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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031512/current-antiviral-drugs-and-their-analysis-in-biological-materials-part-ii-antivirals-against-hepatitis-and-hiv-viruses
#1
REVIEW
Lucie Nováková, Jakub Pavlík, Lucia Chrenková, Ondřej Martinec, Lukáš Červený
This review is a Part II of the series aiming to provide comprehensive overview of currently used antiviral drugs and to show modern approaches to their analysis. While in the Part I antivirals against herpes viruses and antivirals against respiratory viruses were addressed, this part concerns antivirals against hepatitis viruses (B and C) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Many novel antivirals against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV have been introduced into the clinical practice over the last decade...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029647/renal-manifestations-of-hiv-during-the-antiretroviral-era-in-south-africa-a-systematic-scoping-review
#2
Shirelle Assaram, Nombulelo P Magula, Suman Mewa Kinoo, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 650,000 patients may develop human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related renal disease in South Africa. South Africa has recently adopted WHO policy, stipulating that all HIV-infected patients have access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) irrespective of CD4 cell count. METHODS: We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Worldcat.org and EBSCO host databases from July 2015 to December 2015. Eligibility criteria included articles pertaining to renal manifestations of HIV in South Africa from 2004 to 2015 in adult patients (≥ 18 years)...
October 13, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029156/detailed-transmission-network-analysis-of-a-large-opiate-driven-outbreak-of-hiv-infection-in-the-united-states
#3
Ellsworth M Campbell, Hongwei Jia, Anupama Shankar, Debra Hanson, Wei Luo, Silvina Masciotra, S Michele Owen, Alexandra M Oster, Romeo R Galang, Michael W Spiller, Sara J Blosser, Erika Chapman, Jeremy C Roseberry, Jessica Gentry, Pamela Pontones, Joan Duwve, Paula Peyrani, Ron M Kagan, Jeannette M Whitcomb, Philip J Peters, Walid Heneine, John T Brooks, William M Switzer
In January 2015, an outbreak of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among persons who inject drugs (PWID) was recognized in rural Indiana. By September 2016, 205 persons in this community of approximately 4400 had received a diagnosis of HIV infection. We report results of new approaches to analyzing epidemiologic and laboratory data to understand transmission during this outbreak. HIV genetic distances were calculated using the polymerase region. Networks were generated using data about reported high-risk contacts, viral genetic similarity, and their most parsimonious combinations...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027811/prevention-of-human-papillomavirus-hpv-related-tumors-in-people-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv
#4
Mario Poljak, Anja Šterbenc, Maja M Lunar
In comparison to their HIV-negative counterparts, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a higher prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in various anatomical sites coupled with increased HPV persistence, higher risk of HPV-related tumors, and faster disease progression. Areas covered: Gender-neutral prevention strategies for HPV-related cancers in PLWH discussed: ABC approach, HPV vaccination, antiretroviral treatment (ART), anal cancer screening, and smoking cessation. Gender specific strategies: cervical cancer screening reduces the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer and circumcision might reduce the risk of HPV infections in men...
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025800/approach-to-recurrent-fever-in-childhood
#5
REVIEW
Gordon S Soon, Ronald M Laxer
OBJECTIVE: To provide an approach to recurrent fever in childhood, explain when infections, malignancies, and immunodeficiencies can be excluded, and describe the features of periodic fever and other autoinflammatory syndromes. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: PubMed was searched for relevant articles regarding the pathogenesis, clinical findings, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of periodic fever and autoinflammatory syndromes. MAIN MESSAGE: Fever is a common sign of illness in children and is most frequently due to infection...
October 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025486/using-15-dhs-surveys-to-study-epidemiological-correlates-of-tb-courtesy-stigma-and-health-seeking-behaviour
#6
E J J Rood, C Mergenthaler, M I Bakker, L Redwood, E M H Mitchell
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) stigma is thought to delay or prevent the decision to seek health care, but the strength of this association and the prevalence of anticipated TB stigma in the general population in most countries is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine epidemiological, cultural and sociodemographic factors associated with TB courtesy stigma in 15 surveys across 13 countries, and its link to health seeking for cough in children under five. DESIGN: A multilevel survey weighted logistic regression model was used to analyse how individual characteristics and social contexts affect the occurrence of TB courtesy stigma...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025482/tb-and-hiv-stigma-compounded-by-threatened-masculinity-implications-for-tb-health-care-seeking-in-malawi
#7
J Chikovore, G Hart, M Kumwenda, G Chipungu, N Desmond, E L Corbett
SETTING: Urban Blantyre, Malawi. OBJECTIVE: To understand why men with tuberculosis (TB) in the community remain undiagnosed. DESIGN: A multi-method qualitative study applying a modified grounded theory approach. Data were gathered from March 2011 to March 2012 from 134 men and women taking part in 1) focus group discussions with community members (n = 6) and health care workers (n = 2), and 2) in-depth interviews with TB patients (n = 20, females n = 14) and chronic coughers (n = 20, women n = 8)...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025480/correlates-of-observing-and-willingness-to-report-stigma-towards-hiv-clients-by-tb-health-workers-in-africa
#8
M Straetemans, M I Bakker, E M H Mitchell
SETTING: Health care facilities in Kenya, Tanzania and Namibia. OBJECTIVE: To study the factors associated with the observation of and willingness to report stigmatising behaviour towards persons living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among health care workers (HCWs). DESIGN: Mixed-effect logistic regression analyses of 9516 HCW interviews, including those of 4062 (43%) TB workers carried out as part of the Service Provision Assessments (SPAs) between 2006 and 2010...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025433/the-role-of-the-glycosyl-moiety-of-myricetin-derivatives-in-anti-hiv-1-activity-in-vitro
#9
Joseph T Ortega, Alirica I Suárez, Maria L Serrano, Jani Baptista, Flor H Pujol, Hector R Rangel
BACKGROUND: Plant extracts are sources of valuable compounds with biological activity, especially for the anti-proliferative activity against pathogens or tumor cells. Myricetin is a flavonoid found in several plants that has been described as an inhibitor of Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) through its action against the HIV reverse transcriptase, but myricetin derivatives have not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-HIV-1 activity of glycosylated metabolites obtained from Marcetia taxifolia and derived from myricetin: myricetin rhamnoside and myricetin 3-(6-rhamnosylgalactoside)...
