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antibiotics resistant gene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238752/colonic-butyrate-producing-communities-in-humans-an-overview-using-omics-data
#1
Marius Vital, André Karch, Dietmar H Pieper
Given the key role of butyrate for host health, understanding the ecology of intestinal butyrate-producing communities is a top priority for gut microbiota research. To this end, we performed a pooled analysis on 2,387 metagenomic/transcriptomic samples from 15 publicly available data sets that originated from three continents and encompassed eight diseases as well as specific interventions. For analyses, a gene catalogue was constructed from gene-targeted assemblies of all genes from butyrate synthesis pathways of all samples and from an updated reference database derived from genome screenings...
November 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238335/treatment-with-cefotaxime-affects-expression-of-conjugation-associated-proteins-and-conjugation-transfer-frequency-of-an-inci1-plasmid-in-escherichia-coli
#2
Thea S B Møller, Gang Liu, Anders Boysen, Line E Thomsen, Freja L Lüthje, Sisse Mortensen, Jakob Møller-Jensen, John E Olsen
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the major mechanism responsible for spread of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic treatment has been suggested to promote HGT, either by directly affecting the conjugation process itself or by selecting for conjugations subsequent to DNA transfer. However, recent research suggests that the effect of antibiotic treatment on plasmid conjugation frequencies, and hence the spread of resistance plasmids, may have been overestimated. We addressed the question by quantifying transfer proteins and conjugation frequencies of a blaCTX-M-1 encoding IncI1 resistance plasmid in Escherichia coli MG1655 in the presence and absence of therapeutically relevant concentrations of cefotaxime (CTX)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235508/genetic-adaptation-of-microbial-populations-present-in-high-intensity-catfish-production-systems-with-therapeutic-oxytetracycline-treatment
#3
Qifan Zeng, Xiangli Tian, Luxin Wang
Microbial communities that are present in aquaculture production systems play significant roles in degrading organic matter, controlling diseases, and formation of antibiotic resistance. It is important to understand the diversity and abundance of microbial communities and their genetic adaptations associated with environmental physical and chemical changes. Here we collected water and sediment samples from a high-intensity catfish production system and its original water reservoir. The metagenomic analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Firmicutes were the top five phyla identified from all samples...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235503/inactivation-of-the-dnak-gene-in-clostridium-difficile-630-%C3%AE-erm-yields-a-temperature-sensitive-phenotype-and-increases-biofilm-forming-ability
#4
Shailesh Jain, Deborah Smyth, Barry M G O'Hagan, John T Heap, Geoff McMullan, Nigel P Minton, Nigel G Ternan
Clostridium difficile infection is a growing problem in healthcare settings worldwide and results in a considerable socioeconomic impact. New hypervirulent strains and acquisition of antibiotic resistance exacerbates pathogenesis; however, the survival strategy of C. difficile in the challenging gut environment still remains incompletely understood. We previously reported that clinically relevant heat-stress (37-41 °C) resulted in a classical heat-stress response with up-regulation of cellular chaperones...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234497/insertional-inactivation-of-oprd-in-carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strains-isolated-from-burn-patients-in-tehran-iran
#5
A Shariati, T Azimi, A Ardebili, A S Chirani, A Bahramian, A Pormohammad, M Sadredinamin, S Erfanimanesh, N Bostanghadiri, S Shams, A Hashemi
In this study, we report the insertion sequence ISPpu21 in the oprD porin gene of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from burn patients in Tehran, Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility tests for P. aeruginosa isolates were determined. Production of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) and carbapenemase was evaluated and the β-lactamase-encoding and aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes were investigated by PCR and sequencing methods. The mRNA transcription level of oprD and mex efflux pump genes were evaluated by real-time PCR...
January 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233894/importance-of-core-genome-functions-for-an-extreme-antibiotic-resistance-trait
#6
Larry A Gallagher, Samuel A Lee, Colin Manoil
Extreme antibiotic resistance in bacteria is associated with the expression of powerful inactivating enzymes and other functions encoded in accessory genomic elements. The contribution of core genome processes to high-level resistance in such bacteria has been unclear. In the work reported here, we evaluated the relative importance of core and accessory functions for high-level resistance to the aminoglycoside tobramycin in the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii Three lines of evidence establish the primacy of core functions in this resistance...
December 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233495/antibacterial-resistance-patterns-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-children
#7
Pejman Karami, Hassan Bazmamoun, Iraj Sedighi, Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad, Mohammad Mehdi Aslani, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: This study aimed to determine the antibacterial resistance patterns of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) isolated from Iranian children and to investigate its genetic patterns. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 192 non-repeats EPEC isolates were collected from stool samples of the children with and without diarrhoea. The EPEC strains were isolated from 1355 stool specimens obtained from 247 children with diarrhoea (0-10 years old; mean age, 5...
