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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685188/out-of-the-box-a-psychedelic-model-to-study-the-creative-mind
#1
K P C Kuypers
Our creativity is challenged daily when facing new situations asking for novel solutions. Creativity, a multicomponent construct includes flexible divergent and rigid convergent thinking. Psychedelic drugs like psilocybin can enhance creativity and affect state of mind (mood, empathy, openness). Of note, flexible thinking is disturbed in psychopathological conditions like anxiety disorders and depression and preliminary findings have shown psychedelics to be efficacious in the treatment of those conditions...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668421/factors-associated-with-unplanned-early-discharges-from-a-dual-diagnosis-inpatient-detoxification-unit-in-israel
#2
Menachem M Sofer, Alexander Kaptsan, Jonathan Anson
OBJECTIVES: Currently, Israel has a single governmental inpatient dual diagnosis detoxification unit. We provide a cross-section of patient profiles in this unit, as well as explore possible associations between clinical/demographic factors, and the unplanned early discharge of patients from the unit, aiming at improving rehabilitation success rates. METHODS: In this retrospective study, medical records of all patients admitted to the unit between January 1st 2012 and July 1st 2013 were examined (N = 323)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657613/relationship-between-physician-based-assessment-of-disease-activity-quality-of-life-and-costs-of-ulcerative-colitis-in-poland
#3
Paweł Kawalec, Ewa Stawowczyk
Introduction: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disorder, which requires lifelong treatment. It generates substantial direct and indirect costs, and significantly affects the quality of life, especially in the active state of the disease. Aim: To evaluate the direct and indirect costs of UC as well as to assess disease activity and quality of life reported by patients with UC in Polish settings. Material and methods: A questionnaire, cross-sectional study among UC patients as well as physicians involved in the therapy of the patients was conducted...
2018: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651981/lamotrigine-for-people-with-borderline-personality-disorder-a-rct
#4
Mike J Crawford, Rahil Sanatinia, Barbara Barrett, Gillian Cunningham, Oliver Dale, Poushali Ganguli, Geoff Lawrence-Smith, Verity C Leeson, Fenella Lemonsky, Georgia Lykomitrou-Matthews, Alan Montgomery, Richard Morriss, Jasna Munjiza, Carol Paton, Iwona Skorodzien, Vineet Singh, Wei Tan, Peter Tyrer, Joseph G Reilly
BACKGROUND: No drug treatments are currently licensed for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Despite this, people with this condition are frequently prescribed psychotropic medications and often with considerable polypharmacy. Preliminary studies have indicated that mood stabilisers may be of benefit to people with BPD. OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of lamotrigine for people with BPD. DESIGN: A two-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled individually randomised trial of lamotrigine versus placebo...
April 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648825/rational-drug-design-of-topically-administered-caspase-1-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-acne
#5
Jean-Francois Fournier, Laurence Clary, Sandrine Chambon, Laurence Dumais, Craig Steven Harris, Corinne Millois-Barbuis, Romain Pierre, Sandrine Talano, Etienne Thoreau, Jérome Aubert, Michèle Aurelly, Claire Bouix-Peter, Anne Brethon, Laurent Chantalat, Olivier Christin, Catherine Comino, Ghizlane El-Bazbouz, Anne-Laurence Ghilini, Tatiana Isabet, Claude Lardy, Anne-Pascale Luzy, Céline Mathieu, Kenny Mebrouk, Danielle Orfila, Jonathan Pascau, Kevin Reverse, Didier Roche, Vincent Rodeschini, Laurent François Hennequin
The use of an interleukin beta antibody is currently being investigated in the clinic for the treatment of acne, a dermatological disorder affecting 650M persons globally. Inhibiting the protease responsible for the cleavage of inactive pro-IL1β into active IL-1β, caspase-1, could be an alternative small molecule approach. This report describes the discovery of uracil 20, a potent (38 nM in THP1 cells assay) caspase-1 inhibitor for the topical treatment of inflammatory acne. The uracil series was designed according to published caspase-1 pharmacophore model involving a reactive warhead in P1 for covalent reversible inhibition and an aryl moiety in P4 for selectivity against the apoptotic caspases...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627406/post-9-11-drug-and-alcohol-related-hospitalizations-among-world-trade-center-health-registry-enrollees-2003-2010
#6
Andrew Hirst, Sara A Miller-Archie, Alice E Welch, Jiehui Li, Robert M Brackbill
OBJECTIVE: To describe patterns of drug- and alcohol-related hospitalizations among persons exposed to the 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attacks and to assess whether 9/11-related exposures or post-9/11 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were associated with increased odds of hospitalization. METHODS: Data for adult enrollees in the WTC Health Registry, a prospective cohort study, were linked to New York State (NYS) administrative hospitalization data to identify alcohol- and drug-related hospitalizations from enrollment to December 31, 2010...
