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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726737/respiratory-tract-infections-and-the-role-of-biologically-active-polysaccharides-in-their-management-and-prevention
#1
REVIEW
Milos Jesenak, Ingrid Urbancikova, Peter Banovcin
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common form of infections in every age category. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs), a specific form of RTIs, represent a typical and common problem associated with early childhood, causing high indirect and direct costs on the healthcare system. They are usually the consequence of immature immunity in children and high exposure to various respiratory pathogens. Their rational management should aim at excluding other severe chronic diseases associated with increased morbidity (e...
July 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725873/genetic-characterization-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-transmission-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa
#2
Malik Sallam, Gülşen Özkaya Şahin, Mikael Ingman, Anders Widell, Joakim Esbjörnsson, Patrik Medstrand
BACKGROUND: The HIV-1 spread in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has not been previously characterised using the phylogenetic approach. The aim of the current study was to investigate the genetic diversity and domestic transmission of HIV-1 in the MENA. METHODS: A total of 2036 HIV-1 sequences available in Genbank and collected in the MENA during 1988-2016 were used together with 715 HIV-1 reference sequences that were retrieved from Genbank based on genetic similarity with the MENA sequences...
July 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722475/ann-qsar-workflow-for-predicting-the-inhibition-of-hiv-1-reverse-transcriptase-by-pyridinone-non-nucleoside-derivatives
#3
Abolfazl Barzegar, Elham Zamani-Gharehchamani, Ali Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi
AIM: Pyridinone derivatives have high potency against non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type-1 strains. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies on a series of pyridinone derivatives acting as NNRTIs are very important in designing the next generation of NNRTIs. Methodology & results: The QSAR models were developed using linear (single and forward stepwise) and combined nonlinear artificial neural network (ANN) approaches...
July 19, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720148/multifocal-gastric-adenocarcinoma-in-a-patient-with-lrba-deficiency
#4
Nina Bratanič, Jernej Kovač, Katka Pohar, Katarina Trebušak Podkrajšek, Alojz Ihan, Tadej Battelino, Magdalena Avbelj Stefanija
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide-responsive, beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency is characterized by primary immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. Cancer may present another feature of LRBA deficiency. We describe a case history of a young adult with LRBA deficiency and two independent malignancies. METHODS: Family-trio whole exome sequencing with unbiased phenotype ontology approach was used for identification of causative mutations of a primary immune deficiency disorder...
July 18, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719652/long-term-follow-up-of-human-t-cell-responses-to-conserved-hiv-1-regions-elicited-by-dna-simian-adenovirus-mva-vaccine-regimens
#5
Nathifa Moyo, Nicola J Borthwick, Edmund G Wee, Silvia Capucci, Alison Crook, Lucy Dorrell, Tomáš Hanke
BACKGROUND: Durability of vaccine-elicited immune responses is one of the key determinants for vaccine success. Our aim is to develop a vaccination strategy against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), which induces protective and durable CD8+ T-cell responses. The central theorem of our approach is to focus T cells on highly conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome and this is achieved through the use of the first-generation conserved vaccine immunogen HIVconsv. This immunogen vectored by plasmid DNA, simian adenovirus and poxvirus MVA was tested in healthy, HIV-1-negative adults in UK and induced high magnitudes of HIVconsv-specific plurifunctional CD8+ T cells capable of in vitro HIV-1 inhibition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718689/orbital-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-with-combined-variable-immunodeficiency
#6
Vishal S Parikh, Deepa Jagadeesh, James M Fernandez, Eric D Hsi, Arun D Singh
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency manifesting as a reduction in the level of total immunoglobulin (Ig) G, a reduction in the level of either IgA or IgM, poor response to polysaccharide vaccine, and usually frequent infections. The association of CVID with an increased risk of malignancy, specifically lymphoma, is well known. A 63-year-old female with a past medical history significant for CVID presented with a 1-month history of dull, left eye pain with proptosis, hypoglobus, and left upper lid fullness without a discrete palpable mass...
July 18, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716771/an-intervention-using-gamification-to-increase-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-sexually-transmitted-infection-screening-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-california-rationale-and-design-of-stick-to-it
#7
Christopher M Mejia, Daniel Acland, Raluca Buzdugan, Reva Grimball, Lauren Natoli, Mark R McGrath, Jeffrey D Klausner, Sandra I McCoy
BACKGROUND: In the United States, young men who have sex with men (YMSM) remain disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Although routine HIV/STI screening is pivotal to the timely diagnosis of HIV and STIs, initiation of appropriate treatment, and reduced onward disease transmission, repeat screening is underused. Novel interventions that incorporate elements of games, an approach known as gamification, have the potential to increase routinization of HIV/STI screening among YMSM...
