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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723921/postnatal-dexamethasone-respiratory-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-at-two-years-in-babies-born-extremely-preterm
#1
Gordon Qin, Jessica W Lo, Neil Marlow, Sandy A Calvert, Anne Greenough, Janet L Peacock
IMPORTANCE: Postnatal dexamethasone is associated with reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. There remains, however, concern that its short-term benefits are accompanied by long-term adverse effects e.g. poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the effects of administration of postnatal dexamethasone on respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years of age after adjusting for neonatal and infant risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 412 infants born at 23-28 weeks of gestation, 29% had received postnatal dexamethasone...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720571/the-integrated-stress-response-in-hypoxia-induced-diffuse-white-matter-injury
#2
Benjamin Ll Clayton, Aaron Huang, Rejani B Kunjamma, Ani Solanki, Brian Popko
Currently no treatments exist for preterm infants with diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) caused by hypoxia. Due to improved care of preterm neonates and increased recognition by advanced imaging techniques, the prevalence of DWMI is increasing. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of DWMI is therefore of critical importance. The integrated stress response (ISR), a conserved eukaryotic response to myriad stressors including hypoxia, may play a role in hypoxia-induced DWMI and may represent a novel target for much needed therapies...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720399/prenatal-and-postnatal-administration-of-prebiotics-and-probiotics
#3
REVIEW
Kristin Sohn, Mark A Underwood
Colonization of the neonatal gut by beneficial bacteria is important for the establishment and maintenance of the mucosal barrier, thus protecting the neonate from enteric pathogens and local and systemic inflammation. The neonatal microbiome is influenced by infant diet, environment, and the maternal microbiome. Dysbiosis in pregnancy increases the risk of pre-eclampsia, diabetes, infection, preterm labor, and later childhood atopy. Dysbiosis of the neonatal gut plays an important role in colic in the term infant, in the disease processes which plague preterm infants, including necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis, and in the long-term outcomes of neonates...
July 15, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719076/multimodal-image-analysis-of-clinical-influences-on-preterm-brain-development
#4
Gareth Ball, Paul Aljabar, Phumza Nongena, Nigel Kennea, Nuria Gonzalez-Cinca, Shona Falconer, Andrew T M Chew, Nicholas Harper, Julia Wurie, Mary A Rutherford, Serena J Counsell, A David Edwards
Objective Premature birth is associated with numerous complex abnormalities of white and grey matter and a high incidence of long-term neurocognitive impairment. An integrated understanding of these abnormalities and their association with clinical events is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify specific patterns of abnormal cerebral development and their antenatal and postnatal antecedents. Methods In a prospective cohort of 449 infants (226 male), we performed a multi-variate and data-driven analysis combining multiple imaging modalities...
July 18, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718356/comparison-of-three-non-invasive-ventilation-strategies-nsippv-bipap-ncpap-for-rds-in-vlbw-infants
#5
Vincenzo Salvo, Gianluca Lista, Enrica Lupo, Alberto Ricotti, Luc J I Zimmermann, Antonio W D Gavilanes, Eloisa Gitto, Micaela Colivicchi, Valeria Ferraù, Diego Gazzolo
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) significantly changed the management of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants. Further perspectives for neonatologists regard the assessment of different NIV strategies in terms of availability, effectiveness and failure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of three different NIV strategies: nasal continuous pressure (N-CPAP), nasal synchronized intermittent positive pressure ventilation (N-SIPPV) and nasal bilevel CPAP (BiPAP), as first intention treatment for RDS in very low birth-weight infants (VLBW)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716018/prediction-of-extubation-readiness-in-extremely-preterm-infants-by-the-automated-analysis-of-cardiorespiratory-behavior-study-protocol
#6
Wissam Shalish, Lara J Kanbar, Smita Rao, Carlos A Robles-Rubio, Lajos Kovacs, Sanjay Chawla, Martin Keszler, Doina Precup, Karen Brown, Robert E Kearney, Guilherme M Sant'Anna
BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm infants (≤ 28 weeks gestation) commonly require endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation (MV) to maintain adequate oxygenation and gas exchange. Given that MV is independently associated with important adverse outcomes, efforts should be made to limit its duration. However, current methods for determining extubation readiness are inaccurate and a significant number of infants fail extubation and require reintubation, an intervention that may be associated with increased morbidities...
July 17, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715797/neurodevelopment-at-3-years-in-neonates-born-by-vaginal-delivery-versus-cesarean-section-at-26-weeks-of-gestation-retrospective-analysis-of-a-nationwide-registry-in-japan
#7
Takeshi Kimura, Masato Takeuchi, Takumi Imai, Shiro Tanaka, Koji Kawakami
BACKGROUND: A high proportion of extremely preterm (EPT) infants are born by cesarean section (CS). However, whether the mode of delivery is related to long-term neurodevelopment in these infants is unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether the mode of delivery is associated with mortality and long-term outcomes in EPT infants. METHODS: We analyzed data of the Neonatal Research Network in Japan (NRNJ), a population-based, nationwide registry...
