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venomous snake bite

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149409/translationally-controlled-tumor-protein-tctp-hrf-in-animal-venoms
#1
Andrea Senff-Ribeiro
Proteins from TCTP/HRF family were identified as venom toxins of spiders from different genus. We have found a TCTP toxin in the venom gland of Loxosceles intermedia, a venomous spider very common in South Brazil. TCTP from L. intermedia, named LiTCTP, was cloned, produced in a heterologous prokaryotic system, and the recombinant toxin was biochemically characterized. Our results point that LiTCTP is involved in the inflammatory events of Loxocelism, the clinical signs triggered after Loxosceles sp. bite, which include intense inflammatory reaction at the bite site followed by local necrosis...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111117/identification-of-b-cell-recognized-linear-epitopes-in-a-snake-venom-serine-proteinase-from-the-central-american-bushmaster-lachesis-stenophrys
#2
M Madrigal, A Alape-Girón, E Barboza-Arguedas, W Aguilar-Ulloa, M Flores-Díaz
Snake venom serine proteinases are toxins that perturb hemostasis acting on proteins from the blood coagulation cascade, the fibrinolytic or the kallikrein-kinin system. Despite the relevance of these enzymes in envenomations by viper bites, the characterization of the antibody response to these toxins at the molecular level has not been previously addressed. In this work surface-located B cell recognized linear epitopes from a Lachesis stenophrys venom serine proteinase (UniProt accession number Q072L7) were predicted using an artificial neuronal network at the ABCpred server, the corresponding peptides were synthesized and their immunoreactivity was analyzed against a panel of experimental and therapeutic antivenoms...
October 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102099/white-lipped-tree-viper-cryptelytrops-albolabris-envenomation-in-an-american-viper-keeper
#3
Spencer Greene, Laura Ann Galdamez, Richard Tomasheski
BACKGROUND: Snakebites are common in many regions of the United States. Bites from exotic species, however, are rare. The white-lipped tree viper, Cryptelytrops (formerly Trimeresurus) albolabris, is a pit viper native to Southeast Asia. Bites are common in countries such as Myanmar, India, Thailand, Indonesia, and China. In this report, we describe an envenomation in an American viper keeper. CASE REPORT: A healthy 28-year-old right-handed man who collects venomous snakes experienced a bite to the distal left thumb from a neonatal C...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082854/acute-myocardial-infarction-associated-with-thrombotic-microangiopathy-following-a-hump-nosed-viper-bite-a-case-report
#4
Nipun Lakshitha de Silva, Lalindra Gooneratne, Eranga Wijewickrama
BACKGROUND: Hump-nosed viper bite is the commonest cause of venomous snakebite in Sri Lanka. Despite initially being considered a moderately venomous snake more recent reports have revealed that it could cause significant systemic envenoming leading to coagulopathy and acute kidney injury. However, myocardial infarction was not reported except for a single case, which occurred immediately after the snakebite. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old previously healthy Sri Lankan woman had a hump-nosed viper bite with no evidence of systemic envenoming during initial hospital stay...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024773/an-improved-technique-for-the-assessment-of-venom-induced-haemorrhage-in-a-murine-model
#5
Timothy P Jenkins, Andrés Sánchez, Álvaro Segura, Mariángela Vargas, María Herrera, Trenton K Stewart, Guillermo León, José María Gutiérrez
Haemorrhage is a common clinical manifestation in envenomings caused by bites from snakes of the family Viperidae. Therefore, knowing the haemorrhagic potential of venoms and the capacity of antivenoms to neutralise this effect are of paramount relevance in toxinology. The most widely used method for quantifying haemorrhage involves the intradermal injection of venom (or a mixture of venom/antivenom) in mice, and the assessment of the resulting haemorrhagic area in the inner side of the skin. Although this method allows a straightforward assessment of the haemorrhagic activity of a venom, it does not account for haemorrhagic lesions having a similar area but differing in the depth and intensity of haemorrhage...
