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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040585/emergence-of-mcr-1-and-carbapenemase-genes-in-hospital-sewage-water-in-beijing-china
#1
Longyang Jin, Ruobing Wang, Xiaojuan Wang, Qi Wang, Yawei Zhang, Yuyao Yin, Hui Wang
Objectives: This study identified and characterized mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae (MCRPE) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in hospital sewage water. Methods: Influent and effluent sewage samples were collected from five tertiary hospitals in Beijing in December 2016. Samples were screened for MCRPE and CPE using antibiotic selection media. Results were confirmed by PCR amplification of β-lactamase and colistin resistance (mcr-1 and mcr-2) genes and by sequencing...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040083/consumption-of-edible-ice-contaminated-with-acinetobacter-pseudomonas-and-stenotrophomonas-is-a-risk-factor-for-fecal-colonization-with-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-in-vietnam
#2
Tatsuya Nakayama, Nguyen Cong Ha, Phong Quoc Le, Ryuji Kawahara, Yuko Kumeda, Yoshinori Sumimura, Yoshimasa Yamamoto
Although Vietnamese residents frequently harbor extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E), it is unclear which foods/beverages are risk factors for acquiring these bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency with which edible ice served in restaurants is contaminated with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and thereby clarify whether this product poses a risk for ESBL-E carriage in humans. Ice from restaurants in Vietnam and Japan was screened for bacteria capable of growing on agar containing cefotaxime (BG-CTX)...
2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040072/enterococci-populations-of-a-metropolitan-river-after-an-extreme-flood-event-prevalence-persistence-and-virulence-determinants
#3
Nicole M Masters, Aaron Wiegand, Jasmin M Thompson, Tara L Vollmerhausen, Eva Hatje, Mohammad Katouli
We investigated the prevalence, persistence and virulence determinants of enterococci populations in water samples collected over three rounds following an extreme flood event in a metropolitan river. Enterococci (n = 482) were typed using the high resolution biochemical fingerprinting method (PhP typing) and grouped into common (C) or single (S) biochemical phenotypes (BPTs). In all, 23 C-BPTs (72.6% of isolates) were found across the sites. A representative isolate of each C-BPT was identified to the species level and tested for the presence of seven virulence genes (VGs), biofilm formation and resistance to 14 antibiotics...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035735/transcriptome-profiling-identifies-genes-pathways-associated-with-experimental-resistance-to-paromomycin-in-leishmania-donovani
#4
Aditya Verma, Vasundhra Bhandari, Deepak Kumar Deep, Shyam Sundar, Jean Claude Dujardin, Ruchi Singh, Poonam Salotra
Widespread resistance towards antimony and reports of relapses following miltefosine treatment has severely affected the management of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent. Paromomycin (PMM), an aminoglycoside antibiotic, has been licensed for VL treatment in India in 2007. Although its use is still restricted in the field, unraveling the molecular mechanism of resistance towards PMM is the key to preserve the drug. In this study, PMM resistant lines were selected up to 100 μM of PMM in three distinct field isolates of Leishmania donovani at promastigote stage...
October 10, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034855/bradyrhizobium-namibiense-sp-nov-a-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixing-bacterium-from-root-nodules-of-lablab-purpureus-hyacinth-bean-in-namibia
#5
Jann Lasse Grönemeyer, Wiebke Bünger, Barbara Reinhold-Hurek
Four strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet) from Namibia were previously identified as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To confirm their taxonomic status, these strains were further characterized by taking a polyphasic approach. The type strain possessed 16S rRNA gene sequences identical to Bradyrhizobium paxllaeri LMTR 21(T) and Bradyrhizobiumicense LMTR 13(T), the full-length sequences were identical to those retrieved from SAMN05230119 and SAMN05230120, respectively...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034850/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-variants-obtained-from-veterinary-clinical-samples-reveal-a-role-for-cyclic-di-gmp-in-biofilm-formation-and-colony-morphology
#6
Maria T Brock, Galya C Fedderly, Grace I Borlee, Michael M Russell, Liliana K Filipowska, Doreene R Hyatt, Ryan A Ferris, Bradley R Borlee
Overuse of antibiotics is contributing to an emerging antimicrobial resistance crisis. To better understand how bacteria adapt tolerance and resist antibiotic treatment, Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates obtained from infection sites sampled from companion animals were collected and evaluated for phenotypic differences. Selected pairs of clonal isolates were obtained from individual infection samples and were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, cyclic di-GMP levels, biofilm production, motility and genetic-relatedness...
October 16, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034431/cultivation-dependent-and-high-throughput-sequencing-approaches-studying-the-co-occurrence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-municipal-sewage-system
#7
An-Dong Li, Liping Ma, Xiao-Tao Jiang, Tong Zhang
During the past years, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) leading for the spreading of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) became a global problem, especially multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are considered the prime culprit of antibiotic resistance. However, the correlation between the antibiotic-resistant phenotype and the ARG profiles remains poorly understood. In the present study, metagenomic functional screening and metagenomic analysis of coliforms were combined to explore the phenotype and genotype of the ARBs from municipal sewage...
