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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035474/technical-note-early-post-mortem-changes-of-human-bone-in-taphonomy-with-%C3%AE-ct
#1
Erwan Le Garff, Vadim Mesli, Yann Delannoy, Thomas Colard, Xavier Demondion, Anne Becart, Valéry Hedouin
Post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation is an important issue in forensic medicine, particularly for criminal purposes and legal limitation periods. The goal of the present study is to examine the evolution of the trabecular cranial vault bone after 4 weeks of conservation in a controlled environment with micro-tomography (μCT) analyses.Four bone samples were extracted from a fresh human cranial vault (a donation to science according to the French law) and conserved in an air-controlled environment. The samples were weighed and μCT scanned at a 10-μm resolution every week after death for a month...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032532/the-missing-the-martyred-and-the-disappeared-global-networks-technical-intensification-and-the-end-of-human-rights-genetics
#2
Lindsay A Smith
In 1984, a group of Argentine students, trained by US academics, formed the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team to apply the latest scientific techniques to the excavation of mass graves and identification of the dead, and to work toward transitional justice. This inaugurated a new era in global forensic science, as groups of scientists in the Global South worked outside of and often against local governments to document war crimes in post-conflict settings. After 2001, however, with the inauguration of the war on terror following the September 11(th) attacks on the World Trade Center in New York, global forensic science was again remade through US and European investment to increase preparedness in the face of potential terrorist attacks...
December 1, 2016: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935913/forensic-odontology-a-boon-to-community-in-medico-legal-affairs
#3
R Chidambaram
Forensic odontology is a sub-discipline of dental science which involves the relationship between dentistry and the law. The specialty of forensic odontology is applied in radiographic investigation, human bite marks analysis, anthropologic examination and during mass disasters. Besides the fact that radiographs require pretentious laboratory, it is still claimed to be a facile, rapid, non-invasive method of age identification in the deceased. The budding DNA technology has conquered the traditional procedures and currently being contemplated as chief investigating tool in revealing the hidden mysteries of victims and suspects, especially in hopeless circumstances...
January 2016: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924406/estimating-legal-age-based-on-fusion-of-the-proximal-humeral-epiphysis
#4
María Benito Sánchez, Sónia Codinha, Alexandra Muñoz García, José Antonio Sánchez Sánchez
The increasing demand which requires ascertaining the legal age of undocumented individuals who reach the various countries of the European Community means that new lines of research must be developed which help respond to questions posed by the Justice Administration. For this reason, this study has been designed on the basis of fusion times of the proximal humeral epiphysis. Moreover, the ultrasound scan has been used as the diagnostic method. It is a non-invasive technique, unlike the radiograph, which is used under current standards for the forensic diagnosis of age...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907231/use-of-autopsy-to-determine-live-or-stillbirth-new-approaches-in-decision-support-systems
#5
Riza Yilmaz, Okan Erkaymaz, Erdogan Kara, Kivanc Ergen
Fetal deaths are important cases for forensic medicine, as well as for criminal and civil law. From a legal perspective, the determination of whether a deceased infant was stillborn is a difficult process. Such a determination is generally made during autopsy; however, no standardized procedures for this determination exist. Therefore, new facilitative approaches are needed. In this study, three new support systems based on 10 autopsy parameters were tested for their ability to correctly determine whether deceased infants were alive or stillborn...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837570/the-importance-of-the-patients-deemed-not-guilty-by-reason-of-insanity-for-the-psychiatric-reform
#6
EDITORIAL
Athanasios Douzenis
According to the Greek Penal Law if someone "because of a morbid disturbance of his mental functioning" (article 34) is acquitted of a crime or misdemeanour that the law punishes with more than 6 months imprisonment, then the court orders that this individual should be kept in a public psychiatric institution if the court reaches the conclusion that this person poses a threat to public safety.1 Individuals who have broken the law and deemed "not guilty by reason of insanity" are treated in psychiatric units of Psychiatric Hospitals according to the article 69 of the Penal Code...