October 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021396/quiescence-promotes-latent-hiv-infection-and-resistance-to-reactivation-from-latency-with-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors
#10
Mark M Painter, Thomas D Zaikos, Kathleen L Collins
Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) establishes transcriptionally silent latent infections in many cell types, including resting memory T cells and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), which allow the virus to persist in infected individuals despite antiretroviral therapy. Developing in vitro models of HIV-1 latency that recapitulate the characteristics of latently-infected cells in vivo is crucial to identifying and developing effective latency-reversing therapies. HSPCs exist in a quiescent state in vivo, and quiescence is correlated with latent infections in T cells...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021394/hiv-1-gp120-protein-and-mvagp140-boost-immunogens-increase-immunogenicity-of-a-dna-mva-hiv-1-vaccine
#11
Xiaoying Shen, Rahul Basu, Sheetal Sawant, David Beaumont, Sue Fen Kwa, Celia LaBranche, Kelly E Seaton, Nicole L Yates, David C Montefiori, Guido Ferrari, Linda S Wyatt, Bernard Moss, S Munir Alam, Barton F Haynes, Georgia D Tomaras, Harriet L Robinson
An important goal of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine design is identification of strategies that elicit effective antiviral humoral immunity. One novel approach comprises priming with DNA and boosting with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing HIV-1 Env on virus like particles. Here we evaluated whether the addition of a gp120 protein in alum or MVA expressed secreted gp140 (MVAgp140) could improve immunogenicity of a DNA prime - MVA boost vaccine. Five rhesus macaques per group received two DNA primes at weeks 0 and 8 followed by three MVA boosts (with or without additional protein or MVAgp140) at weeks 18, 26 and 40...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021228/immune-reconstitution-and-survival-of-100-scid-patients-post-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-a-pidtc-natural-history-study
#12
Jennifer Heimall, Brent R Logan, Morton J Cowan, Luigi D Notarangelo, Linda M Griffith, Jennifer M Puck, Donald B Kohn, Michael A Pulsipher, Suhag Parikh, Caridad Martinez, Neena Kapoor, Richard O'Reilly, Michael Boyer, Sung-Yun Pai, Frederick Goldman, Lauri Burroughs, Sharat Chandra, Morris Kletzel, Monica Thakar, James Connelly, Geoff Cuvelier, Blachy Davila, Evan Shereck, Alan Knutsen, Kathleen E Sullivan, Kenneth DeSantes, Alfred Gillio, Elie Haddad, Aleksandra Petrovic, Troy Quigg, Angela R Smith, Elizabeth Stenger, Ziyan Yin, William T Shearer, Thomas Fleisher, Rebecca H Buckley, Christopher C Dvorak
The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is enrolling children with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) to a prospective natural history study. We analyzed patients treated with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from 2010-2014, including 68 with typical SCID and 32 with leaky SCID, Omenn Syndrome or Reticular Dysgenesis. Most (59%) were diagnosed by newborn screening or family history. The 2-year overall survival (OS) was 90%but was 95% for those infection-free at HCT vs...
October 11, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020145/interferon-%C3%AE-inducible-protein-10-ip-10-as-a-screening-tool-to-optimize-human-immunodeficiency-virus-rna-monitoring-in-resource-limited-settings
#13
Lucía Pastor, Aina Casellas, María Rupérez, Jorge Carrillo, Sonia Maculuve, Chenjerai Jairoce, Roger Paredes, Julià Blanco, Denise Naniche
Background: Achieving effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) monitoring is a key determinant to ensure viral suppression and reach the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. The gold standard for detecting virological failure is plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA (viral load [VL]) testing; however, its availability is very limited in low-income countries due to cost and operational constraints. Methods: HIV-1-infected adults on first-line ART attending routine visits at the Manhiça District Hospital, Mozambique, were previously evaluated for virologic failure...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019315/infectious-disease-screening-in-asylum-seekers-range-coverage-and-economic-evaluation-in-germany-2015
#14
Kayvan Bozorgmehr, Katharina Wahedi, Stefan Noest, Joachim Szecsenyi, Oliver Razum
Screening asylum seekers for infectious diseases is widely performed, but economic evaluations of such are scarce. We performed a policy analysis and economic evaluation of such screening in Germany, and analysed the effect of screening policies on cost differences between federal states. Of the 16 states, screening was compulsory for tuberculosis (TB) in asylum seekers ≥ 16 years of age in all states as well as in children < 16 years of age and pregnant women in six states, hepatitis B and enteropathogens in three, syphilis in two and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in one state...
