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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814481/plausibility-criteria-for-putative-pathophysiological-mechanisms-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-a-consensus-of-experts
#1
Jan Tack, Maura Corsetti, Michael Camilleri, Eamonn Mm Quigley, Magnus Simren, Hidekazu Suzuki, Nicholas J Talley, Hans Tornblom, Lukas Van Oudenhove
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are extremely common conditions associated with a considerable personal, social and health economic burden. Managing FGIDs in clinical practice is challenging because of the uncertainty of symptom-based diagnosis, the high frequency of overlap between these conditions and the limited efficacy of available therapies. It has often been argued that successful drug development and management of FGIDs requires knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology...
August 16, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812273/a-precision-medicine-approach-to-oxytocin%C3%A2-trials
#2
Elissar Andari, Rene Hurlemann, Larry J Young
In this chapter, we introduce a new area of social pharmacology that encompasses the study of the role of neuromodulators in modulating a wide range of social behaviors and brain function, with the interplay of genetic and epigenetic factors. There are increasing evidences for the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in modulating a wide range of social behaviors, in reducing anxiety, and in impacting the social brain network. Oxytocin also promotes social functions in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism and reduces anxiety and fear in anxiety disorders...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809398/precision-medicine-for-suicidality-from-universality-to-subtypes-and-personalization
#3
A B Niculescu, H Le-Niculescu, D F Levey, P L Phalen, H L Dainton, K Roseberry, E M Niculescu, J O Niezer, A Williams, D L Graham, T J Jones, V Venugopal, A Ballew, M Yard, T Gelbart, S M Kurian, A Shekhar, N J Schork, G E Sandusky, D R Salomon
Suicide remains a clear, present and increasing public health problem, despite being a potentially preventable tragedy. Its incidence is particularly high in people with overt or un(der)diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Objective and precise identification of individuals at risk, ways of monitoring response to treatments and novel preventive therapeutics need to be discovered, employed and widely deployed. We sought to investigate whether blood gene expression biomarkers for suicide (that is, a 'liquid biopsy' approach) can be identified that are more universal in nature, working across psychiatric diagnoses and genders, using larger cohorts than in previous studies...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807487/exploring-how-prison-based-drug-rehabilitation-programming-shapes-racial-disparities-in-substance-use-disorder-recovery
#4
Erin M Kerrison
Prison-based therapeutic community (TC) programming is derived from the perspective that drug addiction is primarily symptomatic of cognitive dysfunction, poor emotional management, and underdeveloped self-reliance skills, and can be addressed in a collaborative space where a strong ideological commitment to moral reform and personal responsibility is required of its members. In this space, evidence of rehabilitation is largely centered on the client's relationship to language and the public adoption of a "broken self" narrative...
August 5, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807062/neuropsychiatric-characteristics-of-antiterrorist-operation-combatants-in-the-donbass-ukraine
#5
Konstantin N Loganovsky, Natalia A Zdanevich, Marina V Gresko, Donatella Marazziti, Tatiana K Loganovskaja
OBJECTIVE: The present paper aimed to explore the neuropsychiatric characteristics of the antiterrorism (ATO) combatants in the Donets Basin (Donbass) and to propose therapeutic strategies for managing their mental healthcare. METHODS: A total of 54 ATO combatants were included in our study and compared with four groups of subjects exposed to other emergencies, including the Chernobyl disaster and the war in Afghanistan. The neuropsychiatric features were assessed through psychopathological assessments, neurological examinations, and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG)...
August 15, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806858/the-haemtrack-home-therapy-reporting-system-design-implementation-strengths-and-weaknesses-a-report-from-uk-haemophilia-centre-doctors-organisation
#6
C R M Hay, H Xiang, M Scott, P W Collins, R Liesner, G Dolan, R Hollingsworth
INTRODUCTION: Haemtrack is an electronic home treatment diary for patients with inherited bleeding disorders, introduced in 2008. It aimed to improve the timeliness and completeness of patient-reported treatment records, to facilitate analysis of treatment and outcome trends. The system is easy to use, responsive and accessible. METHODS: The software uses Microsoft technologies with a SQL Server database and an ASP.net website front-end, running on personal computers, android and I-phones...
August 14, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805271/efficacy-of-extensive-intervention-models-for-substance-use-disorders-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Hélène Simoneau, Ervane Kamgang, Joël Tremblay, Karine Bertrand, Serge Brochu, Marie-Josée Fleury
ISSUES: Despite a growing trend towards considering addiction as a chronic disease, the development of intervention models addressing the chronicity of substance use disorder is relatively new, and no literature review on this topic is available. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy of intervention models designed within the perspective of addiction as a chronic disease and those tailored to persons with substance use disorder who revolve in and out of treatment...