July 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826316/ltdna-evidence-on-trial
#7
Paul Roberts
Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644871/sex-offenders-in-the-digital-age
#8
Eric J Chan, Dale E McNiel, Renee L Binder
With most youths now using the Internet and social networking sites (SNSs), the public has become increasingly concerned about risks posed by online predators. In response, lawmakers have begun to pass laws that ban or limit sex offenders' use of the Internet and SNSs. At the time of this article, 12 states and the federal government have passed legislation attempting to restrict or ban the use of SNSs by registered sex offenders. These laws have been successfully challenged in 4 states. In this article, we discuss examples of case law that illustrate evolving trends regarding Internet and social networking site restrictions on sex offenders on supervised release, as well as those who have already completed their sentences...
September 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644865/new-technologies-new-problems-new-laws
#9
Patricia R Recupero
Forensic psychiatrists in the 21st century can expect to encounter technology-related social problems for which existing legal remedies are limited. In addition to the inadequate protection of adolescents using social media as outlined by Costello et al., current laws are often poorly suited to remedy problems such as cyberharassment, sexting among minors, and the publication of threatening or harmful communications online. Throughout history, technological developments have often preceded the introduction of new laws or the careful revision of existing laws...
September 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639654/-an-absolutely-necessary-piece-a-qualitative-study-of-legal-perspectives-on-medical-affidavits-in-the-asylum-process
#10
Elizabeth Scruggs, Timothy C Guetterman, Anna C Meyer, Jamie VanArtsdalen, Michele Heisler
A key challenge for asylum seekers in the United States is being able to provide evidence of prior persecution in their home countries. Medical/psychological affidavits corroborating applicants' accounts often make the difference between successful and unsuccessful applications. The purpose of this study was to identify the unmet demand for and features of effective medical/psychological affidavits in the asylum process, as well as the personal and systemic barriers for asylum seekers. This is a qualitative study of semi-structured interviews with legal professionals who work in asylum law...
November 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600117/if-you-build-it-they-will-come-unintended-future-uses-of-organised-health-data-collections
#11
REVIEW
Kieran C O'Doherty, Emily Christofides, Jeffery Yen, Heidi Beate Bentzen, Wylie Burke, Nina Hallowell, Barbara A Koenig, Donald J Willison
BACKGROUND: Health research increasingly relies on organized collections of health data and biological samples. There are many types of sample and data collections that are used for health research, though these are collected for many purposes, not all of which are health-related. These collections exist under different jurisdictional and regulatory arrangements and include: 1) Population biobanks, cohort studies, and genome databases 2) Clinical and public health data 3) Direct-to-consumer genetic testing 4) Social media 5) Fitness trackers, health apps, and biometric data sensors Ethical, legal, and social challenges of such collections are well recognized, but there has been limited attention to the broader societal implications of the existence of these collections...
2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538441/neuropsychologist-experts-and-civil-capacity-evaluations-representative-cases
#12
REVIEW
Paul M Kaufmann
Clinical neuropsychologists accept more forensic referrals now and spend more time in forensic consulting than ever before. Recent surveys show weekly hours devoted to forensic consulting increased 97% in the past decade. During the same time period, the number of board certified neuropsychologists more than doubled. Under recently published Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology, clinical neuropsychologists practice forensic psychology when applying scientific, technical, or specialized knowledge of neuropsychology to the law to assist in addressing legal, contractual, or administrative matters...
September 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535292/rapid-identification-of-drug-type-strains-in-cannabis-sativa-using-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay
#13
Masashi Kitamura, Masako Aragane, Kou Nakamura, Kazuhito Watanabe, Yohei Sasaki
In Cannabis sativa L., tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive compound and exists as the carboxylated form, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA). C. sativa is divided into two strains based on THCA content-THCA-rich (drug-type) strains and THCA-poor (fiber-type) strains. Both strains are prohibited by law in many countries including Japan, whereas the drug-type strains are regulated in Canada and some European countries. As the two strains cannot be discriminated by morphological analysis, a simple method for identifying the drug-type strains is required for quality control in legal cultivation and forensic investigation...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529106/-the-new-federal-law-in-the-light-of-forensic-medical-and-legal-proceedings
#14
(no author information available yet)
The objective of the present study was the article by article analysis of the Code of administrative legal proceedings of the Russian Federation with special reference to the judicial-expert procedures with a view to enhancing the awareness of the readers with the new directions of activities of forensic medical experts in the law-courts. It is emphasized that a number of provisions of the Code have not been properly elaborated, nor have they been adequately coordinated with the standard regulatory acts concerning the analogous or related issues...