October 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017562/contextual-tumor-suppressor-function-of-t-cell-death-associated-gene-8-tdag8-in-hematological-malignancies
#15
Calvin R Justus, Edward J Sanderlin, Lixue Dong, Tianai Sun, Jen-Tsan Chi, Kvin Lertpiriyapong, Li V Yang
BACKGROUND: Extracellular acidosis is a condition found within the tumor microenvironment due to inadequate blood perfusion, hypoxia, and altered tumor cell metabolism. Acidosis has pleiotropic effects on malignant progression; therefore it is essential to understand how acidosis exerts its diverse effects. TDAG8 is a proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptor that can be activated by extracellular acidosis. METHODS: TDAG8 gene expression was analyzed by bioinformatic analyses and quantitative RT-PCR in human hematological malignancies...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994164/utilization-of-increased-risk-for-transmission-of-infectious-disease-donor-organs-in-solid-organ-transplantation-retrospective-analysis-of-disease-transmission-and-safety
#16
Linda Irwin, Camille N Kotton, Nahel Elias, Julie Palafox, Debra Basler, Sarah H Shao, William Lester, Xiaofeng Zhang, Brendan Kimball, Carrie Trencher, Jay A Fishman
The inadequate supply of transplantable organs necessitates new approaches to organ availability. Serologies and nucleic acid testing (NAT) for hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are used in microbiologic screening of potential organ donors. Organs from donors considered at "high risk" (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC 1994) or "increased risk" (U.S. Public Health Service, PHS 2013) for transmission of viral infection to recipients may provide an expanded source of organs for transplantation...
October 10, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992464/pathogenesis-of-infections-in-hiv-infected-individuals-insights-from-primary-immunodeficiencies
#17
REVIEW
Qian Zhang, Pierre Frange, Stéphane Blanche, Jean-Laurent Casanova
Following infection with almost any given microorganism other than an emerging pathogen, only a minority of individuals develop life-threatening clinical disease, implying that these individuals have some form of immunodeficiency. A growing number of inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies have been deciphered over the last 50 years. HIV infection is probably the best-known acquired immunodeficiency. It emerged about 40 years ago and precipitates various severe infections, the occurrence of which is associated with a fall in circulating CD4(+) T cells...
October 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992096/evaluating-the-population-impact-of-intervening-on-specific-targets-to-reduce-hiv-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-adulthood-a-conceptual-and-methodological-framework
#18
Chanelle J Howe, Akilah Dulin-Keita, Stephen R Cole, Joseph W Hogan, Bryan Lau, Richard D Moore, W Christopher Mathews, Heidi M Crane, Daniel R Drozd, Elvin Geng, Stephen L Boswell, Sonia Napravnik, Joseph J Eron, Michael J Mugavero
Reducing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) racial/ethnic disparities is a high priority. Reductions in HIV racial/ethnic disparities can potentially be achieved by intervening on important intermediates. The population impact of intervening on intermediates can be evaluated using observational data when certain conditions are met. However, using standard stratification-based approaches commonly employed in the observational HIV literature to estimate population impact in this setting may yield results that do not accurately estimate quantities of interest...
July 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987024/urban-landscapes-can-change-virus-gene-flow-and-evolution-in-a-fragmentation-sensitive-carnivore
#19
Nicholas M Fountain-Jones, Meggan E Craft, W Chris Funk, Chris Kozakiewicz, Daryl Trumbo, Erin E Boydston, Lisa M Lyren, Kevin Crooks, Justin S Lee, Sue VandeWoude, Scott Carver
Urban expansion has widespread impacts on wildlife species globally, including the transmission and emergence of infectious diseases. However, there is almost no information about how urban landscapes shape transmission dynamics in wildlife. Using an innovative phylodynamic approach combining host and pathogen molecular data with landscape characteristics and host traits, we untangle the complex factors that drive transmission networks of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) in bobcats (Lynx rufus). We found that the urban landscape played a significant role in shaping FIV transmission...
October 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983810/dysregulation-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-common-variable-immunodeficiency
#20
REVIEW
Paul J Maglione, Montserrat Cols, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most prevalent symptomatic primary immune deficiency. With widespread use of immunoglobulin replacement therapy, non-infectious complications, such as autoimmunity, chronic intestinal inflammation, and lung disease, have replaced infections as the major cause of morbidity and mortality in this immune deficiency. The pathogenic mechanisms that underlie the development of these complications in CVID are not known; however, there have been numerous associated laboratory findings...
October 5, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
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