July 17, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713804/facilitating-and-inhibiting-factors-of-sexual-behavior-among-migrants-in-transition-from-mexico-to-the-united-states
#8
Jesús Alejandro Guerra-Ordoñez, Raquel A Benavides-Torres, Rogelio Zapata-Garibay, Dora Julia Onofre-Rodríguez, María Aracely Márquez-Vega, Gabriela Zamora-Carmona
INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the border region of Mexico due to the flow of migrants under desperate conditions, encouraging casual and unprotected sex. Since this has become a binational public health problem, it is important to understand the factors that predict these sexual behaviors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the facilitators and inhibitors of transition in the sexual behavior of migrants from two border regions on the Mexico-United States (US) border...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702026/lessons-from-genetic-studies-of-primary-immunodeficiencies-in-a-highly-consanguineous-population
#9
REVIEW
Mohamed-Ridha Barbouche, Najla Mekki, Meriem Ben-Ali, Imen Ben-Mustapha
During the last decades, the study of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) has contributed tremendously to unravel novel pathways involved in a variety of immune responses. Many of these PIDs have an autosomal recessive (AR) mode of inheritance. Thus, the investigation of the molecular basis of PIDs is particularly relevant in consanguineous populations from Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Although significant efforts have been made in recent years to develop genetic testing across the MENA region, few comprehensive studies reporting molecular basis of PIDs in these settings are available...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701083/collaborative-development-of-an-educational-resource-on-rehabilitation-for-people-living-with-hiv
#10
Patricia Solomon, Nancy M Salbach, Kelly K O'Brien, Stephanie Nixon, Catherine Worthington, Larry Baxter, Stephen Tattle, Nicole Gervais
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to describe the collaborative development of a rehabilitation guide for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which was adapted from an online resource for clinicians. METHODS: We adapted a comprehensive evidence-informed online clinical resource for people living with HIV using a three-phase participatory process. In Phase 1, we interviewed 26 clinicians and 16 people living with HIV to gather recommendations on how to adapt and format the content to benefit people living with HIV...
July 12, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697899/hiv-and-coronary-disease-when-secondary-prevention-is-insufficient
#11
Ana Sofia Carvalho, Rui Osório Valente, Luís Almeida Morais, Pedro Modas Daniel, Ramiro Sá Carvalho, Lurdes Ferreira, Rui Cruz Ferreira
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has created a new paradigm for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but their increased risk for coronary disease is well documented. We present the case of a 57-year-old man, co-infected with HIV-2 and hepatitis B virus, adequately controlled and with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia, who was admitted with non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography performed on day four of hospital stay documented two-vessel disease (mid segment of the right coronary artery [RCA, 90% stenosis] and the first marginal)...
July 8, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695282/host-genetic-variation-and-hiv-disease-from-mapping-to-mechanism
#12
REVIEW
Vivek Naranbhai, Mary Carrington
This review aims to provide a summary of current knowledge of host genetic effects on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Mapping of simple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) has been largely successful in HIV, but more complex genetic associations involving haplotypic or epigenetic variation, for example, remain elusive. Mechanistic insights explaining SNP associations are incomplete, but continue to be forthcoming. The number of robust immunogenetic correlates of HIV is modest and their discovery mostly predates the genome-wide era...
July 10, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692305/fight-fire-with-fire-gene-therapy-strategies-to-cure-hiv
#13
Jon Huyghe, Sips Magdalena, Linos Vandekerckhove
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) to date remains one of the most notorious viruses mankind has ever faced. Despite enormous investments in HIV research for more than 30 years an effective cure for HIV has been elusive. Areas covered: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppresses active viral replication, but is not able to eliminate the virus completely due to stable integration of HIV inside the host genome of infected cells and the establishment of a latent reservoir, that is insensitive to cART...
July 14, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687531/informing-the-development-of-a-mobile-phone-hiv-testing-intervention-intentions-to-use-specific-hiv-testing-approaches-among-young-black-transgender-women-and-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#14
Beryl A Koblin, Vijay Nandi, Sabina Hirshfield, Mary Ann Chiasson, Donald R Hoover, Leo Wilton, DaShawn Usher, Victoria Frye
BACKGROUND: Regular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing of persons at risk is critical to HIV prevention. Infrequent HIV testing and late diagnosis of HIV infection have been observed among young black men who have sex with men (MSM) and transwomen (transgender women)-two groups overrepresented in the HIV epidemic. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to inform the development of a brief mobile phone intervention to increase HIV testing among young black MSM and transwomen by providing a tailored recommendation of an optimal HIV testing approach...