October 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034091/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characterization-of-antibiotic-resistance-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-hospital-food
#8
Farhad Safarpoor Dehkordi, Hasan Gandomi, Afshin Akhondzadeh Basti, Ali Misaghi, Ebrahim Rahimi
BACKGROUND: Pathogenic biotypes of the Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are considered to be one of the major cause of food-borne diseases in hospitals. The present investigation was done to study the pattern of antibiotic resistance and prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes of different biotypes of the MRSA strains isolated from various types of hospital food samples. METHODS: Four-hundred and eighty-five raw and cooked hospital food samples were cultured and MRSA strains were identified using the oxacillin and cefoxitin disk diffusion tests and mecA-based PCR amplification...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033910/resistance-of-animal-strains-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-to-carbapenems
#9
Marisa Haenni, Maxime Bour, Pierre Châtre, Jean-Yves Madec, Patrick Plésiat, Katy Jeannot
Carbapenems are major antibiotics reserved to human medicine. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of carbapenem resistance of a selection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa veterinary strains from the French network Resapath. Thirty (5.7%) imipenem and/or meropenem non-susceptible P. aeruginosa of canine (n = 24), feline (n = 5), or bovine (n = 1) origin were identified in a large collection of 527 veterinary strains gathered by the Resapath. These resistant isolates belonged to 25 MultiLocus Sequence Types (MLST), of which 17 (68%) are shared with clinical (human) strains, such as high risk clones ST233 and ST395...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033338/antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-waste-water
#10
REVIEW
Antti Karkman, Thi Thuy Do, Fiona Walsh, Marko P J Virta
Waste water and waste water treatment plants can act as reservoirs and environmental suppliers of antibiotic resistance. They have also been proposed to be hotspots for horizontal gene transfer, enabling the spread of antibiotic resistance genes between different bacterial species. Waste water contains antibiotics, disinfectants, and metals which can form a selection pressure for antibiotic resistance, even in low concentrations. Our knowledge of antibiotic resistance in waste water has increased tremendously in the past few years with advances in the molecular methods available...
October 12, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033110/investigating-of-four-main-carbapenem-resistance-mechanisms-in-high-level-carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-burn-patients
#11
Soodabeh Rostami, Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh, Saeed Shoja, Abbas Farahani, Mohammad Amin Tabatabaiefar, Abbas Jolodar, Raheleh Sheikhi
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen involved in many infections. Carbapenem-resistant P.aeruginosa has emerged as an important cause of infection in different hospitals worldwide. We aimed to determine frequencies of the four main resistance mechanisms [metallo-beta lactamase (MBL) production (blaIMP, blaVIM, blaSPM and blaNDM), overproduction of the MexAB-OprM and MexXY efflux pumps, overproduction of chromosome-encoded AmpC β-lactamase, and reduced OprD expression] in high-level carbapenem-resistant P...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032651/complete-genome-sequence-of-salmonella-enterica-subsp-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-st1120-isolated-from-swine-feces-in-korea
#12
Seongok Kim, Eunsuk Kim, Soyeon Park, Tae-Wook Hahn, Hyunjin Yoon
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, one of the most common food-borne pathogens, is transmitted mainly through contaminated food derived from infected animals. In this study, S. Typhimurium ST1120, an isolate from pig feces in Korea, was subjected to whole genome analysis to understand its genomic features associated with virulence. The genome of ST1120 was found to have a circular chromosome of 4,855,001 bp (GC content 52.2%) and a plasmid of 6,863 bp (GC content 46.0%). This chromosome was predicted to have 4,558 open reading frames (ORFs), 17 pseudogenes, 22 rRNA genes, and 86 tRNA genes...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032395/ptxd-gene-in-combination-with-phosphite-serves-as-a-highly-effective-selection-system-to-generate-transgenic-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l
#13
Devendra Pandeya, LeAnne M Campbell, Eugenia Nunes, Damar L Lopez-Arredondo, Madhusudhana R Janga, Luis Herrera-Estrella, Keerti S Rathore
This report demonstrates the usefulness of ptxD/phosphite as a selection system that not only provides a highly efficient and simple means to generate transgenic cotton plants, but also helps address many of the concerns related to the use of antibiotic and herbicide resistance genes in the production of transgenic crops. Two of the most popular dominant selectable marker systems for plant transformation are based on either antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes. Due to concerns regarding their safety and in order to stack multiple traits in a single plant, there is a need for alternative selectable marker genes...