March 23, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625537/evaluation-of-dystonia-in-children-and-adolescents-treated-with-atomoxetine-within-the-truven-marketscan-database-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Kristin J Meyers, Himanshu P Upadhyaya, Robert Goodloe, Ludmila A Kryzhanovskaya, Marie A Liles-Burden, Nicole A Kellier-Steele, Michele Mancini
OBJECTIVE: Atomoxetine is a non-stimulant drug indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children aged ≥6 years, adolescents, and adults. In this retrospective cohort study, the incidence and risk of dystonia in children and adolescents treated with atomoxetine was compared to a propensity score-matched cohort of stimulant users. METHODS: Data between 01 January 2006 and 31 December 2014 from patients aged 6-17 years in the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan database were used to generate two cohorts of patients: (1) atomoxetine users and (2) stimulant (methylphenidates or amphetamines) users...
April 6, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623444/polygenic-risk-score-use-in-migraine-research
#8
Mona Ameri Chalmer, Ann-Louise Esserlind, Jes Olesen, Thomas Folkmann Hansen
BACKGROUND: The latest Genome-Wide Association Study identified 38 genetic variants associated with migraine. In this type of studies the significance level is very difficult to achieve (5 × 10- 8 ) due to multiple testing. Thus, the identified variants only explain a small fraction of the genetic risk. It is expected that hundreds of thousands of variants also confer an increased risk but do not reach significance levels. One way to capture this information is by constructing a Polygenic Risk Score...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615267/a-12-month-study-of-the-hikikomori-syndrome-of-social-withdrawal-clinical-characterization-and-different-subtypes-proposal
#9
Ángeles Malagón-Amor, Luis Miguel Martín-López, David Córcoles, Anna González, Magda Bellsolà, Alan R Teo, Víctor Pérez, Antoni Bulbena, Daniel Bergé
Social withdrawal is a new mental health problem increasingly common, present in different cultures, whose psychopathology and treatment is not yet established. This study aims to determine the socio-demographic and clinical features and possible clinical subtypes that predict the 12-month outcomes of cases with hikikomori syndrome, a severe form of social withdrawal. Socio-demographic and clinical data at baseline were analysed as well as data obtained for 12 months after at-home treatment in 190 cases. The inclusion criteria were: spending all time at home, avoiding social situations and relationships, significant deterioration due to social isolation, with a minimum duration of 6 months...
March 23, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607774/civil-commitment-for-opioid-and-other-substance-use-disorders-does-it-work
#10
Abhishek Jain, Paul Christopher, Paul S Appelbaum
Many states are turning to civil commitment for substance use disorders as a potential solution to address rising rates of overdose deaths. Civil commitment allows family members or others to seek court-ordered involuntary treatment for a substance-abusing person. In contrast to mandatory treatment ordered by drug courts, civil commitment does not require involvement with the criminal justice system. Although these laws are understandably appealing, statutes and their implementation are highly variable, ethical concerns about deprivation of liberty continue to be raised, and outcome data are limited and often not generalizable...
April 1, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607687/have-there-been-improvements-in-alzheimer-s-disease-drug-discovery-over-the-past-5-years
#11
Ramón Cacabelos
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most important neurodegenerative disorder with a global cost worldwide of over $700 billion. Pharmacological treatment accounts for 10-20% of direct costs; no new drugs have been approved during the past 15 years; and the available medications are not cost-effective. Areas covered: A massive scrutiny of AD-related PubMed publications (ps)(2013-2017) identified 42,053ps of which 8,380 (19.60%) were associated with AD treatments. The most prevalent pharmacological categories included neurotransmitter enhancers (11...
April 1, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606226/a-pilot-study-of-a-smartphone-application-supporting-recovery-from-drug-addiction
#12
Di Liang, Hui Han, Jiang Du, Min Zhao, Yih-Ing Hser
BACKGROUND: Mobile health (mHealth) technologies have the potential to facilitate self-monitoring and self-management for individuals with substance use disorders (SUD). S-Health is a bilingual smartphone application based on cognitive behavioral principles and is designed to support recovery from drug addiction by trigger recognition so as to allow practice in-the-moment coping to prevent relapse. METHOD: For this pilot randomized controlled study, 75 participants were recruited from methadone maintenance treatment clinics and the social worker consortium in Shanghai, China...
May 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596715/psychopharmacology-for-borderline-personality-disorder
#13
Barbara J Limandri
Treating individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex and challenging process fraught with clinician stigma and bias. Clinically, polypharmacy is the most common approach, even though it is more likely to produce greater drug-drug adverse effects and interactions than effective improvement in symptoms. Currently, there are no approved medications specific for the treatment of BPD. The current article reviews the extant literature on psychopharmacology and provides treatment recommendations...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587187/characteristics-and-healthcare-situation-of-adult-patients-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-in-german-epilepsy-centers
#14
Hajo M Hamer, Margarete Pfäfflin, Hartmut Baier, Frank Bösebeck, Melanie Franz, Martin Holtkamp, Gerhard Kurlemann, Theodor W May, Thomas Mayer, Mirjam Metzner, Bernhard J Steinhoff, Stefan Stodieck, Hans-Beatus Straub, Yvonne G Weber, Christian Brandt
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to collect systematic data on the care of adult patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) in German epilepsy centers, to describe the characteristics of patients in this age group, and to clarify whether and how the recommended interdisciplinary care is implemented. METHODS: This retrospective survey involved 12 major epilepsy centers in Germany. Aggregated data were collected based on an electronic questionnaire that addressed the sociodemographic data, characteristics of the epilepsy syndromes, and general healthcare setting of adult patients with TSC...
