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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903845/protein-biomarkers-of-mood-disorders
#1
EDITORIAL
Carmen Rodríguez Cerdeira, Elena Sánchez-Blanco, Beatriz Sánchez-Blanco, Jose Luis González-Cespón
Psychiatric evaluation presents a significant challenge because it conceptually integrates the input from multiple psychopathological approaches. Recent technological advances in the study of protein structure, function, and interactions have provided a breakthrough in the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders (MD), and have identified novel biomarkers to be used as indicators of normal and disease states or response to drug treatment. The investigation of biomarkers for psychiatric disorders, such as enzymes (catechol-O-methyl transferase and monoamine oxidases) or neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine) and their receptors, particularly their involvement in neuroendocrine activity, brain structure, and function, and response to psychotropic drugs, should facilitate the diagnosis of MD...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889704/pharmacogenetic-studies-a-tool-to-improve-antidepressant-therapy
#2
Marta Ramos, Cecilia Berrogain, Julia Concha, Laura Lomba, Cristina Belén García, Mª Pilar Ribate
The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that major depressive disorder (MDD) will be the second leading cause of death and disability by 2020. Nowadays, approximately 60-70% of patients with this disorder have shown the lack of effectiveness and tolerability of the therapy with antidepressants. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicine Agency (EMA) are including pharmacogenetic information in the labeling of several antidepressants. The presence of this information represents the relevance of genetic polymorphisms in drug response...
December 1, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884974/from-leeches-to-personalized-medicine-evolving-concepts-in-the-management-of-polycythemia-vera
#3
Alessandro Maria Vannucchi
Polycythemia vera (PV), a clonal disorders of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells that manifests with prevalent expansion of red cell mass, is the most frequent among chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). It is characterized by a V617F point mutation in JAK2 exon 14 , or less common mutations in exon 12, in virtually all cases. The landmark discovery of autonomously activated JAK/STAT signaling pathway paved the way for the clinical development of the first target drug, the JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib, that is now approved for patients with resistance or intolerance to hydroxyurea...
November 24, 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882090/clinical-treatment-of-malignant-hyperthermia-in-three-cases
#4
Tao Pan, Wenli Ji, Mengqi Nie, Yang Li
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare life threatening inherited disorder that is triggered by drugs used for general anesthesia in susceptible persons. The symptoms include rapid increase of body temperature and severe muscle contractions. The present study includes 3 cases of MH and highlights the timely identification of symptoms for rescuing the patient. In case I, a 7-year-old male child underwent surgery with ketamine at a dose of 250 mg. After 4 h of operation, the child went through convulsions, high fever and succumbed within a few hours...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878322/assessing-needs-for-psychiatric-treatment-in-prisoners-1-prevalence-of-disorder
#5
Paul Bebbington, Sharon Jakobowitz, Nigel McKenzie, Helen Killaspy, Rachel Iveson, Gary Duffield, Mark Kerr
BACKGROUND: High levels of psychiatric morbidity in prisoners have important implications for services. Assessing Needs for Psychiatric Treatment in Prisoners is an evaluation of representative samples of prisoners in a male and a female prison in London. This paper reports on the prevalence of mental disorders. In a companion paper, we describe how this translates into mental health treatment needs and the extent to which they have been met. METHODS: Prisoners were randomly sampled in a sequential procedure based on the Local Inmate Data System...
November 22, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871720/-guidelines-for-the-prescription-of-mood-stabilizers-for-adolescents-a-literature-review
#6
G Munch, N Godart
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a unique phase of the human developmental process. In adolescents, psychotropic medications may have different efficacy and tolerance profiles compared to those at other stages of the lifespan. Mood stabilizers are a complex pharmacological category including lithium, some anticonvulsants, and some second generation antipsychotics. Focusing on this class of pharmacological agents, we aim to answer the following questions: in which indications and according to which modalities should mood stabilizers be prescribed during adolescence? METHODS: Information was sought from the websites of the French Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) and Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM), the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)...
November 18, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856209/qualitative-evaluation-of-perceptions-of-smoking-cessation-among-clients-at-an-alcohol-and-other-drug-treatment-program
#7
Jennifer Bhuiyan, Lauren Jonkman, Sharon Connor, Vincent Giannetti
BACKGROUND: Smoking is highly prevalent in the substance use population and trials of smoking cessation among patients actively receiving treatment for substance use disorder have yielded modest quit rates. However, smoking cessation is not routinely provided due to the ungrounded belief it will interfere with recovery from the primary substance use problem. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this qualitative study was to determine the perceptions of smoking cessation in a substance use population...
