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Cardiovascular pharmacogenetics

Adam M Leventhal, Matthew G Kirkpatrick, Mollie S Pester, John E McGeary, Robert M Swift, Steve Sussman, Christopher W Kahler
RATIONALE: A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a predominately Caucasian sample of healthy young adults linked greater amphetamine-induced rewarding effects with the rs3784943 G allele of the cadherin 13 (CDH13; i.e., a cell adhesion molecule implicated in neuronal connectivity) gene. This association has not been subsequently examined, nor has it been studied in Asian populations, which may have greater frequencies of the risk allele. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the association of rs3784943 with amphetamine response in a racially heterogeneous sample (37 % Asian) of healthy young adults...
October 22, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Joseph P Kitzmiller, Eduard B Mikulik, Anees M Dauki, Chandrama Murkherjee, Jasmine A Luzum
Statins are a cornerstone of the pharmacologic treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerotic disease is a predominant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Statins are among the most commonly prescribed classes of medications, and their prescribing indications and target patient populations have been significantly expanded in the official guidelines recently published by the American and European expert panels. Adverse effects of statin pharmacotherapy, however, result in significant cost and morbidity and can lead to nonadherence and discontinuation of therapy...
2016: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
Vera Erdman, Ilsia Tuktarova, Timur Nasibullin, Ianina Timasheva, Olga Mustafina
OBJECTIVE: Physiological and biochemical changes during aging alter drug metabolism. Drug intake is increased with age because of cumulative morbidity, in particular, high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Antihypertensive medications are the most commonly used drugs. Individual drug sensitivity or resistance may be influenced by the variance of the "pharmacological response" genes.Our purpose was to search for the polymorphic variants of "pharmacological response" genes associated with survival in different age periods...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Mohamed Zaiou, Hamid El Amri
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The basic causes of CVD are not fully understood yet. Substantial evidence suggests that genetic predisposition plays a vital role in the physiopathology of this complex disease. Hence, identification of genetic contributors to CVD will likely add diagnostic accuracy and better prediction of an individual's risk. With high-throughput genetics and genomics technology and newer genome-wide study approaches, a number of genetic variations across the human genome were uncovered...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Sandosh Padmanabhan, Laura Paul, Anna F Dominczak
Hypertension is a major public health problem, but measures to reduce blood pressure and thus cardiovascular risk are complicated by the high prevalence of treatment resistance, despite the availability of multiple drugs. Drug side-effects contribute considerably to suboptimal blood pressure control. Clinicians must often rely on empirical methods to match patients with effective drug treatment. Hypertension pharmacogenomics seeks to find genetic predictors of response to drugs that lower blood pressure and to translate this knowledge into clinical practice...
June 1, 2010: Pharmaceuticals
Seema Mital, Kiran Musunuru, Vidu Garg, Mark W Russell, David E Lanfear, Rajat M Gupta, Kathleen T Hickey, Michael J Ackerman, Marco V Perez, Dan M Roden, Daniel Woo, Caroline S Fox, Stephanie Ware
Advances in genomics are enhancing our understanding of the genetic basis of cardiovascular diseases, both congenital and acquired, and stroke. These advances include finding genes that cause or increase the risk for childhood and adult-onset diseases, finding genes that influence how patients respond to medications, and the development of genetics-guided therapies for diseases. However, the ability of cardiovascular and stroke clinicians to fully understand and apply this knowledge to the care of their patients has lagged...
September 26, 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
Alfi Yasmina, Anthonius de Boer, Vera H M Deneer, Patrick C Souverein, Olaf H Klungel
AIMS: To assess antiplatelet use patterns after a first myocardial infarction (MI) and to evaluate the determinants of antiplatelet non-persistence. METHODS: This study was conducted in 4,690 patients from the Utrecht Cardiovascular Pharmacogenetics cohort with first MI between 1986-2010, who were followed for a maximum of 10 years. Medication use and event diagnosis were obtained from the Dutch PHARMO Record Linkage System. Antiplatelet users were classified as persistent users (gap between prescriptions ≤ 90 days), non-persistent users (>90 days gap and no refills), and restarters (a new prescription after a > 90 days gap)...
September 23, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Marco Alessandrini, Mamoonah Chaudhry, Tyren M Dodgen, Michael S Pepper
In a move indicative of the enthusiastic support of precision medicine, the U.S. President Barack Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in January 2015. The global precision medicine ecosystem is, thus, receiving generous support from the United States ($215 million), and numerous other governments have followed suit. In the context of precision medicine, drug treatment and prediction of its outcomes have been important for nearly six decades in the field of pharmacogenomics. The field offers an elegant solution for minimizing the effects and occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs)...
October 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Vera Erdman, Ilsia Tuktarova, Timur Nasibullin, Ianina Timasheva, Olga Mustafina
OBJECTIVE: Physiological and biochemical changes during aging alter drug metabolism. Drug intake is increased with age because of cumulative morbidity, in particular, high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Antihypertensive medications are the most commonly used drugs. Individual drug sensitivity or resistance may be influenced by the variance of the "pharmacological response" genes.Our purpose was to search for the polymorphic variants of "pharmacological response" genes associated with survival in different age periods...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Nyarai D Soko, Collen Masimirembwa, Collet Dandara
The incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in African populations residing in the African continent is on the rise fueled by both a steady increase in CVD risk factors and comorbidities such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis, and parasitic diseases such as bilharzia. Statins are recommended together with lifestyle changes in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and overall reduction of cardiovascular events. Rosuvastatin in particular is an attractive candidate in the management of CVDs in African populations often plagued with multimorbidities owing to both its potency and low drug-to-drug interaction potential...
