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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062164/two-rare-case-reports-of-confirmed-ceylon-krait-bungarus-ceylonicus-envenoming-in-sri-lanka
#1
R M M K Namal Rathnayaka, S A M Kularatne, K D M Kumarasinghe, K Jeganadan, P E A Nishanthi Ranathunga
The Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus) is a deadly venomous elapid snake endemic to Sri Lanka. Its habitat is mainly in the wet zone of the island. Despite its frequent encounters in and near human dwellings, reports of envenoming are rare and limited to four in the literature. The first and last fatal reports envenoming by B. ceylonicus was in 1993. After over two decades, we report two confirmed cases of B. ceylonicus bites-one a dry bite and the other with signs and symptoms of moderate envenoming. The envenoming occurred at night while the victim was asleep, causing tightness in the chest and dyspnoea on waking up, followed by neuromuscular paralysis that did not cause respiratory failure and complete recovery was observed three days following the bite...
January 3, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042812/snake-venom-metalloproteinases-and-their-peptide-inhibitors-from-myanmar-russell-s-viper-venom
#2
Khin Than Yee, Morgan Pitts, Pumipat Tongyoo, Ponlapat Rojnuckarin, Mark C Wilkinson
Russell's viper bites are potentially fatal from severe bleeding, renal failure and capillary leakage. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are attributed to these effects. In addition to specific antivenom therapy, endogenous inhibitors from snakes are of interest in studies of new treatment modalities for neutralization of the effect of toxins. Two major snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs): RVV-X and Daborhagin were purified from Myanmar Russell's viper venom using a new purification strategy. Using the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach to explore the Myanmar RV venom gland transcriptome, mRNAs of novel tripeptide SVMP inhibitors (SVMPIs) were discovered...
December 30, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940763/childhood-victims-of-snakebites-2000-2013
#3
Joann Schulte, Kristina Domanski, Eric Anthony Smith, Annelle Menendez, Kurt C Kleinschmidt, Brett A Roth
BACKGROUND: Snakebites are not a reportable condition (to state health departments), and 1 major assessment of US children with snakebites was published 50 years ago. Increasing urbanization, population shifts south and west, newer antivenom therapy, and the importation of exotic snakes may have changed snakebites. Poison control centers are often consulted on treatment and collect surveillance data. METHODS: Generic codes for venomous, nonvenomous, and unknown snakebites were used to characterize victims aged ≤18 years reported to US poison control centers between 2000 and 2013...
November 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936776/unraveling-the-proteome-composition-and-immuno-profiling-of-western-india-russell-s-viper-venom-for-in-depth-understanding-of-its-pharmacological-properties-clinical-manifestations-and-effective-antivenom-treatment
#4
Bhargab Kalita, Aparup Patra, Ashis K Mukherjee
The proteome composition of western India (WI) Russell's viper venom (RVV) was correlated with pharmacological properties and pathological manifestations of RV envenomation. Proteins in the 5-19 and 100-110 kDa mass ranges were the most predominate (∼35.1%) and least abundant (∼3.4%) components, respectively, of WI RVV. Non-reduced SDS-PAGE indicated the occurrence of multiple subunits, non-covalent oligomers, self-aggregation, and/or interactions among the RVV proteins. A total of 55 proteins belonging to 13 distinct snake venom families were unambiguously identified by ESI-LC-MS/MS analysis...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904261/the-north-south-divide-in-snake-bite-envenomation-in-india
#5
REVIEW
Vivek Chauhan, Suman Thakur
Snake bite envenomations are common in rural areas and the incidence peaks during monsoons in India. Prominent venomous species have been traditionally labeled as the 'big four' that includes Cobra, Krait, Russel's viper and Saw scaled viper. Systematic attempts for identification and classification of prevalent snakes in various states of India are missing till now and there is no concrete data on this aspect. The published literature however shows that some species of snakes are more prevalent in a particular region than the other parts of India e...
October 2016: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903075/australian-taipan-oxyuranus-spp-envenoming-clinical-effects-and-potential-benefits-of-early-antivenom-therapy-australian-snakebite-project-asp-25
#6
Christopher I Johnston, Nicole M Ryan, Margaret A O'Leary, Simon G A Brown, Geoffrey K Isbister
CONTEXT: Taipans (Oxyuranus spp.) are medically important venomous snakes from Australia and Papua New Guinea. The objective of this study was to describe taipan envenoming in Australian and its response to antivenom. METHODS: Confirmed taipan bites were recruited from the Australian Snakebite Project. Data were collected prospectively on all snakebites, including patient demographics, bite circumstances, clinical effects, laboratory results, complications and treatment...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902669/an-anaphylactoid-reaction-to-rattlesnake-envenomation-in-a-pediatric-patient
#7
Logan Rencher, Joanna Schwartz, Alexandra Wilson
Rattlesnake envenomation causes a spectrum of symptoms and signs, many of which closely resemble an anaphylactic reaction. Development of airway compromise after a snake bite to an extremity is unusual, but has been previously reported. The majority of such reports detail a history of probable sensitization from previous contact with snakes or snake venom. Few reports exist without such previous contact; no reports are of pediatric cases. Here we present a 14-year-old boy with no history of prior snake exposure who presents with an anaphylactoid reaction after a rattlesnake bite...