December 7, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233222/understanding-membrane-active-antimicrobial-peptides
#8
Huey W Huang, Nicholas E Charron
Bacterial membranes represent an attractive target for the design of new antibiotics to combat widespread bacterial resistance to traditional inhibitor-based antibiotics. Understanding how antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and other membrane-active agents attack membranes could facilitate the design of new, effective antimicrobials. AMPs, which are small, gene-encoded host defense proteins, offer a promising basis for the study of membrane-active antimicrobial agents. These peptides are cationic and amphipathic, spontaneously binding to bacterial membranes and inducing transmembrane permeability to small molecules...
January 2017: Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231804/impact-of-point-sources-on-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-the-natural-environment-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#9
Irene Bueno, Jessica Williams-Nguyen, Haejin Hwang, Jan M Sargeant, André J Nault, Randall S Singer
There is a growing concern about the role of the environment in the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). In this systematic review, we summarize evidence for increases of ARG in the natural environment associated with potential sources of ARB and ARG such as agricultural facilities and wastewater treatment plants. A total of 5247 citations were identified, including studies that ascertained both ARG and ARB outcomes. All studies were screened for relevance to the question and methodology...
December 12, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230394/acetylome-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-sk17-reveals-a-highly-conserved-modification-of-histone-like-protein-hu
#10
Jiahn-Haur Liao, Cheng-Han Tsai, Sanjay G Patel, Jhih-Tian Yang, I-Fan Tu, Matteo Lo Cicero, Magdalena Lipka-Lloyd, Wan-Ling Wu, Wen-Jie Shen, Meng-Ru Ho, Chi-Chi Chou, Garima R Sharma, Hiroki Okanishi, Louis Y P Luk, Yu-Hsuan Tsai, Shih-Hsiung Wu
Lysine acetylation is a prevalent post-translational modification in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Whereas this modification is known to play pivotal roles in eukaryotes, the function and extent of this modification in prokaryotic cells remain largely unexplored. Here we report the acetylome of a pair of antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii SK17-S and SK17-R. A total of 145 lysine acetylation sites on 125 proteins was identified, and there are 23 acetylated proteins found in both strains, including histone-like protein HU which was found to be acetylated at Lys13...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230202/development-of-a-novel-escherichia-coli-kocuria-shuttle-vector-using-the-cryptic-pkpal3-plasmid-from-k-palustris-ipufs-1-and-its-utilization-in-producing-enantiopure-s-styrene-oxide
#11
Hiroshi Toda, Nobuya Itoh
The novel cryptic pKPAL3 plasmid was isolated from the Gram-positive microorganism Kocuria palustris IPUFS-1 and characterized in detail. pKPAL3 is a circular plasmid that is 4,443 bp in length. Open reading frame (ORF) and homology search analyses indicated that pKPAL3 possesses four ORFs; however, there were no replication protein coding genes predicted in the plasmid. Instead, there were two nucleotide sequence regions that showed significant identities with untranslated regions of K. rhizophila DC2201 (NBRC 103217) genomic sequences, and these sequences were essential for autonomous replication of pKPAL3 in Kocuria cells...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229634/genomic-insights-into-colistin-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-a-tunisian-teaching-hospital
#12
Nadia Jaidane, Rémy A Bonnin, Wejdene Mansour, Delphine Girlich, Elodie Creton, Garance Colleton, Cherifa Chaouch, Noureddine Boujaafar, Olfa Bouallegue, Thierry Naas
The emergence of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CoRKp) is a public health concern since this antibiotic has become the last line of treatment for infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negatives. In this study, we have investigated the molecular basis of colistin-resistance in 13 MDR Kp isolated from 12 patients in a teaching hospital in Sousse, Tunisia. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used to decipher the molecular mechanism of colistin-resistance and to identify the resistome of these CoRKp It revealed a genome of ca...
December 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228991/the-rumen-microbiome-as-a-reservoir-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-pathogenicity-genes-is-directly-affected-by-diet-in-beef-cattle
#13
Marc D Auffret, Richard J Dewhurst, Carol-Anne Duthie, John A Rooke, R John Wallace, Tom C Freeman, Robert Stewart, Mick Watson, Rainer Roehe
BACKGROUND: The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is the most urgent current threat to human and animal health. An improved understanding of the abundance of antimicrobial resistance genes and genes associated with microbial colonisation and pathogenicity in the animal gut will have a major role in reducing the contribution of animal production to this problem. Here, the influence of diet on the ruminal resistome and abundance of pathogenicity genes was assessed in ruminal digesta samples taken from 50 antibiotic-free beef cattle, comprising four cattle breeds receiving two diets containing different proportions of concentrate...
