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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535241/management-of-depression-in-older-adults-a-review
#1
Rob M Kok, Charles F Reynolds
Importance: Depression in older adults is a common psychiatric disorder affecting their health-related quality of life. Major depression occurs in 2% of adults aged 55 years or older, and its prevalence rises with increasing age. In addition, 10% to 15% of older adults have clinically significant depressive symptoms, even in the absence of major depression. Observations: Depression presents with the same symptoms in older adults as it does in younger populations...
May 23, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534426/the-immunological-personality-of-close-relatives-of-sle-patients
#2
M R Salaman, D A Isenberg
Immunological abnormalities seen in relatives of patients with autoimmune disorders can be useful in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease since, unlike in patients, they cannot result from the disease process or drug treatment. In this article we present a brief overview of our studies of the basic immunological status of close relatives of SLE patients. We looked at blood levels of IgG, IgM and antibodies to double-stranded DNA, as well as at NK cell numbers and cytotoxic activity and the levels of NKT, B and T cells...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532688/progress-in-the-contemporary-management-of-hemophilia-the-new-issue-of-patient-aging
#3
REVIEW
Pier Mannuccio Mannucci, Massimo Iacobelli
The management of inherited coagulation disorders such as hemophilia A and B has witnessed dramatic progresses since the last few decades of the last century. Accordingly, persons with hemophilia (PWH) now enjoy a life expectancy at birth not different from that of males in the general population, at least in high income countries. Nowadays, a substantial proportion of PWH are aging, like their peers in the general population. This outstanding progress is accompanied by problems that are in part similar to those of any old person (multiple concomitant diseases and the resulting intake of multiple drugs other than those specific for hemophilia treatment)...
May 20, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527855/initiation-of-extended-release-naltrexone-xr-ntx-for-opioid-use-disorder-prior-to-release-from-prison
#4
Peter D Friedmann, Donna Wilson, Randall Hoskinson, Michael Poshkus, Jennifer G Clarke
BACKGROUND: Opioid use disorder is common in prison populations, and prison release is a high-risk time for relapse and overdose. Initiation of extended release injectable naltrexone (XR-NTX)) prior to prison release might decrease relapse among opioid-dependent persons. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study examined the feasibility and acceptability of XR-NTX injection prior to prison release among adult inmates with opioid use disorder, followed by six months of community XR-NTX treatment...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527059/personality-disorders-in-cluster-headache-a-study-using-the-millon-clinical-multiaxial-inventory-iii
#5
Sylvie Hélène Marie Jeanne Piacentini, Lara Draghi, Alberto Proietti Cecchini, Massimo Leone
A great deal of studies suggests that cluster headache (CH) patients are usually comorbid to anxiety-mood spectrum disorders and psychopathological symptoms; however, the personality profiles reported in the literature strictly depend on type of assessment used. Psychiatric comorbidities have been extensively studied in migraine and they are recognized to represent a major risk factor associated with poorer outcome, playing a role in the headache chronification process at once as cause and consequence of it...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503141/addiction-as-an-attachment-disorder-white-matter-impairment-is-linked-to-increased-negative-affective-states-in-poly-drug-use
#6
Human-Friedrich Unterrainer, Michaela Hiebler-Ragger, Karl Koschutnig, Jürgen Fuchshuber, Sebastian Tscheschner, Maria Url, Jolana Wagner-Skacel, Eva Z Reininghaus, Ilona Papousek, Elisabeth M Weiss, Andreas Fink
Substance use disorders (SUD) have been shown to be linked to various neuronal and behavioral impairments. In this study, we investigate whether there is a connection between the integrity of white matter (WM) and attachment styles as well as different affective states including spirituality in a group of patients diagnosed for poly-drug use disorder (PUD) in comparison to non-clinical controls. A total sample of 59 right-handed men, comprising the groups of patients with PUD (n = 19), recreational drug-using individuals (RUC; n = 20) as well as non-drug using controls were recruited (NUC; n = 20)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494748/the-novelty-of-bupropion-as-a-dopaminergic-antidepressant-for-the-treatment-of-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactive-disorder
#7
Kanit Tha Deang, Hatta Sidi, Hazli Zakaria, Raja Lope Adam, Srijit Das, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Muhammad Hatta, Kok Wei Wee
Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), a hyperactivity disorder that is prevalent among children may continue as an adulthood attention deficit. To date, treating an individual with an adult ADHD may be an arduous task as it involved numerous challenges, such as a need for high index of suspicion to diagnose this medical condition. Many psychiatric disorders masquerade as ADHD and delayed the necessary assessment and proper treatment for the debilitating medical condition. Adult ADHD would also be misdiagnosed (or under diagnosed) due to the facts that this medical condition is being masked by his or her high level of intellectuality achievement...