November 29, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888371/protective-effect-of-the-sulfated-agaran-isolated-from-the-red-seaweed-laurencia-aldingensis-against-toxic-effects-of-the-venom-of-the-snake-lachesis-muta
#8
Ana Cláudia Rodrigues da Silva, Luciana Garcia Ferreira, Maria Eugênia Rabello Duarte, Mutue Toyota Fujii, Eladio Flores Sanchez, Miguel Daniel Noseda, André Lopes Fuly
Snakebite is a serious occupational hazard affecting mainly rural populations of tropical and subtropical developing countries. Lachesis muta (Bushmaster) bites are extremely serious but are rarely reported in the literature. Bushmaster envenomings are characterized by intense local pain, edema, neurotoxicity, hypotension, local hemorrhage, and dramatic systemic alterations. Antivenom treatment has regularly been used for more than a century; however, it fails to neutralize local tissue damage and hemorrhage, leading to morbidity or disabilities in victims...
November 25, 2016: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871786/ischemic-brain-infarcts-and-intracranial-haemorrhages-following-russell-s-viper-daboia-russelii-bite-in-sri-lanka
#9
R M M K Namal Rathnayaka, S A M Kularatne, K D M Kumarasinghe, Janaka Ranaweera, P E A Nishanthi Ranathunga
Snakebite is an important medical problem in Sri Lanka. Of the deadly venomous snakes, Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) is widely distributed and responsible for most of the fatalities of snakebite in the country. It is not uncommon to see atypical manifestations in Russell's viper bite. We report the events of intracranial haemorrhages and multiple ischemic brain infarcts following Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) bite of a previously healthy 43-years-old male who succumbed to envenoming.
January 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867095/identification-of-snake-venom-allergens-by-two-dimensional-electrophoresis-followed-by-immunoblotting
#10
Yujing Hu, Liming Yang, Haiwei Yang, Shaoheng He, Ji-Fu Wei
This allergic reaction to snake venom was described to occur in patients after recurrent exposure through bites in amateur and professional snake handlers, which might be underestimated and contribute to fatal snakebites in victim, independently from the toxicity of the venom itself. Few allergens were identified from snake venoms by normal SDS-PAGE, which cannot separate the snake venom completely. In the present study, we identified nine potential allergens by two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting (named as allergenomics) in Protobothrops mucrosquamatus venom...
January 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843867/ornament-induced-complications-in-snake-bites-revisiting-the-do-it-right-approach
#11
Subhendu Mallik, Sudipta Ranjan Singh, Sangeeta Sahoo, Manoj Kumar Mohanty
Limb adorning ornaments (LAO) can exacerbate the local effects of envenoming in case of venomous snake bite. Cultural presuppositions do inhibit victims from removing symbolically/ritually important jewelry even under circumstances that might increase the dangers of envenoming-induced gangrene formation. The recommendation to remove the LAO is usually skipped in guidelines and if at all included the very real hazard is uncommonly documented. We observed 14 cases of snake bite with LAO on the bitten limb with minimal to severe local complications...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842799/safe-handling-of-snakes-in-an-ed-setting
#12
Melanie Cockrell, Kristofer Swanson, April Sanders, Samuel Prater, Toni von Wenckstern, JoAnn Mick
: Efforts to improve consistency in management of snakes and venomous snake bites in the emergency department (ED) can improve patient and staff safety and outcomes, as well as improve surveillance data accuracy. The emergency department at a large academic medical center identified an opportunity to implement a standardized process for snake disposal and identification to reduce staff risk exposure to snake venom from snakes patients brought with them to the ED. METHODS: A local snake consultation vendor and zoo Herpetologist assisted with development of a process for snake identification and disposal...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828850/case-report-acute-demyelinating-encephalomyelitis-following-viper-bite
#13
Anyi Xu, Renfei Shan, Daochao Huang, Jiajia Zhou, Anaswasseem Keenoo, Jie Qin
The most serious complications of the central nervous system that occur after venomous snake bite are intracranial hemorrhage and ischemic stroke.We present a rarely seen central nervous system complication, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, after a treated Deinagkistrodon's viper bite.On April 5, 2015, a 50-year-old male farmer was bitten on his right leg by a Deinagkistrodon's viper. The bite rendered the victim unconscious for 14 days, during which he was treated with tetanus toxoid and polyvalent antisnake venom...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826409/the-relaxant-effect-of-the-montivipera-bornmuelleri-snake-venom-on-vascular-contractility
#14
Claudine Accary, Souad Hraoui-Bloquet, Riyad Sadek, Asma Alameddine, Ziad Fajloun, Jean-Claude Desfontis, Yassine Mallem
Molecular richness of snake venoms is an important source of proteins and toxins with potent effects on the cardiovascular system. The alteration of the vascular system in the victim after a venomous snake bite is usually expressed by a significant decrease in blood pressure. Therefore, exploring snake venom to extract and characterize its biomolecules is of considerable medical interest, and formed the basis of this study. We assessed the potential of the venom of Montivipera bornmuelleri, a viper from Lebanon, to induce relaxant effect on isolated Wistar rat aorta via several mechanisms of action...