November 3, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849405/psychiatric-symptoms-parental-attachment-and-reasons-for-use-as-correlates-of-heavy-substance-use-among-treatment-seeking-hispanic-adolescents
#8
Karina A Gattamorta, Alberto Varela, Brian E McCabe, Maite P Mena, Daniel A Santisteban
: In early adolescence, Hispanics self-report higher drug use rates compared to White and African American peers. Among adolescent users, heavy users have more negative behavioral and health consequences. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine whether psychiatric symptoms, parental attachment, and reasons for use predict heavy alcohol and illicit drug use (more than 10 times in the past three months) among Hispanic adolescents. METHODS: This study examines baseline data from a study evaluating a family based substance abuse treatment program for Hispanic adolescents...
November 16, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836391/diagnosing-and-treating-depression-in-epilepsy
#9
Christian E Elger, Samantha A Johnston, Christian Hoppe
At least one third of patients with active epilepsy suffer from significant impairment of their emotional well-being. A targeted examination for possible depression (irrespective of any social, financial or personal burdens) can identify patients who may benefit from medical attention and therapeutic support. Reliable screening instruments such as the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E) are suitable for the timely identification of patients needing help. Neurologists should be capable of managing mild to moderate comorbid depression but referral to mental health specialists is mandatory in severe and difficult-to-treat depression, or if the patient is acutely suicidal...
October 31, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834145/pharmacogenetics-and-pharmacotherapy-of-military-personnel-suffering-from-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#10
Janine Naß, Thomas Efferth
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe problem among soldiers with combat experience and still difficult to treat. The pathogenesis is still not fully understood at the psychological level. Therefore, genetic research became a focus of interest. The identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may help to predict, which persons are at high risk to develop PTSD as a starting point to develop novel targeted drugs for treatment. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review on SNPs in genes related to PTSD pathology and development of targeted pharmacological treatment options based on PubMed database searches...
November 11, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833067/illness-perception-in-chinese-adults-with-epilepsy
#11
Haixia Ji, Lei Zhang, Lunlan Li, Guiping Gong, Zhaolun Cao, Jianfeng Zhang, Nong Zhou, Yu Wang, Houmian Tu, Kai Wang
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders worldwide. Understanding the patient's subjective experience plays an important role in the treatment and rehabilitation of the patient. However, few studies are concerned about the illness perception of Chinese adults with epilepsy. METHODS: 117 Chinese adults with epilepsy and 87 Chinese adults with chronic liver disease completed the Chinese version of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (CIPQ-R)...
October 31, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810654/treatment-utilization-among-persons-with-opioid-use-disorder-in-the-united-states
#12
Li-Tzy Wu, He Zhu, Marvin S Swartz
BACKGROUND: The United States is experiencing an opioid overdose epidemic. Treatment use data from diverse racial/ethnic groups with opioid use disorder (OUD) are needed to inform treatment expansion efforts. METHODS: We examined demographic characteristics and behavioral health of persons aged ≥12 years that met criteria for past-year OUD (n=6,125) in the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=503,101). We determined the prevalence and correlates of past-year use of alcohol/drug use treatment and opioid-specific treatment to inform efforts for improving OUD treatment...
October 19, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810257/-clinical-practice-guidelines-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-constipation-and-functional-constipation-in-adults-concept-diagnosis-and-healthcare-continuity-part-1-of-2
#13
F Mearin, C Ciriza, M Mínguez, E Rey, J J Mascort, E Peña, P Cañones, J Júdez
In this Clinical practice guide, an analysis is made of the diagnosis and treatment of adult patients with constipation and abdominal discomfort, under the spectrum of irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation. These have an important personal, health and social impact, affecting the quality of life of these patients. In irritable bowel syndrome with a predominance of constipation, this is the predominant change in bowel movements, with recurrent abdominal pain, bloating and frequent abdominal distension...