December 1, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975491/the-epidemiology-clinical-course-and-management-of-snakebites-in-the-north-american-snakebite-registry
#6
Anne-Michelle Ruha, Kurt C Kleinschmidt, Spencer Greene, Meghan B Spyres, Jeffrey Brent, Paul Wax, Angela Padilla-Jones, Sharan Campleman
The American College of Medical Toxicology established the North American Snakebite Registry (NASBR), a national database of detailed, prospectively collected information regarding snake envenomation in the United States, in 2013. This report describes the epidemiology, clinical course, and management of snakebites in the NASBR. All cases entered into the NASBR between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015 were identified. Descriptive statistics are used to report results. Fourteen sites in 10 states entered 450 snakebites...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920799/presumptive-pit-viper-envenomation-in-psittacines-in-a-brazilian-zoo
#7
Mathias Dislich, Peter Wohlsein, Anna Sophie Croukamp, Ulrich Neumann
Snake bites represent a serious public health risk in many regions of the globe, especially in tropical areas. Clinical signs and postmortem changes are well described in human and other mammalian species. However, detailed case reports about venomous snake attacks in avian species are limited. This report describes presumptive fatal envenomations in three psittacines caused by pit vipers in a Brazilian zoo. In one case, a Brazilian lancehead (Bothrops moojeni) was captured in the aviary. In all three cases the dermis around the suspected snake bite area exhibited hemorrhages and edema...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913414/diversity-of-aerobic-bacteria-isolated-from-oral-and-cloacal-cavities-from-free-living-snakes-species-in-costa-rica-rainforest
#8
Allan Artavia-León, Ariel Romero-Guerrero, Carolina Sancho-Blanco, Norman Rojas, Rodolfo Umaña-Castro
Costa Rica has a significant number of snakebites per year and bacterial infections are often complications in these animal bites. Hereby, this study aims to identify, characterize, and report the diversity of the bacterial community in the oral and cloacal cavities of venomous and nonvenomous snakes found in wildlife in Costa Rica. The snakes where captured by casual encounter search between August and November of 2014 in the Quebrada González sector, in Braulio Carrillo National Park. A total of 120 swabs, oral and cloacal, were taken from 16 individuals of the Viperidae and Colubridae families...
2017: International Scholarly Research Notices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878925/severe-japanese-mamushi-gloydius-blomhoffii-bite
#9
Ezekiel Wong Toh Yoon, Yuichiro Otani, Syu Kabuto
Venomous snake bites can be life threatening, occasionally requiring intensive care. For Mamushi bites, conservative treatment may be possible in mild cases but for severe cases or in cases where symptoms do not improve, a horse-derived antivenom is indicated.
September 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876572/haemoperitoneum-secondary-to-snake-bite
#10
S Rahim
BACKGROUND: Literature supports that very rarely the venom of "Hemotoxic Snake" (Russell's Vipers) affect haemostasis by secreting thrombin-like enzyme which promotes formation of unstable clots. Such clots could lead to fibrin deposition in micro circulation that in turn consume platelets and coagulation factors (consumption coagulopathy). Clinical presentation is mainly spontaneous bleeding and coagulopathy. In this case the significant effects of altered coagulation were observed in retropetitoneum and the patient presented in casuality as acute abdomen...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842354/fatal-stroke-after-bothrops-snakebite-in-the-amazonas-state-brazil-a-case-report
#11
Sâmella Silva de Oliveira, Luciana Aparecida Freitas-de-Sousa, Eliane Campos Alves, Luiz Carlos de Lima Ferreira, Iran Mendonça da Silva, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de Lacerda, Hui Wen Fan, Ana Maria Moura-da-Silva, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
Bothrops atrox is the snake responsible for the majority of snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon. Patients generally evolve to local manifestations such as edema, pain and ecchymoses. Systemic effects of B. atrox venom are usually restricted to blood incoagulability and spontaneous bleeding. However, in a few cases, bleeding in the central nervous system may occur, which can lead to sequels and deaths. Here, we report a case of a 59 year-old woman who presented edema, pain and ecchymoses on the right foot, headache, nausea, diarrhea, hypertension and blood incoagulability after the bite by Bothrops snake in the Brazilian Amazon...