August 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801423/comparative-efficacy-and-acceptability-of-antidepressants-psychological-interventions-and-their-combination-for-depressive-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-protocol-for-a-network-meta-analysis
#8
Xinyu Zhou, Andrea Cipriani, Yuqing Zhang, Pim Cuijpers, Sarah E Hetrick, John R Weisz, Juncai Pu, Cinzia Del Giovane, Toshiaki A Furukawa, Jürgen Barth, David Coghill, Stefan Leucht, Lining Yang, Arun V Ravindran, Peng Xie
INTRODUCTION: Depressive disorder is common in children and adolescents, with important consequences and serious impairments in terms of personal and social functioning. While both pharmacological and psychological interventions have been shown to be effective, there is still uncertainty about the balance between these and what treatment strategy should be preferred in clinical practice. Therefore, we aim to compare and rank in a network meta-analysis (NMA) the commonly used psychological, pharmacological and combined interventions for depressive disorder in children and adolescents...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797806/towards-personalized-medicine-for-patients-with-autoimmune-diseases-opportunities-and-challenges
#9
REVIEW
Soheil Tavakolpour
There is generally no cure for autoimmune disorders, but the symptoms can be managed. Currently available drugs/treatments are more potent than those in the past decades. However, finding the right drug and right patients has remained a serious problem. We should revise our diagnosis criteria to more accurate ones. During the recent years, personalized medicine has attracted much attention. However, it needs to be well-explained for autoimmune diseases. Personalized medicine aims to find the most optimum drugs for a patient...
August 7, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796591/utilization-of-buprenorphine-and-methadone-among-opioid-users-who-inject-drugs
#10
Judith I Tsui, Richard Burt, Hanne Thiede, Sara N Glick
BACKGROUND: There has been a rise in opioid abuse and related injection drug use in the United States and treatment for opioid use disorders may be underutilized. The study aim was to describe utilization of opioid agonist therapy (OAT), and assess factors associated with utilization of OAT, among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in the Seattle metropolitan area. METHODS: We used data from the 2015 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system among PWID in the Seattle area...
August 10, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758886/personality-schizophrenia-and-violence-a-longitudinal-study
#11
Valentina Candini, Marta Ghisi, Gioia Bottesi, Clarissa Ferrari, Viola Bulgari, Laura Iozzino, Maria Elena Boero, Alessandra De Francesco, Paolo Maggi, Beatrice Segalini, Vanessa Zuccalli, Gian Marco Giobbio, Giuseppe Rossi, Giovanni de Girolamo
The aims of this study were (a) to investigate the presence of clinically significant personality traits and personality disorders (PD) in patients living in residential facilities, with or without a history of violence (69 and 46, respectively); and (b) to investigate any associations between clinically significant personality traits and PDs, aggression, impulsivity, hostility, and violent behavior during a 1-year follow-up. The most frequent primary diagnoses were schizophrenia (58.3%) and PD (20.9%). Those with a history of violence demonstrated more antisocial and alcohol dependence features and lower depressive PD symptoms than the control group...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758768/characteristics-of-veterans-and-military-service-members-who-endorse-causing-harm-injury-or-death-to-others-in-the-military
#12
Philip Held, Randy A Boley, Niranjan S Karnik, Mark H Pollack, Alyson K Zalta
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present research was to examine the demographic and mental health characteristics of veterans and service members who endorsed having caused harm, injury, or death to another person on deployment, while taking these individuals' total number of other lifetime traumas into account. METHOD: Data for the present study were collected as part of the standard clinical evaluation for 228 treatment-seeking veterans and service members. RESULTS: Those who reported having caused harm, injury, or death to another person on deployment (22...
July 31, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741044/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-asenapine-compared-with-olanzapine-in-borderline-personality-disorder-an-open-label-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Paola Bozzatello, Paola Rocca, Maria Uscinska, Silvio Bellino
BACKGROUND: Asenapine is a new second-generation antipsychotic that is understudied in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Only one study investigating the use of the drug in this indication (an open-label pilot study) has been conducted to date. OBJECTIVE: The present open-label, randomized, controlled trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of asenapine in comparison with olanzapine, the most broadly studied antipsychotic in BPD. METHODS: A total of 51 outpatients aged between 18 and 50 years with a diagnosis of BPD based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria were assigned for 12 weeks to asenapine (5-10 mg/day) or olanzapine (5-10 mg/day)...