2016: Journal of Venom Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806970/snake-bite-mortality-in-children-beyond-bite-to-needle-time
#15
M P Jayakrishnan, M G Geeta, P Krishnakumar, T V Rajesh, Biju George
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical characteristics and predictors of mortality from snake bite envenomation in children. DESIGN: Prospective observational study with a one-group cohort design. SETTING: Paediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in South India. SUBJECTS: The study cohort consisted of 145 children (55 girls and 90 boys) <12 years of age with snake bite envenomation. METHODS: Demographic and clinical details were recorded in a semistructured pro forma...
November 2, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800086/snakebite-in-bedroom-kills-a-physician-in-cameroon-a-case-report
#16
Armand Nkwescheu, Leopold Cyriaque Donfack Mbasso, Franky Baonga Ba Pouth, Anastase Dzudie, Serge Clotaire Billong, Hermann Ngouakam, Joseph Le Doux Diffo, Hanny Eyongorock, Wilfred Mbacham
The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies snake bites as neglected public health problem affecting mostly tropical and subtropical countries. In Africa there are an estimated 1 million snake bites annually with about half needing a specific treatment. Women, children and farmers in poor rural communities in developing countries are the most affected. Case management of snake bites are not adequate in many health facilities in developing countries where personnel are not always abreast with the new developments in snake bite management and in addition, quite often the anti-venom serum is lacking...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774416/a-randomized-ethnomedicinal-survey-of-snakebite-treatment-in-southwestern-parts-of-bangladesh
#17
Md Nazmul Hasan, Nur Kabidul Azam, Md Nasir Ahmed, Akinori Hirashima
Snakebite is the single most important toxin-related injury, causing substantial mortality in many parts of the Africa, Asia and the Americas. Incidence of snakebite is usually recorded in young people engaged in active physical work in rural areas. The various plant parts used to treat snakebite included whole plant, leaves, barks, roots and seeds. Most bites in Bangladesh are recorded between May and October with highest number in June. Lower and upper limbs are most common sites of snakebite, but it may happen in other sites as well...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762105/clinical-profile-and-laboratory-parameters-in-1051-victims-of-snakebite-from-a-single-centre-in-kerala-south-india
#18
J C Menon, J K Joseph, M P Jose, B L Dhananjaya, O V Oommen
INTRODUCTION: Snakebite is an occupational hazard causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly so in tropical countries like India. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to (i) review the demographic, clinical and laboratory findings in patients (1051) admitted with venomous snakebite (ii) to correlate mortality, morbidity and duration of hospital stay with clinical signs, symptoms and laboratory parameters. METHODS: A retrospective study of 1051 patients treated for snakebite over 10 years (2000 - 2009) in Little Flower Hospital, Angamaly, Kerala...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752013/transient-distal-renal-tubular-acidosis-following-hump-nosed-viper-bite-two-cases-from-sri-lanka
#19
Ranga M Weerakkody, Pushpa N Lokuliyana, Ruchika D Lanerolle
Hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale; HNV) is one of the six major snake species in Sri Lanka that cause envenomation. Nephrotoxicity, coagulopathy, and neurotoxicity are wellrecognized features of its envenomation. Type 4 renal tubular acidosis (RTA4) has only once been described previously in this condition, and we report two further cases. Two patients aged 53 and 51 presented following HNV bites with acute kidney injury and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Both underwent multiple cycles of hemodialysis until the polyuric phase was reached...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749906/the-treatment-of-snake-bites-in-a-first-aid-setting-a-systematic-review
#20
Bert Avau, Vere Borra, Philippe Vandekerckhove, Emmy De Buck
BACKGROUND: The worldwide burden of snakebite is high, especially in remote regions with lesser accessibility to professional healthcare. Therefore, adequate first aid for snakebite is of the utmost importance. A wide range of different first aid techniques have been described in literature, and are being used in practice. This systematic review aimed to summarize the best available evidence concerning effective and feasible first aid techniques for snakebite. METHODS: A systematic literature screening, performed independently by two authors in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and Embase resulted in 14 studies, fulfilling our predefined selection criteria, concerning first aid techniques for snakebite management...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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