October 31, 2016: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808543/a-psychometric-investigation-of-gender-differences-and-common-processes-across-borderline-and-antisocial-personality-disorders
#14
Seokjoon Chun, Alexa Harris, Margely Carrion, Elizabeth Rojas, Stephen Stark, Carl Lejuez, William V Lechner, Marina A Bornovalova
The comorbidity between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is well-established, and the 2 disorders share many similarities. However, there are also differences across disorders: most notably, BPD is diagnosed more frequently in women and ASPD in men. We investigated if (a) comorbidity between BPD and ASPD is attributable to 2 discrete disorders or the expression of common underlying processes, and (b) if the model of comorbidity is true across sex. Using a clinical sample of 1,400 drug users in residential substance abuse treatment, we tested 3 competing models to explore whether the comorbidity of ASPD and BPD should be represented by a single common factor, 2 correlated factors, or a bifactor structure involving a general and disorder-specific factors...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806704/vascular-depression-consensus-report-a-critical-update
#15
EDITORIAL
Howard J Aizenstein, Andrius Baskys, Maura Boldrini, Meryl A Butters, Breno S Diniz, Manoj Kumar Jaiswal, Kurt A Jellinger, Lev S Kruglov, Ivan A Meshandin, Milija D Mijajlovic, Guenter Niklewski, Sarah Pospos, Keerthy Raju, Kneginja Richter, David C Steffens, Warren D Taylor, Oren Tene
BACKGROUND: Vascular depression is regarded as a subtype of late-life depression characterized by a distinct clinical presentation and an association with cerebrovascular damage. Although the term is commonly used in research settings, widely accepted diagnostic criteria are lacking and vascular depression is absent from formal psychiatric manuals such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5(th) edition - a fact that limits its use in clinical settings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, showing a variety of cerebrovascular lesions, including extensive white matter hyperintensities, subcortical microvascular lesions, lacunes, and microinfarcts, in patients with late life depression, led to the introduction of the term "MRI-defined vascular depression"...
November 3, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802545/association-between-prescription-of-major-psychotropic-medications-and-violent-reoffending-after-prison-release
#16
Zheng Chang, Paul Lichtenstein, Niklas Långström, Henrik Larsson, Seena Fazel
Importance: Individuals released from prison have high rates of violent reoffending, and there is uncertainty about whether pharmacological treatments reduce reoffending risk. Objective: To investigate the associations between major classes of psychotropic medications and violent reoffending. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included all released prisoners in Sweden from July 1, 2005, to December 31, 2010, through linkage of population-based registers...
November 1, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792911/towards-greater-understanding-of-addiction-stigma-intersectionality-with-race-ethnicity-and-gender
#17
Magdalena Kulesza, Mauri Matsuda, Jason J Ramirez, Alexandra J Werntz, Bethany A Teachman, Kristen P Lindgren
BACKGROUND: In spite of the significant burden associated with substance use disorders, especially among persons who inject drugs (PWIDs), most affected individuals do not engage with any type of formal or informal treatment. Addiction stigma, which is represented by negative social attitudes toward individuals who use alcohol and/or other drugs, is one of the barriers to care that is poorly understood. The current study: a) assessed implicit (indirect and difficult to consciously control) and explicit (consciously controlled) beliefs about PWIDs among visitors to a public web site; and b) experimentally investigated the effects of ethnicity/race and gender on those implicit and explicit beliefs...
October 21, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783277/egar-a-food-protein-derived-tetrapeptide-reduces-seizure-activity-in-pentylenetetrazole-induced-epilepsy-models-through-%C3%AE-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate-receptors
#18
Song Cai, Chuwen Ling, Jun Lu, Songwei Duan, Yingzhao Wang, Huining Zhu, Ruibang Lin, Liang Chen, Xingchang Pan, Muyi Cai, Huaiyu Gu
A primary pathogeny of epilepsy is excessive activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptors (AMPARs). To find potential molecules to inhibit AMPARs, high-throughput screening was performed in a library of tetrapeptides in silico. Computational results suggest that some tetrapeptides bind stably to the AMPAR. We aligned these sequences of tetrapeptide candidates with those from in vitro digestion of the trout skin protein. Among salmon-derived products, Glu-Gly-Ala-Arg (EGAR) showed a high biological affinity toward AMPAR when tested in silico...
October 25, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774073/effects-of-music-therapy-on-drug-therapy-of-adult-psychiatric-outpatients-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-study
#19
Mario Degli Stefani, Michele Biasutti
Objective: Framed in the patients' engagement perspective, the current study aims to determine the effects of group music therapy in addition to drug care in comparison with drug care in addition to other non-expressive group activities in the treatment of psychiatric outpatients. Method: Participants (n = 27) with ICD-10 diagnoses of F20 (schizophrenia), F25 (schizoaffective disorders), F31 (bipolar affective disorder), F32 (depressive episode), and F60 (specific personality disorders) were randomized to receive group music therapy plus standard care (48 weekly sessions of 2 h) or standard care only...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754095/os-20-09-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cognitive-disorders-in-arterial-hypertension
#20
Viktoria Krotova, Tatyana Khomazyuk
OBJECTIVE: One of the first disorders of affection subcortical brain structures in arterial hypertension (AH) is a decrease in mental processes, intellectual rigidity. To investigate the cognitive disorders (CD) in AH patients 1-2 stages of working age and the effectiveness of nootropic agent (phenibutum) and anticholinergic drug (ipidacrinum) in combined antihypertensive therapy. DESIGN AND METHOD: Observed 60 patients with controlled AH 1-2 stages and CD. The median age-55,3 ± 9,1 years and duration of AH-10,2 ± 5,8 years...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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