December 11, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227741/new-subclass-b1-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-gene-from-a-clinical-pathogenic-myroides-odoratus-strain
#14
Su Xu, Yijian Chen, Zhuyingjie Fu, Ying Li, Guixiu Shi, Xiaogang Xu, Yang Liu, Minggui Wang
Myroides odoratus is a low-virulence opportunistic human pathogen. Infections caused by M. odoratus are not common, but reports are increasing in recent years. The biggest challenge for treatment is its resistance to most antibiotics. In 2015, we isolated a pathogenic multidrug-resistant strain of M. odoratus from a urinary tract infection (UTI) patient's urine sample. To report the experience in managing M. odoratus-related UTI and investigate the genetic mechanism of this carbapenem-resistant strain, we conducted a series of microbiological and molecular studies...
December 11, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227182/first-report-of-the-plasmid-mediated-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-1-in-escherichia-coli-st405-isolated-from-wildlife-in-bejaia-algeria
#15
Taous Bachiri, Rym Lalaoui, Sofiane Bakour, Meriem Allouache, Nadia Belkebla, Jean Marc Rolain, Abdelaziz Touati
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to screen for the presence of mcr-1 gene in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in Algeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January to April 2016, a total of 86 fresh stool samples from Barbary macaques were collected in the Toudja forest (Bejaia, Algeria). After isolation, the isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of colistin was determined by E-test...
December 11, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226702/extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-in-wastewaters-and-refugee-camp-in-lebanon
#16
Sima Tokajian, Rima Moghnieh, Tamara Salloum, Harout Arabaghian, Sahar Alousi, Jennifer Moussa, Edmond Abboud, Souad Youssef, Rola Husni
AIM: To evaluate the effects of population influx of refugees on the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in wastewater networks in Lebanon. MATERIALS & METHODS: Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and antibiotic resistance genes typing were performed. RESULTS: 53.1% of isolates recovered from Al-Qaa refugee camp were positive for the tested resistant determinants compared with 49...
December 11, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226031/sodium-salt-medium-chain-fatty-acids-and-bacillus-based-probiotic-strategies-to-improve-growth-and-intestinal-health-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#17
Paula Simó-Mirabet, M Carla Piazzon, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Álvaro Ortiz, Mónica Puyalto, Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
Background: The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225701/cytotoxic-escherichia-coli-strains-encoding-colibactin-and-cytotoxic-necrotizing-factor-cnf-colonize-laboratory-macaques
#18
Yan Feng, Anthony Mannion, Carolyn M Madden, Alton G Swennes, Catherine Townes, Charles Byrd, Robert P Marini, James G Fox
Background: Many Escherichia coli strains are considered to be a component of the normal flora found in the human and animal intestinal tracts. While most E. coli strains are commensal, some strains encode virulence factors that enable the bacteria to cause intestinal and extra-intestinal clinically-relevant infections. Colibactin, encoded by a genomic island (pks island), and cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF), encoded by the cnf gene, are genotoxic and can modulate cellular differentiation, apoptosis and proliferation...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225477/molecular-evaluation-of-colistin-resistant-gene-expression-changes-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-with-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction
#19
Shahriar Sepahvand, Mohammad Ali Davarpanah, Amir Roudgari, Abbas Bahador, Vajihe Karbasizade, Zahra Kargar Jahromi
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is an important human pathogen which has recently gained increased attention due to the occurrence of drug-resistant nosocomial infections in patients suffering from immune system disorders, and those in hospital intensive care units. The aim of this research was to identify and isolate A. baumannii strains resistant to colistin, determine antibiotic resistance pattern of this bacteria, investigate the presence of colistin-resistant genes, and finally assess the effect of expression changes in pmrA and pmrB genes resistant to A...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225430/insights-from-the-molecular-dynamics-simulation-of-bcsd-subunit-from-k-xylinus
#20
Simranjit Kaur, Mahesh Kulharia
Biofilms are bacteria living in micro-colonies with a protective coating in sessile form. The biofilm protects bacteria from harsh surroundings as well as help in antibiotics resistance using a semi-fluid substance. Cellulose is the major component of biofilm, which provides the sticky appearance to bacteria for attaching to the substratum. The bacteria communicate in biofilm with the help of quorum sensing hormones Acylated Homoserine Lactones (AHL's). In Komagataeibacter xylinus the four genes Bcs A, Bcs B, Bcs C, Bcs D are associated with cellulose biosynthesis...
2017: Bioinformation
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