May 11, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494249/evaluation-of-problematic-psychoactive-substances-use-in-people-placed-in-police-custody
#8
Marie Gérardin, Gabriel Guigand, Laura Wainstein, Pascale Jolliet, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Renaud Clément
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: In France, the law states that any person held in custody could be examined by a doctor. The main objective of the medical examination is to give medical evidence of health compatibility with custody. This review identifies health risks such as addictive behaviour. We wanted to know which psychoactive substances are used in this particular population, and how problematic these uses are. DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective, monocentric, open-ended study conducted via a structured questionnaire was carried out on detainees who reported having taken drugs or illegal substances...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487884/diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-can-genomics-improve-treatment-options-for-a-curable-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Amit Dipak Amin, Tara L Peters, Lingxiao Li, Soumya Sundara Rajan, Ramesh Choudhari, Soham D Puvvada, Jonathan H Schatz
Gene-expression profiling and next-generation sequencing have defined diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common lymphoma diagnosis, as a heterogeneous group of subentities. Despite ongoing explosions of data illuminating disparate pathogenic mechanisms, however, the five-drug chemoimmunotherapy combination R-CHOP remains the frontline standard treatment. This has not changed in 15 years, since the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab was added to the CHOP backbone, which first entered use in the 1970s...
May 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479733/medicinal-plants-used-by-traditional-healers-in-jordan-the-tafila-region
#10
Abeer Abdelhalim, Talal Aburjai, Jane Hanrahan, Heba Abdel-Halim
BACKGROUND: The reporting of the medicinal plants and their traditional uses is important in order to prevent this knowledge from being lost. The aims of this study were to collect information concerning the traditional use of medicinal plants in the region of Tafila; identify the most important medicinal plants; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed; and calculate the informant consensus factor (Fic) in relation to medicinal plant use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on the traditional medicinal uses of local plants were collected using qualitative tools...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476275/beliefs-about-the-consequences-of-using-benzodiazepines-among-persons-with-opioid-use-disorder
#11
Michael D Stein, Bradley J Anderson, Shannon R Kenney, Genie L Bailey
BACKGROUND: Patients admitted to addiction treatment programs report high rates of concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine (BZD) use. This combination places individuals at high risk for accidental overdose and other serious consequences. However, little is known about the beliefs opioid users have about the consequences of BZD use. METHODS: We surveyed consecutive persons initiating inpatient opioid detoxification (N=476; 95.0% enrollment) and identified 245 who reported BZD use in the past 30days and/or had a positive toxicology...
June 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472591/association-between-personality-traits-and-escitalopram-treatment-efficacy-in-panic-disorder
#12
Ülle Võhma, Mait Raag, Innar Tõru, Anu Aluoja, Eduard Maron
BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence to suggest that personality factors may interact with the development and clinical expression of panic disorder (PD). A greater understanding of these relationships may have important implications for clinical practice and implications for searching reliable predictors of treatment outcome. AIMS: The study aimed to examine the effect of escitalopram treatment on personality traits in PD patients, and to identify whether the treatment outcome could be predicted by any personality trait...