November 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831315/an-unexpected-case-of-black-mamba-dendroaspis-polylepis-bite-in-switzerland
#12
Verena Quarch, Lukas Brander, Luca Cioccari
Mambas (genus Dendroaspis) are among the most feared venomous African snakes. Without medical treatment, mamba bites are frequently fatal. First-aid treatment includes lymphatic retardation with the pressure immobilization technique. Medical management comprises continuous monitoring, securing patency of the airway, ensuring adequate ventilation, symptomatic measures, and administration of specific antivenin. We report an unusual case of a snake breeder bitten by a black mamba in Switzerland, report the clinical course, and review the lifesaving emergency management of mamba bites...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830630/false-positive-immunoassay-for-acetyl-choline-receptor-antibody-achr-ab-in-patients-exposed-to-polyvalent-antisnake-venom
#13
Kaushik Sundar, Shankar Venkatasubramanian, Sundar Shanmugam, Preetam Arthur, Ramakrishnan Subbaraya, Philo Hazeena
Acute flaccid paralysis is a neuromuscular emergency characterized by rapidly worsening weakness that evolves quickly to cause diaphragmatic failure. The challenge for the treating physician is to stabilize the patient, generate the differential diagnosis and determine the management; all in quick time. Neurotoxic snake bites have inadequate signs of inflammation and are easily missed. Myasthenic crisis, on the other hand, could be the first sign of myasthenia gravis in up to 20% of patients. Both present with acute respiratory failure and inadequate history...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799310/venomous-snake-bite-in-india-why-do-50-000-indians-die-every-year
#14
Jaideep C Menon, Joseph K Joseph, Romulus E Whitaker
Snakebite is an occupational hazard causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly so in tropical countries like India. An estimated 50,000 Indians die due to venomous snakebite every year, seventy percent of whom are males between the ages of 20 to 50 years. Along with the associated morbidity and mortality, snakebite leads to a significant financial burden on the victim, both by way of hospital bills and labour hours lost. Snakebite is also a cause for considerable psychological stress among survivors...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768797/has-snake-fang-evolution-lost-its-bite-new-insights-from-a-structural-mechanics-viewpoint
#15
Chris Broeckhoven, Anton du Plessis
Venomous snakes-the pinnacle of snake evolution-are characterized by their possession of venom-conducting fangs ranging from grooved phenotypes characterizing multiple lineages of rear-fanged taxa to tubular phenotypes present in elapids, viperids and atractaspidines. Despite extensive research, controversy still exists on the selective pressures involved in fang phenotype diversification. Here, we test the hypothesis that larger fangs and consequently a shift to an anterior position in the maxilla evolved to compensate for the costs of structural changes, i...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764620/the-australian-snakebite-project-2005-2015-asp-20
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Christopher I Johnston, Nicole M Ryan, Colin B Page, Nicholas A Buckley, Simon Ga Brown, Margaret A O'Leary, Geoffrey K Isbister
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology, treatment and adverse events after snakebite in Australia. DESIGN: Prospective, multicentre study of data on patients with snakebites recruited to the Australian Snakebite Project (2005-2015) and data from the National Coronial Information System. Setting, participants: Patients presenting to Australian hospitals with suspected or confirmed snakebites from July 2005 to June 2015 and consenting to participation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic data, circumstances of bites, clinical effects of envenoming, results of laboratory investigations and snake venom detection kit (SVDK) testing, antivenom treatment and adverse reactions, time to discharge, deaths...
August 7, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764224/paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-due-to-venomous-snake-bite
#17
Samarth Virmani, Rama Bhat, Raghavendra Rao, Raahat Kapur, Savio Dsouza
Snake bites are common all around the world with a great prevalence in South Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Although they are associated with common complications such as local swelling, bleeding at site of bite, coagulopathy, etc., few rare cardiac complications such as myocardial infarctions and arrhythmias have also been described in literature. The following is a case report of a patient who had a snake bite with a Russell's viper which resulted in atrial fibrillation, which resolved on treatment with anti snake venom...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735968/epidemiology-and-clinical-features-of-green-pit-viper-trimeresurus-trigonocephalus-envenoming-in-sri-lanka
#18
R M M K Namal Rathnayaka, P E A N Ranathunga, S A M Kularatne
Green pit viper is a venomous endemic snake in Sri Lanka. But little is known regarding its envenoming in the country. This study was carried out in order to find out epidemiology and clinical profile of its bites. A series of 17 patients with Sri Lankan Green pit viper (Trimeresurus trigonocephalus) bites was prospectively studied over 4 years. The mean age was 36 ½ years (range 12-61 years) and comprised 14 (82%) males. Except one case, all bites occurred during day time (0600 h-1800 h) due to inadvertent provocation...
July 21, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726133/iron-protects-porcine-plasma-coagulation-kinetics-from-degradation-by-crotalus-atrox-venom
#19
Christine S Olver, Vance G Nielsen
While the administration of antivenom to treat hemotoxic snake bite injury remains the gold standard of therapy, we have demonstrated that modifying human fibrinogen with iron and carbon monoxide renders it resistant to fibrinogenolytic snake venom enzymes. In order to translate these findings into a possible biometal-based therapy complementary to antivenom administration, a preclinical model that possesses fibrinogen that closely mimics the human molecule in response to iron and carbon monoxide needed to be identified...
October 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698056/daboia-vipera-palaestinae-envenomation-in-horses-clinical-and-hematological-signs-risk-factors-for-mortality-and-construction-of-a-novel-severity-scoring-system
#20
Sharon Tirosh-Levy, Reut Solomovich, Judith Comte, Gila A Sutton, Amir Steinman
Daboia palaestinae is the most common venomous snake in Israel and an important cause of envenomations in humans and animals. Although specific antivenom is produced from horses, little documentation exists regarding the characteristics of envenomed horses. This survey was constructed to describe the clinical, hematological and biochemical characteristics of D. palaestinae envenomation in horses, to identify risk factors for fatality and to construct a prognostic snakebite severity scale (SSS) to be used by veterinarians in the field...
July 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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