July 14, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714605/epigenetic-alterations-and-prenatal-maternal-depression
#8
REVIEW
Zsofia Nemoda, Moshe Szyf
Major depressive disorder of the mother affects 6 to 17% of pregnancies worldwide and can lead to negative outcomes, such as preterm delivery and later mental health problems of the child. It has been proposed that developmental programming has long-lasting effects in the offspring that might be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation. Altered stress regulation or impaired immunological function of the mother can potentially affect DNA methylation processes of the fetus, changing gene expression levels in utero...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714339/inhaled-and-systemic-steroid-exposure-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-of-preterm-neonates
#9
Edmond N Kelly, Vibhuti S Shah, Jody Levenbach, Michael Vincer, Orlando DaSilva, Prakesh S Shah
OBJECTIVES: To compare death and/or neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants exposed to inhaled and/or systemic steroids with those without exposure, and examine the impact of timing of exposure. METHODS: Retrospective study of infants born <29 weeks gestation and assessed at 18-21 months corrected age (CA). Neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) was defined as any Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (BSID-III) score <85, cerebral palsy ≥ grade one, and visual or hearing impairment...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711318/procalcitonin-guided-decision-making-for-duration-of-antibiotic-therapy-in-neonates-with-suspected-early-onset-sepsis-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-neopins
#10
Martin Stocker, Wendy van Herk, Salhab El Helou, Sourabh Dutta, Matteo S Fontana, Frank A B A Schuerman, Rita K van den Tooren-de Groot, Jantien W Wieringa, Jan Janota, Laura H van der Meer-Kappelle, Rob Moonen, Sintha D Sie, Esther de Vries, Albertine E Donker, Urs Zimmerman, Luregn J Schlapbach, Amerik C de Mol, Angelique Hoffman-Haringsma, Madan Roy, Maren Tomaske, René F Kornelisse, Juliette van Gijsel, Eline G Visser, Sten P Willemsen, Annemarie M C van Rossum
BACKGROUND: Up to 7% of term and late-preterm neonates in high-income countries receive antibiotics during the first 3 days of life because of suspected early-onset sepsis. The prevalence of culture-proven early-onset sepsis is 0·1% or less in high-income countries, suggesting substantial overtreatment. We assess whether procalcitonin-guided decision making for suspected early-onset sepsis can safely reduce the duration of antibiotic treatment. METHODS: We did this randomised controlled intervention trial in Dutch (n=11), Swiss (n=4), Canadian (n=2), and Czech (n=1) hospitals...
July 12, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711233/review-of-sleep-eeg-in-preterm-and-term-neonates
#11
Anneleen Dereymaeker, Kirubin Pillay, Jan Vervisch, Maarten De Vos, Sabine Van Huffel, Katrien Jansen, Gunnar Naulaers
Neonatal sleep is a crucial state that involves endogenous driven brain activity, important for neuronal survival and guidance of brain networks. Sequential EEG-sleep analysis in preterm infants provides insights into functional brain integrity and can document deviations of the biologically pre-programmed process of sleep ontogenesis during the neonatal period. Visual assessment of neonatal sleep-EEG, with integration of both cerebral and non-cerebral measures to better define neonatal state, is still considered the gold standard...
July 12, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710882/mid-trimester-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes-pprom-etiology-diagnosis-classification-international-recommendations-of-treatment-options-and-outcome
#12
REVIEW
Michael Tchirikov, Natalia Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, James Maher, Jörg Buchmann, Yuri Naberezhnev, Andreas S Winarno, Gregor Seliger
Mid-trimester preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), defined as rupture of fetal membranes prior to 28 weeks of gestation, complicates approximately 0.4%-0.7% of all pregnancies. This condition is associated with a very high neonatal mortality rate as well as an increased risk of long- and short-term severe neonatal morbidity. The causes of the mid-trimester PPROM are multifactorial. Altered membrane morphology including marked swelling and disruption of the collagen network which is seen with PPROM can be triggered by bacterial products or/and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709451/comparing-very-low-birth-weight-versus-very-low-gestation-cohort-methods-for-outcome-analysis-of-high-risk-preterm-infants
#13
Louise Im Koller-Smith, Prakesh S Shah, Xiang Y Ye, Gunnar Sjörs, Yueping A Wang, Sharon S W Chow, Brian A Darlow, Shoo K Lee, Stellan Håkanson, Kei Lui
BACKGROUND: Compared to very low gestational age (<32 weeks, VLGA) cohorts, very low birth weight (<1500 g; VLBW) cohorts are more prone to selection bias toward small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants, which may impact upon the validity of data for benchmarking purposes. METHOD: Data from all VLGA or VLBW infants admitted in the 3 Networks between 2008 and 2011 were used. Two-thirds of each network cohort was randomly selected to develop prediction models for mortality and composite adverse outcome (CAO: mortality or cerebral injuries, chronic lung disease, severe retinopathy or necrotizing enterocolitis) and the remaining for internal validation...