May 4, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463852/substance-use-among-nurses-and-nursing-students-a-joint-position-statement-of-the-emergency-nurses-association-and-the-international-nurses-society-on-addictions
#13
Stephen Strobbe, Melanie Crowley
Alcohol and other substance use by nurses potentially places patients, the public, and nurses themselves at risk for serious injury or death. Nursing students are also at risk for problems related to substance use. When viewed and treated as a chronic medical illness, treatment outcomes for substance use disorders are comparable with those of other diseases and can result in lasting benefits. Professional monitoring programs that employ an alternative-to-discipline approach have been shown to be effective in the treatment of health professionals with substance use disorders and are considered a standard for recovery, with high rates of completion and return to practice...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458129/the-acute-effect-of-pleasurable-music-on-craving-for-alcohol-a-pilot-crossover-study
#14
Walter S Mathis, Xiaotong Han
Chronic administration of drugs of abuse leads to a dopamine deficient state in the mesolimbic system, causing dysphoria in abstinence and contributing to craving and return to use. Recent functional imaging studies have shown that listening to personally pleasing music activates the mesolimbic reward system in a fashion similar to drugs of abuse. It has been proposed that such activation could ameliorate the dysphoria and craving of the hypodopaminergic state. The present study sought to evaluate the efficacy of listening to personally pleasing or moving music on reducing craving in abstinent alcoholics using a single-blind, within-subject randomized block design, with three randomly determined presentations of each condition...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441962/acceptability-of-a-mobile-health-intervention-to-enhance-hiv-care-coordination-for-patients-with-substance-use-disorders
#15
Ryan P Westergaard, Andrew Genz, Kristen Panico, Pamela J Surkan, Jeanne Keruly, Heidi E Hutton, Larry W Chang, Gregory D Kirk
BACKGROUND: Persons living with HIV and substance use disorders face barriers to sustained engagement in medical care, leading to suboptimal antiretroviral treatment outcomes. Innovative mobile technology tools such as customizable smartphone applications have the potential to enhance existing care coordination programs, but have not been rigorously studied. METHODS: We developed and implemented a two-component intervention consisting of peer health navigation supported by a smartphone application conducting ecologic momentary assessment (EMA) of barriers to care and medication adherence...
April 26, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431457/precision-medicine-and-pharmacogenetics-what-does-oncology-have-that-addiction-medicine-does-not
#16
Henry R Kranzler, Rachel V Smith, Robert Schnoll, Afaf Moustafa, Emma Greenstreet-Akman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Precision, personalized or stratified medicine, which promises to deliver the right treatment to the right patient, is a topic of international interest in both the lay press and the scientific literature. A key aspect of precision medicine is the identification of biomarkers that predict the response to medications (i.e. pharmacogenetics). We examined why, despite the great strides that have been made in biomarker identification in many areas of medicine, only in oncology has there been substantial progress in their clinical implementation...
April 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#17
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429448/white-matter-microstructure-variations-contribute-to-neurological-soft-signs-in-healthy-adults
#18
Dusan Hirjak, Philipp A Thomann, Robert C Wolf, Katharina M Kubera, Caspar Goch, Jan Hering, Klaus H Maier-Hein
OBJECTIVE: Neurological soft signs (NSS) are core features of psychiatric disorders with significant neurodevelopmental origin. However, it is unclear whether NSS correlates are associated with neuropathological processes underlying the disease or if they are confounded by medication. Given that NSS are also present in healthy persons (HP), investigating HP could reveal NSS correlates, which are not biased by disease-specific processes or drug treatment. Therefore, we used a combination of diffusion MRI analysis tools to provide a framework of specific white matter (WM) microstructure variations underlying NSS in HP...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428763/adhd-lifestyles-and-comorbidities-a-call-for-an-holistic-perspective-from-medical-to-societal-intervening-factors
#19
REVIEW
Simon Weissenberger, Radek Ptacek, Martina Klicperova-Baker, Andreja Erman, Katerina Schonova, Jiri Raboch, Michal Goetz
The review examines Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in its Child and Adult form) and its various presentations (Hyperactive Impulsive, Inattentive, and Combined) with a particular focus on environmental (incl. social factors), lifestyles and comorbidities. It is argued that ADHD is best understood in a holistic and interactive context and a vast empirical literature is presented to illustrate the point: Environmental factors include stress in general as well as exposure to toxins (phthalates, bisphenol A)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426364/patterns-of-mood-and-personality-factors-and-associations-with-sti-hiv-related-drug-and-sex-risk-among-african-american-male-inmates
#20
Joy D Scheidell, Carl W Lejuez, Carol E Golin, Adaora A Adimora, David A Wohl, Larry D Keen, Michael Hammond, Selena Judon-Monk, Maria R Khan
BACKGROUND: Research on the association between antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with comorbid mental disorders and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV risk among inmates is scant despite the high prevalence of psychopathology and of STI/HIV in this population. METHODS: We used baseline data from Project DISRUPT, a cohort study conducted among incarcerated African American men (n = 207), to measure associations between ASPD and STI/HIV risk. We also conducted latent class analyses (LCAs) to identify subgroups defined by ASPD with comorbid stress, depression, and borderline personality disorder symptoms and measured associations between latent class membership and STI/HIV risk...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
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