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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821946/quantitative-expression-analysis-of-spa-fnba-and-rsp-genes-in-staphylococcus-aureus-actively-associated-in-the-formation-of-biofilms
#1
Sthanikam Yeswanth, Abhijit Chaudhury, Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna Sarma
In Staphylococcus aureus, adherence and secretory proteins play chief role in the formation of biofilms. This mode of growth exhibits resistance to a variety of antibiotics and spreads its infections. In the present study, secretary and adherence proteins, Protein-A, Fibronectin-binding protein-A (FnbA) and Rsp (a transcription regulator encoding proteolytic property) expression levels were evaluated at different stages of growth in S. aureus ATCC12600 a drug-sensitive strain and multidrug-resistant strains of S...
August 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821784/high-copy-and-stable-expression-of-the-xylanase-xynhb-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-by-rdna-mediated-integration
#2
Cheng Fang, Qinhong Wang, Jonathan Nimal Selvaraj, Yuling Zhou, Lixin Ma, Guimin Zhang, Yanhe Ma
Xylanase is a widely-used additive in baking industry for enhancing dough and bread quality. Several xylanases used in baking industry were expressed in different systems, but their expression in antibiotic free vector system is highly essential and safe. In the present study, an alternative rDNA-mediated technology was developed to increase the copy number of target gene by integrating it into Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. A xylanase-encoding gene xynHB from Bacillus sp. was cloned into pHBM367H and integrated into S...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820687/identification-of-subsets-of-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-associated-with-diarrheal-disease-among-under-5-year-old-children-from-rural-gambia
#3
Usman N Ikumapayi, Nadia Boisen, Mohammad J Hossain, Modupeh Betts, Modou Lamin, Debasish Saha, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Michel Dione, Richard A Adegbola, Anna Roca, James P Nataro, Martin Antonio
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) cause acute and persistent diarrhea, mostly in children worldwide. Outbreaks of diarrhea caused by EAEC have been described, including a large outbreak caused by a Shiga toxin expressing strain. This study investigated the association of EAEC virulence factors with diarrhea in children less than 5 years. We characterized 428 EAEC strains isolated from stool samples obtained from moderate-to-severe diarrhea cases (157) and healthy controls (217) children aged 0-59 months recruited over 3 years as part of the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in The Gambia...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819794/in-vitro-selection-and-identification-of-potential-probiotics-isolated-from-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#4
Rasha M Reda, Khaled M Selim, Hassanin M El-Sayed, M A El-Hady
Fish gut bacteria can be used as probiotics for aquaculture. The aim of this study is to screen and identify beneficial probiotic bacteria from the gut of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Nine out of one hundred thirty-five isolates were non-pathogenic through intraperitoneal injection and had antibacterial activities with at least a strain from the five isolated fish pathogens, Aeromonas sobria, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida, and Staphylococcus aureus. Further tests showed that such isolates can survive in the presence of high bile concentration (10%) and at different acidic pH values...
August 17, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819087/investigation-and-characterization-of-%C3%AE-lactam-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-bamboo-rats-rhizomys-sinensis-in-zhejiang-province-china
#5
Hui Zhang, Kun Li, Yajing Wang, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Yijiang Liu, Junjie Jin, Junping Peng, Fazul Nabi, Khalid Mehmood, Houqiang Luo, Jiaxiang Wang
This study was undertaken to investigate drug resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from bamboo rats in Zhejiang province of China. One hundred and fifty-four E. coli strains were isolated from dead bamboo rats. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the representative genes encoding resistance to commonly used β-lactam antibiotics. Highest resistance was observed for cefradine (24.03%), followed by penicillin (20.78%) and ceftazidime (20.13%). The isolation rates of β-lactam resistance genes were 53...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818900/genome-sequence-of-an-australian-monophasic-salmonella-enterica-subsp-enterica-typhimurium-isolate-tw-stm6-carrying-a-large-plasmid-with-multiple-antimicrobial-resistance-genes
#6
Mike L Dyall-Smith, Yuhong Liu, Helen Billman-Jacobe
We report the genome sequence of a monophasic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium strain (TW-Stm6) isolated in Australia that is similar to epidemic multidrug-resistant strains from Europe and elsewhere. This strain carries additional antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance genes on a large (275-kb) IncHI2 plasmid.