September 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Gustavo H Oliveira-Paula, Riccardo Lacchini, Jose E Tanus-Santos
Nitric oxide (NO) is a vasoactive substance synthesized from l-arginine by neuronal (NOS1), endothelial (NOS3), and inducible (NOS2) nitric oxide synthases. NOS3 is the most important NO synthase isoform in the vascular endothelium and therefore it exerts critical roles in the cardiovascular system. NOS3 is encoded by NOS3 gene, which displays a large number of genetic polymorphisms such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs), microsatellites, and insertions/deletions...
August 25, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Gualberto Ruaño, Richard Seip, Andreas Windemuth, Alan H B Wu, Paul D Thompson
Statin responsiveness is an area of great research interest given the success of the drug class in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Interrogation of the patient's genome for gene variants will eventually guide anti-hyperlipidemic intervention. In this review, we discuss methodological approaches to discover genetic markers predictive of class-wide and drug-specific statin efficacy and safety. Notable pharmacogenetic findings are summarized from hypothesis-free genome wide and hypothesis-led candidate gene association studies...
September 2016: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
E Wypasek, P Mazur, M Bochenek, M Awsiuk, G Grudzien, D Plincer, A Undas
Warfarin dosage estimation using the pharmacogenetic algorithms has been shown to improve the quality of anticoagulation control in patients with atrial fibrillation. We sought to assess the genetic, demographic and clinical factors that determine the quality of anticoagulation in patients following aortic valve replacement (AVR). We studied 200 consecutive patients (130 men) aged 63 ± 12.3 years, undergoing AVR, in whom warfarin dose was established using a pharmacogenetic algorithm. The quality of anticoagulation within the first 3 months since surgery was expressed as the time of international normalized ratio (INR) in the therapeutic range (TTR)...
June 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Lane B Benes, Nikhil S Bassi, Michael H Davidson
The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on cholesterol management have placed greater emphasis on high-intensity statin dosing for those with known cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. Differences in risk of hepatotoxicity, new onset diabetes and rhabdomyolysis specifically between the high-intensity statins and the most common moderate-intensity statin, simvastatin, were not found to a significant degree in this review. Rather, baseline characteristics and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) appear to be more important regarding the risk of these adverse effects...
September 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Галина С Хайменова, Марина Ю Бабанина, Григорий В Волченко, Максим В Ткаченко, Игорь В Иваницкий, Вячеслав Н Ждан
UNLABELLED: ABSTR ACTCT Introduction: At present, the main pathogenetic link in the development of OA as atherosclerosis is chronic inflammation, which is based on the activation of pro-inflammatory mediators and disorders of cholesterol metabolism. The aim of the research was to study the efficiency of the use of rosuvastatin in the treatment of patients with osteoarthritis in the combined arterial disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted on the basis of the Poltava Regional Clinical Hospital...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Vicki L Ellingrod, Tyler B Grove, Kyle J Burghardt, Stephan F Taylor, Gregory Dalack
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome may be related to folate's pharmacogenetically regulated metabolism and atypical antipsychotic (AAP) exposure. AIMS: We examined folate supplementation on metabolic measures, endothelial functioning (Reactive Hyperemia Index (RHI)), and global methylation in AAP-treated schizophrenia subjects meeting NCEP-ATP-III-a metabolic syndrome criteria. METHODS: Subjects were given 5 mg/day open label folate for 3 months...
2015: NPJ Schizophrenia
Irene Fernández-Ruiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Dariusz Kotlęga, Monika Gołąb-Janowska, Marta Masztalewicz, Sylwester Ciećwież, Przemysław Nowacki
Statins are increasingly widely used in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disorders, including ischemic stroke. The initial studies regarded mainly coronary heart disease, but recently more attention has been paid to statin use in ischemic stroke, including primary and secondary prevention as well as the acute phase treatment. Besides their main hypolipemic activity, statins have been proved to have immunomodulating properties that are called a pleiotropic effect. Drug metabolism is under genetic influence, exemplified by the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Cho-Kai Wu, Jen-Kuang Lee, Lian-Yu Lin, Yin-Tsen Huang, Juey-Jen Hwang, Chunn-Lee Lin, Chuen-Den Tseng, Fu-Tien Chiang
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the renin-angiotensin system genetic effects and pharmacogenetic interactions for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in hypertensive coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. METHODS: Subjects with hypertension and angiographic CAD were recruited from 1995 to 2003. Baseline characteristics and genetic polymorphisms [ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, six polymorphisms of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene, and A1166C polymorphisms of the angiotensin II type I receptor gene (AGT1R)] were collected...
January 2013: Acta Cardiol Sin
Katrina Mitchel, Elizabeth Theusch, Celia Cubitt, Andréa C Dosé, Kristen Stevens, Devesh Naidoo, Marisa W Medina
BACKGROUND: Numerous genetic contributors to cardiovascular disease risk have been identified through genome-wide association studies; however, identifying the molecular mechanism underlying these associations is not straightforward. The Justification for the Use of Statins in Primary Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial of rosuvastatin users identified a sub-genome-wide association of rs6924995, a single-nucleotide polymorphism ≈10 kb downstream of myosin regulatory light chain interacting protein (MYLIP, aka IDOL and inducible degrader of low-density lipoprotein receptor [LDLR]), with LDL cholesterol statin response...
June 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
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