July 14, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704824/the-impact-of-low-grade-germinal-matrix-intraventricular-hemorrhage-on-neurodevelopmental-outcome-of-very-preterm-infants
#14
Pauline Reubsaet, Annemieke J Brouwer, Ingrid C van Haastert, Margaretha J Brouwer, Corine Koopman, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries
BACKGROUND: Very preterm infants often show germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) on cranial ultrasound (cUS). AIM: To determine the impact of low-grade GMH-IVH on early neurodevelopmental outcome in very preterm infants. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study in very preterm infants with and without low-grade GMH-IVH on cUS. Additional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was available in all infants with a gestational age (GA) <28 weeks and high-risk infants >28 weeks...
July 14, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704816/short-versus-extended-duration-of-trophic-feeding-to-reduce-time-to-achieve-full-enteral-feeding-in-extremely-preterm-infants-an-observational-study
#15
Ariel A Salas, Nazia Kabani, Colm P Travers, Vivien Phillips, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Wally A Carlo
BACKGROUND: Trophic feeding compared to no enteral feeding prevents atrophy of the gastrointestinal tract. However, the practice of extending the duration of trophic feeding often delays initiation of full enteral feeding in extremely preterm infants. We hypothesized that a short duration of trophic feeding (3 days or less) is associated with early initiation of full enteral feeding. METHODS: A total of 192 extremely preterm infants (23-28 weeks' gestation) born between 2013 and 2015 were included...
July 14, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700568/neonatal-basal-ganglia-and-thalamic-volumes-very-preterm-birth-and-7-year-neurodevelopmental-outcomes
#16
Wai Yen Loh, Peter J Anderson, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Alicia J Spittle, Jian Chen, Katherine J Lee, Charlotte Molesworth, Terrie E Inder, A Connelly, Lex W Doyle, Deanne K Thompson
BACKGROUND: This study aims to (1) compare volumes of individual basal ganglia nuclei (caudate nucleus, pallidum, putamen) and the thalamus between very preterm (VP) and term-born infants at term-equivalent age; (2) explore neonatal basal ganglia and thalamic volume relationships with 7-year neurodevelopmental outcomes, and whether these relationships differed between VP and term-born children. METHODS: 210 VP (<30 weeks' gestational age) and 39 term-born (≥37 weeks' gestational age) infants underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging at term-equivalent age, and deep grey matter volumes of interest were automatically generated...
July 12, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699378/reasons-for-cesarean-and-medically-indicated-deliveries-in-pregnancies-in-women-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#17
A M Eudy, M Jayasundara, T Haroun, L Neil, A H James, M E B Clowse
Objective To determine reasons for cesarean and medically indicated deliveries in a registry of pregnant women with SLE compared to RA. Methods Pregnant women with SLE or RA were prospectively followed, and pregnancy outcomes were collected, including whether labor was spontaneous or medically indicated and delivery was vaginal or cesarean. Preterm birth was defined as a birth <37 weeks gestation. Differences in reasons for cesarean delivery and indication of delivery between term and preterm births were determined by Fisher's exact test...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699168/intellectual-disability-in-children-aged-less-than-seven-years-born-moderately-and-late-preterm-compared-with-very-preterm-and-term-born-children-a-nationwide-birth-cohort-study
#18
M Hirvonen, R Ojala, P Korhonen, P Haataja, K Eriksson, K Rantanen, M Gissler, T Luukkaala, O Tammela
BACKGROUND: Prematurity has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of intellectual disability (ID). METHOD: The aim was to establish whether the prevalence of ID, defined as significant limitations in both intellectual (intelligence quotient below 70) and adaptive functioning among moderately preterm (MP; 32(+0) -33(+6)  weeks) and late preterm (LP; 34(+0) -36(+6)  weeks) infants, is increased compared with that in term infants (≥37(+0)  weeks)...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699095/maternal-education-gradients-in-infant-health-in-four-south-american-countries
#19
George L Wehby, Jorge S López-Camelo
Objective We investigate gradients (i.e. differences) in infant health outcomes by maternal education in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Venezuela and explore channels related to father's education, household labor outcomes, and maternal health, fertility, and use of prenatal services and technology. Methods We employ secondary interview and birth record data similarly collected across a network of birth hospitals from the early 1980s through 2011 within the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Anomalies (ECLAMC)...
July 11, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698268/effects-of-volume-guaranteed-ventilation-combined-with-two-different-modes-in-preterm-infants
#20
Sezin Unal, Ebru Ergenekon, Selma Aktas, Nilgun Altuntas, Serdar Beken, Ebru Kazanci, Ferit Kulali, Ozlem Gulbahar, Ibrahim M Hirfanoglu, Esra Onal, Canan Turkyilmaz, Esin Koc, Yildiz Atalay
BACKGROUND: Volume-controlled ventilation modes have been shown to reduce duration of mechanical ventilation, incidence of chronic lung disease, failure of primary mode of ventilation, hypocarbia, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, pneumothorax, and periventricular leukomalacia in preterm infants when compared with pressure limited ventilation modes. Volume-guarantee (VG) ventilation is the most commonly used mode for volume-controlled ventilation. Assist control, pressure-support ventilation (PSV), and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) can be combined with VG; however, there is a lack of knowledge on the superiority of each regarding clinical outcomes...
July 11, 2017: Respiratory Care
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