August 17, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818651/genomic-characterization-of-a-paediatric-mrsa-outbreak-by-next-generation-sequencing
#7
Elisabetta Ugolotti, Eddi Di Marco, Roberto Bandettini, Roberto Biassoni
INTRODUCTION: Twelve strains of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated during a suspected outbreak in a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit were analyzed by Whole Genome Sequence (WGS). AIM: To define the clonality of MRSA strains to a high discriminative power and to evaluate the presence of genetic determinants responsible for antibiotic resistance and for virulence. RESULTS: Ten out of 12 strains belonged to the MLST ST2625, while the other two were ST8...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818575/beta-lactam-resistance-among-haemophilus-influenzae-isolates-in-poland
#8
Marlena Kiedrowska, Alicja Kuch, Dorota Żabicka, Izabela Waśko, Patrycja Ronkiewicz, Katarzyna Wasiak, Katarzyna Bojarska, Waleria Hryniewicz, Anna Skoczyńska
OBJECTIVES: Haemophilus influenzae is a human-specific Gram-negative coccobacillus responsible for a significant number of respiratory tract infections and severe invasive infections such as meningitis and sepsis. The purpose of the study was to characterize the mechanisms of β-lactam resistance among Polish H. influenzae isolates and to evaluate the methods applied. METHODS: The study was conducted on 117 Polish H. influenzae isolates collected in 2012. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were assessed by the broth microdilution method...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817787/evaluation-of-the-electron-transfer-flavoprotein-etf-as-an-antibacterial-target-in-burkholderia-cenocepacia
#9
Maria S Stietz, Christina Lopez, Osasumwen Osifo, Marcelo Tolmasky, Silvia T Cardona
There are hundreds of essential genes in multidrug resistant bacterial genomes, but only a few of their products are exploited as antibacterial targets. An example is the electron flavoprotein (ETF) which is required for growth and viability in <i>Burkholderia cenocepacia</i>. Here, we evaluated ETF as an antibiotic target for <i>Burkholderia cepacia</i> complex (Bcc). Depletion of the bacterial ETF during infection of <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> significantly extended survival of the nematodes, proving that ETF is essential for survival of <i>B...
August 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816060/the-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-potential-of-mn-co-4-s2cnme-ch2co2h-a-water-soluble-co-releasing-molecule-corm-401-intracellular-accumulation-transcriptomic-and-statistical-analyses-and-membrane-polarization
#10
Lauren Katie Wareham, Samantha McLean, Ronald Begg, Namrata Rana, Salar Ali, John J Kendall, Guido Sanguinetti, Brian E Mann, Robert K Poole
AIMS: Carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecules (CORMs) are candidates for animal and antimicrobial therapeutics. We aimed to probe the antimicrobial potential of a novel manganese CORM. RESULTS: [Mn(CO)4S2CNMe(CH2CO2H)], CORM-401, inhibits growth of Escherichia coli and several antibiotic-resistant clinical pathogens. CORM-401 releases CO that binds oxidases in vivo but is an ineffective respiratory inhibitor. Extensive CORM accumulation (assayed as intracellular manganese) accompanies antimicrobial activity...
August 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814955/characterization-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-strains-isolated-from-hospitalized-patients-in-palestine
#11
Regeen Handal, Lulu Qunibi, Ibrahim Sahouri, Maha Juhari, Rula Dawodi, Hiyam Marzouqa, Musa Hindiyeh
The American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognizes Acinetobacter baumannii as a source of global outbreaks and epidemics especially due to its increasing resistance to commercially available antibiotics. In this study, 69 single patient multidrug resistant isolates collected from all over Palestine, except Gaza, were studied. All the isolates were resistant to all the β-lactam antibiotics including the carbapenems. Of the 69 isolates, 82.6% were positive for blaOXA-23, 14.5% were positive for blaOXA-24, and 3% were positive for blaOXA-58...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814344/microbial-phylogeny-determines-transcriptional-response-of-resistome-to-dynamic-composting-processes
#12
Cheng Wang, Da Dong, P J Strong, Weijing Zhu, Zhuang Ma, Yong Qin, Weixiang Wu
BACKGROUND: Animal manure is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that pose a potential health risk globally, especially for resistance to the antibiotics commonly used in livestock production (such as tetracycline, sulfonamide, and fluoroquinolone). Currently, the effects of biological treatment (composting) on the transcriptional response of manure ARGs and their microbial hosts are not well characterized. Composting is a dynamic process that consists of four distinct phases that are distinguished by the temperature resulting from microbial activity, namely the mesophilic, thermophilic, cooling, and maturing phases...
August 16, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813691/effects-of-superabsorbent-polymers-on-the-abundances-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-mobile-genetic-elements-and-the-bacterial-community-during-swine-manure-composting
#13
Aiyun Guo, Jie Gu, Xiaojuan Wang, Ranran Zhang, Yanan Yin, Wei Sun, Xiaxia Tuo, Li Zhang
Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) are considered suitable amendments for reducing the selection pressure due to heavy metals and the abundances of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during composting. In this study, three SAP (sodium polyacrylate) levels (0, 5, and 15mgkg(-1) of compost) were applied and their effects on the abundances of ARGs, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and the bacterial community were investigated. After composting, the abundances of ARGs and MGEs decreased to different extent, where the removal efficiencies for tetW, dfrA7, ermX, aac(6')-ib-cr and MGEs exceeded 90%...
