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Preterm infant outcomes

Tamás Hajdu, Gábor Hajdu
In 2012, smoking restrictions were extended to hospitality venues in Hungary. Women working in bars and restaurants were primarily affected by the intervention. In this research, we analyze the effect of this smoking ban on the outcomes of their pregnancies. Using individual live birth, fetal loss, and infant mortality registry data, we examine the probability of live birth, indicators of health at birth, and the probability of death in the first year of life. We apply a difference-in-differences framework and show that the smoking ban has improved health at birth...
June 13, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
L Gui, S Loukas, F Lazeyras, P S Hüppi, D E Meskaldji, C Borradori Tolsa
Premature birth has been associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the relation between such outcomes and brain growth in the neonatal period has not yet been fully elucidated. This study investigates longitudinal brain development between birth and term-equivalent age (TEA) by quantitative imaging in a cohort of premature infants born between 26 and 36 weeks gestational age (GA), to provide insight into the relation of brain growth with later neurodevelopmental outcomes. Longitudinal T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 84 prematurely born infants acquired shortly after birth and TEA were automatically segmented into cortical gray matter (CGM), unmyelinated white matter (UWM), subcortical gray matter (SGM), cerebellum (CB) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
June 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Anne M Plomgaard, Thomas Alderliesten, Frank van Bel, Manon Benders, Olivier Claris, Malaika Cordeiro, Eugene Dempsey, Monica Fumagalli, Christian Gluud, Simon Hyttel-Sorensen, Petra Lemmers, Adelina Pellicer, Gerhard Pichler, Gorm Greisen
AIM: Cerebral hypoxia has been associated with neurodevelopmental impairment. We studied whether reducing cerebral hypoxia in extremely preterm infants during the first 72 hours of life affected neurological outcomes at two years of corrected age. METHODS: In 2012-2013 the phase II randomised Safeguarding the Brains of our Smallest Children trial compared visible cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) monitoring in an intervention group and blinded NIRS monitoring in a control group...
June 16, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Jinglan Huang, Li Zhang, Jun Tang, Jing Shi, Yi Qu, Tao Xiong, Dezhi Mu
OBJECTIVE: To summarise current evidence evaluating the effects of human milk on the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. DESIGN: We searched for studies on human milk and BPD in English and Chinese databases on 26 July 2017. Furthermore, the references of included studies were also screened. The inclusion criteria in this meta-analysis were the following: (1) preterm infants (<37 weeks); (2) human milk; (3) comparing with formula feeding; (4) the outcome included BPD; and (5) the type of study was randomised controlled trial (RCT) or cohort study...
June 15, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Erik A Jensen, Elizabeth E Foglia, Barbara Schmidt
The use of prophylactic indomethacin in very preterm infants is controversial. The last randomized controlled trial (RCT) to study this therapy enrolled infants over 20 years ago. More recently, observational studies have investigated the association between exposure to prophylactic indomethacin and neonatal morbidities and mortality. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of these studies for the outcomes of death and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Two observational studies involving a total of 11,289 very preterm infants were suitable for meta-analysis...
May 10, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Ruchika Goel, Cassandra D Josephson
Transfusions of red blood cells (RBCs), platelets, and plasma are critical therapies for infants and neonates (particularly preterm neonates) in the neonatal intensive care unit, who are the most frequently transfused subpopulation across all ages. Although traditionally a significant gap has existed between the blood utilization and the evidence base essential to adequately guide transfusion practices in infants and neonates, pediatric transfusion medicine is evolving from infancy and gradually coming of age...
2018: F1000Research
Benjamin Courchia, Waleed Kurtom, Alyssa Pensirikul, Teresa Del-Moral, Maria Buch
Neonatal seizures represent a significant health burden on the term and preterm neonatal population and are linked to poor long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Currently, there are no US Food and Drug Administration-approved antiepileptic drugs for neonates, and authors of the medical literature have yet to reach a consensus on the most adequate approach to neonatal seizures. Topiramate is readily used in the adult and older pediatric population for the management of migraines and partial-onset seizures. Topiramate continues to gain favor among pediatric neurologists who often recommend this medication as a third-line treatment of neonatal seizures...
June 14, 2018: Pediatrics
Walid El-Naggar, David Simpson, Arif Hussain, Anthony Armson, Linda Dodds, Andrew Warren, Robin Whyte, Douglas McMillan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether umbilical cord milking (UCM) at birth improves systemic blood flow and short-term outcomes, as compared with immediate cord clamping (ICC). DESIGN: Randomised clinical trial. SETTING: Single tertiary care centre. PATIENTS: Infants born to eligible women presenting in preterm labour between 24 and 31 weeks' gestation. INTERVENTIONS: UCM three times at birth or ICC...
June 14, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Jessica Christiano, John Flibotte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Enling Liu, Yuxiu Zhou
Objectives: This study aims to analyze the relationship between pregnancy and lupus, and explore the risk factors that adversely affect maternal and infant outcomes. Patients and methods: The pregnancy outcomes in 112 pregnant females (mean age 24.3±2.8 years; range 20 to 35 years) with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were retrospectively analyzed. Pregnancy outcomes before and after pregnancy were compared, and the associations with lupus nephritis, positive anti-Ro/SSA antibody, positive La/SSB antibody, complement 3 and complement 4, high blood pressure, positive anti- cardiolipin (aCL) antibody, Raynaud's phenomenon, and lupus recurrence were evaluated...