October 14, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031406/prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-from-effluent-of-coastal-aquaculture-south-korea
#14
Hyun Min Jang, Young Beom Kim, Sangki Choi, Yunho Lee, Seung Gu Shin, Tatsuya Unno, Young Mo Kim
The wide use of antibiotics in aquaculture for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes can potentially lead to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This study reports for the first time the profile of ARGs from effluents of coastal aquaculture located in South Jeolla province and Jeju Island, South Korea. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), twenty-two ARGs encoding tetracycline resistance (tetA, tetB, tetD, tetE, tetG, tetH, tetM, tetQ, tetX, tetZ, tetBP), sulfonamide resistance (sul1, sul2), quinolone resistance (qnrD, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr), β-lactams resistance (blaTEM, blaCTX, blaSHV), macrolide resistance (ermC), florfenicol resistance (floR) and multidrug resistance (oqxA) and a class 1 integrons-integrase gene (intI1) were quantified...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030447/housefly-musca-domestica-and-blow-fly-protophormia-terraenovae-as-vectors-of-colistin-resistance-genes-carrying-bacteria
#15
Jilei Zhang, Jiawei Wang, Li Chen, Afrah Kamal Yassin, Patrick Kelly, Patrick Butaye, Jing Li, Jiansen Gong, Russell Cattley, Kezong Qi, Chengming Wang
Flies have the capacity to transfer pathogens between different environments, acting as one of the most important vectors of human diseases worldwide. In this study, we trapped flies on a university campus and tested them for mobile resistance genes against colistin, a last-resort antibiotic in human medicine for treating clinical infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Quantitative PCRs we developed showed that 34.1% of Musca domestica (86/252) and 51.1% of Protophormia terraenovae (23/45) were positive for the mcr-1, 1...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030440/multiple-roles-of-two-efflux-pumps-in-a-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading-pseudomonas-putida-strain-b6-2-dsm-28064
#16
Xuemei Yao, Fei Tao, Kunzhi Zhang, Hongzhi Tang, Ping Xu
Microbial bioremediation is a promising approach for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminants. Many degraders of PAHs possess efflux pump genes in their genomes; however, their specific roles in the degradation of PAHs have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, two efflux pumps, TtgABC and SrpABC, were systematically investigated to determine their functions in a PAH-degrading Pseudomonas putida strain B6-2 (DSM 28064). The disruption of genes ttgABC or srpABC resulted in a defect in organic solvent tolerance...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030439/conjugation-mediated-horizontal-gene-transfer-of-clostridium-perfringens-plasmids-in-the-chicken-gastrointestinal-tract-results-in-the-formation-of-new-virulent-strains
#17
Jake A Lacey, Anthony L Keyburn, Mark E Ford, Ricardo W Portela, Priscilla A Johanesen, Dena Lyras, Robert J Moore
Clostridium perfringens is a gastrointestinal pathogen capable of causing disease in a variety of hosts. Necrotic enteritis in chickens is caused by C. perfringens strains that produce the pore-forming toxin NetB, the major virulence factor for this disease. Like many other C. perfringens toxins and antibiotic resistance genes, NetB is encoded on a conjugative plasmid. Conjugative transfer of the netB-containing plasmid pJIR3535 has been demonstrated in vitro with a netB null mutant. This study has investigated the effect of plasmid transfer on disease pathogenesis, with two genetically distinct transconjugants constructed under in vitro conditions, within the intestinal tract of chickens...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030436/a-mutator-phenotype-promoting-the-emergence-of-spontaneous-oxidative-stress-resistant-mutants-in-campylobacter-jejuni
#18
Lei Dai, Orhan Sahin, Yizhi Tang, Qijing Zhang
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. As a microaerophilic organism, C. jejuni must be able to defend against oxidative stress encountered both in the host and in the environment. How Campylobacter utilizes a mutation-based mechanism for adaptation to oxidative stress is still unknown. Here we present a previously undescribed phenotypic and genetic mechanism that promotes the emergence of oxidative stress resistant mutants. Specifically, we showed that a naturally occurring mutator phenotype, resulting from a loss of function mutation in the DNA repair enzyme MutY, increased oxidative stress resistance (OX(R)) in C...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030312/antimicrobial-resistance-of-enterococcus-spp-isolated-from-thai-fermented-pork-in-chiang-rai-province-thailand
#19
Kamonnaree Chotinantakul, Nittaya Chansiw, Seiji Okada
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of resistant phenotypes and genes of Enterococcus spp. to explore the range of resistant profiles from Thai traditional fermented pork. METHODS: A total of 120 Thai fermented pork specimens in Chiang Rai, Thailand were collected and antimicrobial resistance was identified using 11 antimicrobial agents in enterococcal isolates, via an agar disk diffusion method. The antibiotic resistant genes from resistant phenotypes and virulence genes were observed...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030311/potential-transmission-opportunity-of-ctx-m-producing-escherichia-coli-in-large-scale-chicken-farm-in-vietnam
#20
Ngan Bui Thi Kim, Huong Bui Thi Mai, Shuhei Ueda, Tuyen Le Danh, Yoshimasa Yamamoto, Itaru Hirai
OBJECTIVES: Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli has been spread out worldwide. We investigated blaCTX-M-positive E. coli in a Vietnamese large-size chicken farm, and evaluated whether there was any different prevalence and molecular characters of blaCTX-M-positive E. coli between the large size chicken farm and a Vietnamese community. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 24 human individuals and 38 chickens of a large-scale chicken farm, and from 51 human and 36 chickens of a community...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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