August 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813520/the-frequency-of-class1-and-2-integrons-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strains-isolated-from-burn-patients-in-a-burn-center-of-ahvaz-iran
#14
Azar Dokht Khosravi, Moloudsadat Motahar, Effat Abbasi Montazeri
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen with the ability to cause severe nosocomial infections and remains a major problem in burn patients. This organism shows a remarkable antimicrobial resistance and is often resistant to multiple antibiotics. Integron genes as mobile genetic elements are playing an important role in the spread of P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance. This study was aimed to investigate the occurrence of class 1, and 2 integron genes (int1, int2), among P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812723/the-unconstrained-evolution-of-fast-and-efficient-antibiotic-resistant-bacterial-genomes
#15
Carlos Reding-Roman, Mark Hewlett, Sarah Duxbury, Fabio Gori, Ivana Gudelj, Robert Beardmore
Evolutionary trajectories are constrained by trade-offs when mutations that benefit one life history trait incur fitness costs in other traits. As resistance to tetracycline antibiotics by increased efflux can be associated with an increase in length of the Escherichia coli chromosome of 10% or more, we sought costs of resistance associated with doxycycline. However, it was difficult to identify any because the growth rate (r), carrying capacity (K) and drug efflux rate of E. coli increased during evolutionary experiments where the species was exposed to doxycycline...
January 30, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812563/multicopy-plasmids-potentiate-the-evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-bacteria
#16
Alvaro San Millan, Jose Antonio Escudero, Danna R Gifford, Didier Mazel, R Craig MacLean
Plasmids are thought to play a key role in bacterial evolution by acting as vehicles for horizontal gene transfer, but the role of plasmids as catalysts of gene evolution remains unexplored. We challenged populations of Escherichia coli carrying the blaTEM-1 β-lactamase gene on either the chromosome or a multicopy plasmid (19 copies per cell) with increasing concentrations of ceftazidime. The plasmid accelerated resistance evolution by increasing the rate of appearance of novel TEM-1 mutations, thereby conferring resistance to ceftazidime, and then by amplifying the effect of TEM-1 mutations due to the increased gene dosage...
November 7, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810864/molecular-determination-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-raw-meat-in-addis-ababa-and-bishoftu-ethiopia
#17
Yohannes Equar Messele, Reta Duguma Abdi, Shimels Tikuye Yalew, Desiye Tesfaye Tegegne, Bezina Arega Emeru, Gebremeskel Mamu Werid
BACKGROUND: Consumption of meat contaminated by E. coli causes a serious illness and even death to affected individuals. Recently the emerging of antibiotic resistant foodborne E. coli poses serious public health risks worldwide. However, little is known about the antibiotic resistance profile of E. coli in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) status of E. coli isolated from different type of meat. METHODS: Overall 292 samples were collected from December 2015 to April 2016 from slaughterhouses to determine the prevalence and AMR of E...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810631/hyperoside-inhibits-biofilm-formation-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#18
Yixuan Sun, Fengjun Sun, Wei Feng, Xuewen Qiu, Yao Liu, Bo Yang, Yongchuan Chen, Peiyuan Xia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a common pathogen in hospital-acquired infection and is readily able to form biofilms. Due to its high antibiotic resistance, traditional antibacterial treatments exert a limited effect on P. aeruginosa biofilm infections. It has been indicated that hyperoside inhibits P. aeruginosa PAO1 (PAO1) biofilm formation without affecting growth. Therefore, the current study examined the biofilm formation and quorum sensing (QS) system of PAO1 in the presence of hyperoside. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis demonstrated that hyperoside significantly inhibited biofilm formation...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809543/infrared-spectroscopy-coupled-with-a-dispersion-model-for-quantifying-the-real-time-dynamics-of-kanamycin-resistance-in-artificial-microbiota
#19
Naifu Jin, Maria Paraskevaidi, Kirk T Semple, Francis Luke Martin, Dayi Zhang
Over-usage of antibiotics leads to the widespread induction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Developing an approach to allow real-time monitoring and fast prediction of ARGs dynamics in clinical or environmental samples has become an urgent matter. Vibrational spectroscopy is potentially an ideal technique towards the characterization of the microbial composition of microbiota as it is non-destructive, high-throughput and label-free. Herein, we employed attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and developed a spectrochemical tool to quantify the static and dynamic composition of kanamycin resistance in artificial microbiota to evaluate microbial antibiotic resistance...
August 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808129/gene-duplication-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-improves-growth-on-adenosine
#20
Jean-Paul Toussaint, Anna Farrell-Sherman, Tamar Perla Feldman, Nicole E Smalley, Amy L Schaefer, E Peter Greenberg, Ajai A Dandekar
The laboratory strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, PAO1, activates genes for catabolism of adenosine using quorum sensing (QS). However, this strain is not well-adapted for growth on adenosine, with doubling times greater than 40 h. We previously showed that when PAO1 is grown on adenosine and casein, variants emerge that grow rapidly on adenosine. To understand the mechanism by which this adaptation occurs, we performed whole-genome sequencing of five isolates evolved for rapid growth on adenosine. All five genomes had a gene duplication-amplification (GDA) event covering several genes, including the quorum-regulated nucleoside hydrolase, nuh, and an adenine deaminase encoded by PA0148...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
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