, leading to the systemic mobilization, activation and intramuscular accumulation of blood leukocytes. Eicosanoid metabolites of arachidonic acid (ARA) are potent inflammatory mediators, but whether changes in dietary ARA intake influence exercise-induced inflammation is not known. This study investigated the effect of 4 weeks of dietary supplementation with 1.5 g/day ARA (n=9, 24 {plus minus} 1.5 years) or corn-soy oil placebo (n=10, 26 {plus minus} 1...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695972/exercise-protects-against-defective-insulin-signaling-and-insulin-resistance-of-glucose-transport-in-skeletal-muscle-of-angiotensin-ii-infused-rat
#14
Juthamard Surapongchai, Yupaporn Rattanavichit, Jariya Buniam, Vitoon Saengsirisuwan
Objectives: The present study investigated the impact of voluntary exercise on insulin-stimulated glucose transport and the protein expression and phosphorylation status of the signaling molecules known to be involved in the glucose transport process in the soleus muscle as well as other cardiometabolic risks in a rat model with insulin resistance syndrome induced by chronic angiotensin II (ANGII) infusion. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to sedentary or voluntary wheel running (VWR) groups...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679660/effects-of-aerobic-training-resistance-training-or-both-on-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-adolescents-with-obesity-the-hearty-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Gary S Goldfield, Glen P Kenny, Denis Prud'Homme, Martin Holcik, Angela S Alberga, Margaret Fahnestock, Jameason D Cameron, Steve Doucette, Stasia Hadjiyannakis, Heather Tulloch, Mark S Tremblay, Jeremy Walsh, Eva Guerin, Katie E Gunnell, Amedeo D'Angiulli, Ronald J Sigal
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that plays a critical role in modulating cognition in animals and humans. Aerobic exercise often increases BDNF in adults, but effects of this exercise modality and others among adolescents remain uncertain. This study examined the effects of aerobic training, resistance training, and combined training on resting serum BDNF levels in adolescents with overweight and obesity. After a 4-week pre-randomization treatment, 304 post-pubertal, adolescents with overweight or obesity (70% females) aged 14-18 years were randomized to one of four groups for 22 weeks: aerobic training (N = 75), resistance training (N = 78), combined aerobic and resistance training (N = 75), or non-exercising control (N = 76)...
April 18, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675640/effects-of-combined-whole-body-electromyostimulation-and-protein-supplementation-on-local-and-overall-muscle-fat-distribution-in-older-men-with-sarcopenic-obesity-the-randomized-controlled-franconia-sarcopenic-obesity-franso-study
#16
Wolfgang Kemmler, Alexandra Grimm, Michael Bebenek, Matthias Kohl, Simon von Stengel
The primary aim of the project was to determine the combined effect of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) and protein supplements on local and overall muscle/fat distribution in older man with sarcopenic obesity (SO). Community-dwelling (cdw) men ≥ 70 years with SO were randomly allocated to a WB-EMS and protein supplementation (n = 33) or a non-intervention control group (CG: n = 34). WB-EMS was conducted 1.5 sessions of 20 min/week for 16 weeks. Whey protein supplementation aimed to ensure a daily intake of 1...
April 19, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673239/effects-of-treadmill-exercise-on-pi3k-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-pathway-and-tau-protein-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#17
Jae-Hoon Jeong, Eun-Bum Kang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to clearly evaluate the effects of obesity on cerebral health. Thus, we induced obesity in rats using a long-term high-fat diet (HFD), then investigated its effects on insulin signaling and tau hyperphosphorylation. Additionally, we examined the effects of 8 weeks of treadmill exercise (TE) on insulin signaling and tau hyperphosphorylation. METHODS: Rats were separated into Normal Diet-Control, HFD-Control, and HFD-TE groups. TE loads were gradually increased...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672220/environmental-hypoxia-favors-myoblast-differentiation-and-fast-phenotype-but-blunts-activation-of-protein-synthesis-after-resistance-exercise-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#18
Olouyomi Gnimassou, Rodrigo Fernández-Verdejo, Matthew Brook, Damien Naslain, Estelle Balan, Mariwan Sayda, Jessica Cegielski, Henri Nielens, Anabelle Decottignies, Jean-Baptiste Demoulin, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton, Marc Francaux, Louise Deldicque
We hypothesized that a single session of resistance exercise performed in moderate hypoxic (FiO2 : 14%) environmental conditions would potentiate the anabolic response during the recovery period spent in normoxia. Twenty subjects performed a 1-leg knee extension session in normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Muscle biopsies were taken 15 min and 4 h after exercise in the vastus lateralis of the exercised and the nonexercised legs. Blood and saliva samples were taken at regular intervals before, during, and after the exercise session...
April 19, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661156/synergic-trial-synchronizing-exercises-remedies-in-gait-and-cognition-a-multi-centre-randomized-controlled-double-blind-trial-to-improve-gait-and-cognition-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#19
Manuel Montero-Odasso, Quincy J Almeida, Amer M Burhan, Richard Camicioli, Julien Doyon, Sarah Fraser, Karen Li, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Laura Middleton, Susan Muir-Hunter, William McIlroy, José A Morais, Frederico Pieruccini-Faria, Kevin Shoemaker, Mark Speechley, Akshya Vasudev, G Y Zou, Nicolas Berryman, Maxime Lussier, Leanne Vanderhaeghe, Louis Bherer
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise, cognitive training, and vitamin D are low cost interventions that have the potential to enhance cognitive function and mobility in older adults, especially in pre-dementia states such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Aerobic and progressive resistance exercises have benefits to cognitive performance, though evidence is somewhat inconsistent. We postulate that combined aerobic exercise (AE) and progressive resistance training (RT) (combined exercise) will have a better effect on cognition than a balance and toning control (BAT) intervention in older adults with MCI...
April 16, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658605/aerobic-exercise-regulates-blood-lipid-and-insulin-resistance-via-the-toll%C3%A2-like-receptor-4%C3%A2-mediated-extracellular-signal%C3%A2-regulated-kinases-amp%C3%A2-activated-protein-kinases-signaling-pathway
#20
Mei Wang, Sen Li, Fubaihui Wang, Jinhui Zou, Yanfeng Zhang
Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disease with symptoms of hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, chronic damage and dysfunction of tissues, and metabolic syndrome for insufficient insulin production. Evidence has indicated that exercise treatments are essential in the progression of type‑ІІ diabetes mellitus, and affect insulin resistance and activity of islet β‑cells. In the present study, the efficacy and signaling mechanism of aerobic exercise on blood lipids and insulin resistance were investigated in the progression of type‑ІІ diabetes mellitus...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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