July 24, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735077/opioid-medication-misuse-among-unhealthy-drinkers
#14
Gerald Cochran, Rebecca McCarthy, Adam J Gordon, Ralph E Tarter
BACKGROUND: Combining opioid medications and alcohol has serious implications for patient health, including overdose. Information regarding those who use/misuse opioid medications and engage in unhealthy alcohol use is limited to pharmacological and epidemiological descriptions. This study presents opioid medication misuse and behavioral, mental, and physical health characteristics of persons filling opioid medications that are engaged in unhealthy alcohol use. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey at 5 community pharmacies in Southwestern, Pennsylvania among patients filling opioid medications...
July 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727662/paraphilic-thoughts-behaviors-and-sex-addiction-in-a-sample-of-persons-who-use-drugs-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Jales Clemente, Sandra Cristina Pillon, Jair de Jesus Mari, Claudio Jeronimo da Silva, Paulo Roberto Henrique Santana, Alessandra Diehl
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of paraphilic thoughts/behaviors (including paraphilic disorders) with and without sexual addiction and sexual-related conditions in a sample of substance disorder patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of substance-dependent individuals who sought outpatient treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. Data included sociodemographic information, drug of choice, responses to questions about sexual behavior, and to the following standardized questionnaires: (a) Sexual Addiction Screening Test, and (b) Childhood Trauma Questionnaire...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714268/nidotherapy-in-the-successful-management-of-comorbid-depressive-and-personality-disorder
#16
Ben Spears, Helen Tyrer, Peter Tyrer
Nidotherapy is a new form of psychological therapy that aims to improve mental health by a systematic and collaborative manipulation of the environment in all its forms without focusing on alleviation of symptoms. Following treatment with nidotherapy, we describe a dramatic, and continuing, improvement in a woman with comorbid severe depressive illness and borderline personality disorder. She had made repeated serious suicide attempts over the previous 25 years and had received many drug and psychological treatments without success...
July 17, 2017: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711814/problem-alcohol-use-and-healthcare-utilization-among-persons-with-cannabis-use-disorder-in-the-united-states
#17
William S John, Li-Tzy Wu
BACKGROUND: The emergency department (ED) and hospital settings represent crucial opportunities for engaging treatment for cannabis use disorder (CUD). Thus, there is a need to identify factors associated with healthcare utilization among persons with CUD to improve screening and intervention approaches. Problematic alcohol use may be a salient risk factor. METHODS: Using data from the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, we determined factors, including different patterns of alcohol use, associated with past-year ED admission and inpatient hospitalization among persons aged 12 years or older meeting criteria for CUD in the past year (N=16,757)...
June 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705298/methamphetamine-related-disorders
#18
Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Roland Härtel-Petri, Willem Hamdorf, Ursula Havemann-Reinecke, Stephan Mühlig, Norbert Wodarz
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine is considered more dangerous than other stimulants because of its acute complications, long-term neurotoxicity, and potential for drug dependence. Until now, there have been no evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of methamphetamine-related disorders, either in Germany or abroad. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed on the treatment of methamphetamine-related disorders. Based on this literature review, a multidisciplinary expert panel developed recommendations using the nominal group technique...
June 30, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701904/medical-and-behavioral-approaches-to-engage-people-who-inject-drugs-into-care-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#19
Stevan A Gonzalez, Daniel S Fierer, Andrew H Talal
Direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C virus infection may revolutionize treatment among persons with substance use disorders. Despite persons with substance use disorders having the highest hepatitis C virus prevalence and incidence, the vast majority have not engaged into care for the infection. Previously, interferon-based treatments, with substantial side effects and the propensity to exacerbate mental health conditions, were major disincentives to pursuit of care for the infection. Direct-acting antivirals with viral eradication rates of >90%, significantly improved side effect profiles, and shorter treatment duration are dramatic improvements over prior treatment regimens that should promote widespread hepatitis C virus care among persons with substance use disorders...
June 2017: Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692407/overdose-history-is-associated-with-postdetoxification-treatment-preference-for-persons-with-opioid-use-disorder
#20
Michael D Stein, Jessica N Flori, Megan M Risi, Micah T Conti, Bradley J Anderson, Genie L Bailey
BACKGROUND: Without aftercare treatment, persons discharged from short-term inpatient detoxification for opioid use disorder are at high risk of relapse. In previous work, those who were recently homeless or had pending legal problems were more likely to prefer residential treatment for aftercare. Here, based on clinical experience, the authors hypothesize that a particular clinical factor, surviving an opioid overdose, will be associated with aftercare preference. METHODS: Between May and December 2015, the authors surveyed consecutive persons seeking inpatient opioid detoxification...
July 10, 2017: Substance Abuse
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