December 2017: Archives of Rheumatology
Debby P Utama, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Despite major advances in medical technology, the incidence of preterm birth remains high. The use of antenatal corticosteroid administered transplacentally, by intramuscular injection to women at risk of preterm birth, has reduced the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome and increased the survival rates of preterm infants. However, this intervention also comes with its own risks and side effects. Animal studies and early studies in pregnant women at risk of preterm birth have reported the use of an alternative route of administration, by direct intramuscular injection of corticosteroid into the fetus under ultrasound guidance, in an attempt to minimise the side-effect profile...
June 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Henry C Lee, Mihoko V Bennett, Margaret Crockett, Ruth Crowe, Steven G Gwiazdowski, Heather Keller, Paul Kurtin, Michael Kuzniewicz, Ann Marie Mazzeo, Joseph Schulman, Courtney C Nisbet, Paul J Sharek
BACKGROUND: There is unexplained variation in length of stay (LOS) across NICUs, suggesting that there may be practices that can optimize LOS. METHODS: Three groups of NICUs in the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative were followed: (1) collaborative centers participating in an 18-month collaborative quality improvement project to optimize LOS for preterm infants; (2) individual centers aiming to optimize LOS; and (3) nonparticipants. Our aim in the collaborative project was to decrease postmenstrual age (PMA) at discharge for infants born between 27 + 0 and <32 weeks' gestational age by 3 days...
June 13, 2018: Pediatrics
Xing-Wang Zhu, Yuan Shi, Li-Ping Shi, Ling Liu, Jiang Xue, Rangasamy Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is associated with the development of adverse pulmonary and non-pulmonary outcomes in very premature infants. Various modes of non-invasive respiratory support are increasingly being used to decrease the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The aim of this trial is to compare the effect of non-invasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (NHFOV) and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) as a primary non-invasive ventilation support mode...
June 14, 2018: Trials
Dustin D Flannery, Kevin Dysart, Alison Cook, Jay Greenspan, Zubair H Aghai, Erik A Jensen
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the independent association between antibiotic exposure in the first week of life and the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death among very preterm infants without culture-confirmed sepsis. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using the Optum Neonatal Database. Infants without culture-confirmed sepsis born less than 1500 g and less than 32 weeks gestation between 1/2010 and 11/2016 were included. The independent association between antibiotic therapy during the first week of life and BPD or death prior to 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) was assessed by multivariable logistic regression...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Karin Pichler, Benjamin Bausenhardt, Steliana Huhulescu, Claudia Lindtner, Alexander Indra, Franz Allerberger, Angelika Berger
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, anaerobic spore-forming, toxin-producing bacillus, which is one of the most common causes for health care-associated infections. High colonization rates in clinically asymptomatic neonates and infants have been described, although most studies go back to the early 1980 and 1990s, and were carried out in term and late preterm infants. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to determine both the impact and time course of C...
June 12, 2018: Neonatology
Qingqi Deng, Yao Zhang, Qiufang Li, Hua Wang, Xinfen Xu
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore factors that impact nurses' knowledge, perceptions, and practice related to kangaroo care (KC) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in China. BACKGROUND: It is recognized extensively that KC is an effective intervention for improving the outcomes of preterm infants and has been recommended as a routine practice for neonatal care. However, this practice is uncommon in China and little is known about neonatal nurses' knowledge and attitude...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Antti Holsti, Fredrik Serenius, Aijaz Farooqi
AIM: More infants born extremely preterm (EPT) are surviving, but major neonatal morbidities are consistently high. This study examined the impact of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), brain injuries and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) on adolescents who were born EPT. METHODS: We focused on EPT infants born at 23-25 weeks at the Swedish university hospitals in Uppsala and Umeå from January 1992 to December 1998. The poor outcome data covered 140/142 who survived to 36 weeks and the chronic conditions data reported by parents covered 132/134 still alive at 10-15 years...
June 11, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Yung-Taek Ouh, Jong Heon Park, Ki Hoon Ahn, Soon-Cheol Hong, Min-Jeong Oh, Hai-Joong Kim, Sung Won Han, Geum Joon Cho
Background: Although preterm delivery is the most common cause of infant morbidity and mortality, an obvious cause cannot be found in most cases. Preterm delivery is known to be the most important risk factor for preterm birth in a subsequent pregnancy. We aimed to evaluate the recurrence rate of premature births for subsequent pregnancies in women with a history of a preterm birth. Methods: Study data were collected from the Korea National Health Insurance (KNHI) claims database and data from a national health-screening program for infants and children...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Emily W Y Tam
Although preterm birth is best known to result in adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes through injury of the supratentorial structures, including intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia, the cerebellum has become increasingly recognized as an important target for injury and adverse motor and cognitive outcomes. Undergoing the most dramatic growth during the preterm period, the cerebellum is vulnerable to large and small hemorrhages, as well as hypoplasia resulting from a number of potentially modifiable risk factors...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
(no author information available yet)
In a multi-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT), we are assessing whether giving very preterm (i.e., born at < 32 weeks' gestation) infants prophylactic enteral bovine lactoferrin supplementation (150 mg/kg/day) from shortly after birth until 34 weeks' post-menstrual age reduces the incidence of late-onset invasive infection (primary outcome), all-cause mortality, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotising enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, and the duration of antibiotic exposure, intensive care, and hospital admission...
June 11, 2018: Neonatology
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