March 24, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579725/addressing-discordant-quantitative-urine-buprenorphine-and-norbuprenorphine-levels-case-examples-in-opioid-use-disorder
#15
Stephen R Holt, Joseph H Donroe, Dana A Cavallo, Jeanette M Tetrault
INTRODUCTION: Urine adulteration is a concern among patients treated for opioid use disorder. Quantitative urine testing for buprenorphine (B) and norbuprenorphine (NB), and the appropriate interpretation of B and NB levels, can facilitate constructive conversations with patients that may lead to modifications in the treatment plan, and strengthening of the patient-provider relationship. CASE SUMMARY: Three cases are presented in which discordant urine B and NB levels were recognized...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574507/new-steps-for-treating-alcohol-use-disorder
#16
REVIEW
Erin J Campbell, Andrew J Lawrence, Christina J Perry
Alcohol use disorder is a complex syndrome with multiple treatment points including drug-induced pathology, withdrawal management, behavioral/cognitive strategies, and relapse prevention. These different components may be complicated by genotype and phenotype. A huge milestone for the treatment of alcohol use disorder across several countries in the last 10 years was the introduction of practice guidelines integrating clinical expertise and research evidence. These provide a summary of interventions that have been shown to be effective following rigorous and replicated clinical trials...
March 25, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550536/salivary-alpha-amylase-and-cortisol-responsiveness-to-stress-in-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-panic-disorder
#17
Mario Altamura, Salvatore Iuso, Angela Balzotti, Girolamo Francavilla, Andrea Dimitri, Giuseppe Cibelli, Antonello Bellomo, Annamaria Petito
Reported findings on reactivity to stress of the sympathetic-adreno-medullar (SAM) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) systems in panic disorder (PD) are very variable. This inconsistency may be explained by differences in treatment exposure, illness duration and emotion regulation strategies. The present study examined the reactivity to mental stress of the SAM and HPA axes in a sample of first episode, drug naïve patients with PD which avoids confounds of medications exposure and illness chronicity...
March 14, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550236/clinically-oriented-subtyping-of-chronic-insomnia-of-childhood
#18
Oliviero Bruni, Stefania Sette, Marco Angriman, Emma Baumgartner, Lara Selvaggini, Cristina Belli, Raffaele Ferri
OBJECTIVES: To identify different profiles of pediatric insomnia, based on the most frequent clinical presentations (nocturnal awakenings, difficulty in falling asleep, nocturnal restlessness, early morning awakenings). STUDY DESIGN: A structured parent interview was conducted in 338 children (mean age 21.29 months, SD 10.56) referred by pediatricians because of insomnia resistant to behavioral approaches and common drug treatments. The aim was to assess the characteristics of insomnia in children, together with family sleep-related history...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549516/effect-of-the-glutamate-nmda-receptor-antagonist-memantine-as-adjunctive-treatment-in-borderline-personality-disorder-an-exploratory-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
Jayashri Kulkarni, Natalie Thomas, Abdul-Rahman Hudaib, Emorfia Gavrilidis, Jasmin Grigg, Raelene Tan, Jacinta Cheng, Amelia Arnold, Caroline Gurvich
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex, severe and highly stigmatised psychiatric illness. Several lines of evidence highlight the causal link between chronic stress, glucocorticoid response to stress and glutamatergic overactivity as a key event in the pathophysiology of BPD. Therefore, molecular mechanisms capable of regulating glutamate excitotoxicity represent novel and potentially promising treatment targets. Memantine-HCl is a voltage-dependent N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 'channel blocker' that selectively blocks pathological glutamate overactivity...
February 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546856/ethical-approach-to-prevention-of-schizophrenia-concepts-and-challenges
#20
Kresimir Radic, Marko Curkovic, Dario Bagaric, Maja Vilibic, Andrea Tomic, Maja Zivkovic
Patients with schizophrenia, nowadays chronic, frequently disabling mental disorder, get initial treatment after detection of a psychotic episode, seemingly late, potentially preventable stage of illness. As our knowledge about the nature of schizophrenia and other diseases of the spectrum is growing, so are the early interventions becoming more possible, and it is important to conceptualize the clinical, legal and moral issues emerging with new preventive treatments. Every intervention, especially in pre-clinical population, demands a careful risk-benefit assessment and having basic bioethical principles - primacy of patient's welfare, beneficience/non-maleficience, autonomy and justice - in mind...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
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