July 7, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684413/a-crispr-cas9-approach-reveals-that-the-polymerase-activity-of-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-is-dispensable-for-hiv-1-infection-in-dividing-and-nondividing-cells
#15
Russell W Goetze, Dong-Hyun Kim, Raymond F Schinazi, Baek Kim
Retrovirus integration into the host genome relies on several host enzymes, potentially including DNA polymerase β (Pol β). However, whether human Pol β; is essential for lentivirus replication in human cells is unclear. Here, we abolished Pol β expression by targeting its DNA polymerase domain with CRISPR/Cas9 in human monocytic THP-1 cells to investigate Pol β's role in HIV-1 transduction in both dividing and nondividing macrophage stages of THP-1 cells. Pol β-knockout was confirmed by enhanced sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate - induced DNA damage...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684198/flow-cytometry-based-diagnosis-of-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Hirokazu Kanegane, Akihiro Hoshino, Tsubasa Okano, Takahiro Yasumi, Taizo Wada, Hidetoshi Takada, Satoshi Okada, Motoi Yamashita, Tzu-Wen Yeh, Ryuta Nishikomori, Masatoshi Takagi, Kohsuke Imai, Hans D Ochs, Tomohiro Morio
Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited diseases of the immune system. The definite diagnosis of PID is ascertained by genetic analysis; however, this takes time and is costly. Flow cytometry provides a rapid and highly sensitive tool for diagnosis of PIDs. Flow cytometry can evaluate specific cell populations and subpopulations, cell surface, intracellular and intranuclear proteins, biologic effects associated with specific immune defects, and certain functional immune characteristics, each being useful for the diagnosis and evaluation of PIDs...
July 3, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683957/-complications-of-sinusitis
#17
Stanislas Ballivet de Régloix, Olga Maurin, Anna Crambert, Louise Genestier, Gratien Bonfort, Yoann Pons
The complications of sinusitis are essentially secondary to ethmoidal and frontal sinusitis, occurring in patients weakened, particularly in case of immunodeficiency or anatomical defects. The gravity is due to the risk of spreading infection in intracranial tissues and orbital cavity. The diagnosis is always to discuss any symptomatology resistant to treatment and the appearance of orbital or neurological signs. The scanner and MRI contribute greatly to the orientation and diagnostic evaluation of the extent of the lesions...
July 3, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680376/dendritic-cell-dysfunction-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#18
REVIEW
Ji Ung Kim, Miyeon Kim, Sinae Kim, Tam Thanh Nguyen, Eunhye Kim, Siyoung Lee, Soohyun Kim, Hyunwoo Kim
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) with immune disorder involves complex interactions between the innate and adaptive immune responses. ESRD is associated with various alterations in immune function such as a reduction in polymorphonuclear leukocyte bactericidal activity, a suppression of lymphocyte proliferative response to stimuli, and a malfunction of cell-mediated immunity at the molecular level. ESRD also increases patients' propensity for infections and malignancies as well as causing a diminished response to vaccination...
June 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678650/cultural-practices-gender-inequality-and-inconsistent-condom-use-increase-vulnerability-to-hiv-infection-narratives-from-married-and-cohabiting-women-in-rural-communities-in-mpumalanga-province-south-africa
#19
Sphiwe Madiba, Nomsa Ngwenya
BACKGROUND: Women in sub-Saharan Africa bear the brunt of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, and older married women and those in cohabiting relationships are regarded as the largest HIV risk group. Although preventing HIV infection in married or stable relationships is an international HIV prevention priority, little is known about the influence of sociocultural contexts on safe-sex practice by women, particularly older women in rural communities in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine how older women in a rural patriarchal society negotiate safer sex within marital and long-term cohabitation relationships, and their perceptions and experiences of barriers that influence condom use...
January 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676457/on-the-role-of-classical-and-novel-forms-of-vitamin-d-in-melanoma-progression-and-management
#20
REVIEW
Andrzej T Slominski, Anna A Brozyna, Cezary Skobowiat, Michal A Zmijewski, Tae-Kang Kim, Zorica Janjetovic, Allen S Oak, Wojciech Jozwicki, Anton M Jetten, Rebecca S Mason, Craig Elmets, We Li, Robert M Hoffman, Robert C Tuckey
Melanoma represents a significant clinical problem affecting a large segment of the population with a relatively high incidence and mortality rate. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an important etiological factor in malignant transformation of melanocytes and melanoma development. UVB, while being a full carcinogen in melanomagenesis, is also necessary for the cutaneous production of vitamin D3 (D3). Calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3) and novel CYP11A1-derived hydroxyderivatives of D3 show anti-melanoma activities and protective properties against damage induced by UVB...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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