May 2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427495/accuracy-of-a-cut-off-value-based-on-the-third-molar-index-validation-in-an-australian-population
#15
Daniel Franklin, Shalmira Karkhanis, Ambika Flavel, Federica Collini, Stefano DeLuca, Roberto Cameriere
According to Recommendation N°196 of the Australian Law Reform Commission (ALRC), the age at which a child reaches adulthood for the purposes of criminal law should be 18 years in all Australian jurisdictions. With specific reference to age at majority, the only tooth with development spanning adolescence (and thus the legally relevant 18 years of age) is the third molar, which limits the number of methods that can be applied from those available in the published literature. The aim of the present study is to test the accuracy of the third molar index (I3M=0...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373546/they-sell-skulls-online-a-review-of-internet-sales-of-human-skulls-on-ebay-and-the-laws-in-place-to-restrict-sales
#16
Christine L Halling, Ryan M Seidemann
Internet sales of human remains occur despite the existence of laws prohibiting such action in most jurisdictions. The most popular public platform for online sales, eBay, allows users to postskeletal material for sale, largely anonymously and without much fear of legal repercussions. This survey of skeletal sales was conducted 10 years after the first article published about online human remains sales. A review of current laws reveals that, while many states have laws that restrict any sale of human remains, those laws have questionable deterrent effect...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323637/-blowed-off-by-a-side-wind-coronial-inquests-following-criminal-acquittals
#17
John Aberdeen
For three decades, Australian coroners have been moving steadily away from an historical partnership with the criminal law, and have emerged as independent judicial investigators with a dedicated court, and forensic and administrative support structures. Occasionally, however, a situation may arise where the ghosts of coronial law's quasi-criminal past threaten to reappear, to the detriment of the coronial function. One of these situations might develop following an acquittal on a criminal charge which involved the causing of a death...
March 2016: Journal of Law and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27292971/comparative-study-of-forensic-psychiatric-system-between-china-and-america
#18
Gangqin Li, Thomas G Gutheil, Zeqing Hu
Laws and regulations about the forensic psychiatric systems in China and America were compared, and suggestions for improving the forensic psychiatric system of China were provided. There are many differences regarding the role of the forensic psychiatrist, the initiation of the assessment and the admission of expert opinion because of elements in the legal systems in China and America. The Chinese system has the advantages of objectivity, cost saving and high efficiency; but it has deficiencies in procedural justice and the admission of expert opinion...
July 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190968/role-of-orthodontics-in-forensic-odontology-a-social-responsibility
#19
REVIEW
Giridhar Reddy, Vinay P Reddy, Meenakshi Sharma, Monika Aggarwal
Orthodontics like any other specialty has much to offer law enforcement in the detection and solution of crime or in civil proceedings. Forensic odontology often requires an interdisciplinary approach towards dentistry for the purpose of proper diagnosis of cases. In cases where the forensic odontologist has to establish a person's identity, an orthodontist can be of great help at times. Teeth, with their anatomic/physiologic variations and therapy such as orthodontic treatment, restorations and prosthesis may record information that remains throughout life and beyond...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27169674/a-biochemical-approach-for-assessing-cutoffs-at-the-age-thresholds-of-14-and-18%C3%A2-years-a-pilot-study-on-the-applicability-of-bone-specific-alkaline-phosphatase-on-an-italian-sample
#20
Marco Tisè, Luigi Ferrante, Stefano Mora, Adriano Tagliabracci
BACKGROUND: The majority of age estimation methods analyze morphological changes of specific skeletal (or dental) structures reflecting global bone development (biological parameter) in order to estimate a chronological value. This morphological and structural development is the consequence of a very active tissue metabolism and intensive modeling process which involve both bone formation and bone resorption. Several biochemical markers of bone formation and bone resorption are available, and specific biochemical tests can be performed on blood or urine samples, but such markers of bone turnover have never been employed for age estimation in living individuals for forensic purposes...
July 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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