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venomous snake bite

J C Menon, J K Joseph, M P Jose, B L Dhananjaya, O V Oommen
INTRODUCTION: Snakebite is an occupational hazard causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly so in tropical countries like India. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to (i) review the demographic, clinical and laboratory findings in patients (1051) admitted with venomous snakebite (ii) to correlate mortality, morbidity and duration of hospital stay with clinical signs, symptoms and laboratory parameters. METHODS: A retrospective study of 1051 patients treated for snakebite over 10 years (2000 - 2009) in Little Flower Hospital, Angamaly, Kerala...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Ranga M Weerakkody, Pushpa N Lokuliyana, Ruchika D Lanerolle
Hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale; HNV) is one of the six major snake species in Sri Lanka that cause envenomation. Nephrotoxicity, coagulopathy, and neurotoxicity are wellrecognized features of its envenomation. Type 4 renal tubular acidosis (RTA4) has only once been described previously in this condition, and we report two further cases. Two patients aged 53 and 51 presented following HNV bites with acute kidney injury and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Both underwent multiple cycles of hemodialysis until the polyuric phase was reached...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Bert Avau, Vere Borra, Philippe Vandekerckhove, Emmy De Buck
BACKGROUND: The worldwide burden of snakebite is high, especially in remote regions with lesser accessibility to professional healthcare. Therefore, adequate first aid for snakebite is of the utmost importance. A wide range of different first aid techniques have been described in literature, and are being used in practice. This systematic review aimed to summarize the best available evidence concerning effective and feasible first aid techniques for snakebite. METHODS: A systematic literature screening, performed independently by two authors in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and Embase resulted in 14 studies, fulfilling our predefined selection criteria, concerning first aid techniques for snakebite management...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ronelle E Welton, David J Williams, Danny Liew
BACKGROUND: This study provides the first contemporary epidemiological insight into venomous injuries based on demographics and geography in Australia in the timeframe 2000-2013. METHODS: Analysis of national hospitalisation and mortality data to examine the incidence of injury and death due to envenoming in Australia. Rates were calculated using the intercensal population for all Australian age groups. RESULTS: Over the study period, deaths were due to an anaphylactic event (0...
October 17, 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
Pramod Sagar Bk, Chanaveerappa Bammigatti, R P Swaminathan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Rupinder Sharma, Varundeep Dogra, Gurudutt Sharma, Vivek Chauhan
INTRODUCTION: In North India snake bite deaths are predominantly seen with neurotoxic envenomations (NEs) whereas in South India the hemotoxic envenomation (HE) is more common. Krait is responsible for most deaths in North India. It bites people sleeping on the floors, mostly at night. We describe the profile of venomous snake bites over 1 year in 2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in a rural tertiary care hospital in North India. Demographics, circumstances of bite, envenomation, first aid, delay, consultation, treatment, anti-venom, and outcomes were recorded for all victims of snake bite...
July 2016: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
Sayonara Ay More de Oliveira, Marta Regina Magalhães, Lilibete P de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos da Cunha
The crude venom of the snake Crotalus durissus collilineatus (CDC) promotes neurological signs and symptoms in accidents involving humans and animals and the victims reports analgesia at the bite site, without tissue destruction. Studies shows that CDC has analgesic activity, among others. The crude venom is considered unsuitable for therapeutic purposes, with encouragement to the fractionation and purification of the same. Thus, the aim with CDC venom is: to perform fractionation by preparative HPLC; to test the antinociceptive activity of fractions and acute toxicity of active fractions...
October 6, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
N D B Ehelepola, S M A N Samaranayake, B M L S Basnayake, C G K Amiyangoda, D M U C B Dhanapala, K L R Kalupahana
BACKGROUND: Snakebites cause considerable morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical countries even though existing treatment methods can prevent most deaths if presentation occurs early to hospitals. Envenomation by unidentified snakes is common in central Sri Lanka. Management of such patients is challenging especially if presentation is late. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report a case of a 52-year-old man from central Sri Lanka who presented late after being bitten by an unidentified snake...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Maria I Estevao-Costa, Silea S Gontijo, Barbara L Correia, Armando Yarleque, Dan Vivas-Ruiz, Edith Rodrigues, Carlos Chávez-Olortegui, Luciana S Oliveira, Eladio F Sanchez
Snakebite envenoming is a neglected public pathology, affecting especially rural communities or isolated areas of tropical and subtropical Latin American countries. The parenteral administration of antivenom is the mainstay and the only validated treatment of snake bite envenoming. Here, we assess the efficacy of polyspecific anti-Bothrops serum (α-BS) produced in the Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS, Peru) and at the Fundação Ezequiel Dias (FUNED, Brazil), to neutralize the main toxic activities induced by five medically-relevant venoms of: Bothrops atrox, B...
September 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Carlos Yañez-Arenas, Arturo Yañez-Arenas, Daly Martínez-Ortíz
No information has been yet published on the epidemiological panorama of snakebite in the state of Yucatan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the geographic and temporal patterns of this problem in the state. Snakebite data was obtained from the Program of Zoonosis of the Health Services of Yucatan between 2003 and 2012. A total of 821 snakebite cases and an incidence of 41.9 accidents/100,000 inhabitants were recorded during this period. The annual average cases and incidence were 82.1 and 4.1 (bites/100,000 inhabitants), respectively...
July 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
Carrie Arnold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nature
Gayane Kirakosyan, Maryam Mohamadvarzi, Lusine Ghulikyan, Naira Zaqaryan, Arsen Kishmiryan, Naira Ayvazyan
Snake bites are an endemic public health problem in Iran, both in rural and urban area. Viper venom as a hemolytic biochemical "cocktail" of toxins, primarily cause to the systemic alteration of blood cells. In the sixties and seventies, human erythrocytes were extensively studied, but the mechanical and chemical stresses commonly exerted on red blood cells continue to attract interest of scientists for the study of membrane structure and function. Here, we monitor the effect of Vipera latifi venom on human erythrocytes ghost membranes using phase contrast and fluorescent microscopy and changes in ATPase activity under snake venom influence in vitro...
August 21, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
R R Singh, Dharmendra Uraiya, Anoop Kumar, Neeraj Tripathi
AIMS: This study was conducted retrospectively to define early demographic and clinical predictors for acute kidney injury (AKI) among snake bite patients at the time of hospital admission. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 138 cases with a poisonous snake bite. Patients were classified into two groups according to the presence and absence of AKI. The data regarding clinical features and demographic profile of these patients were collected from the hospital records in a prestructured pro forma and statistically compared...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Tihana Kurtović, Miran Brvar, Damjan Grenc, Maja Lang Balija, Igor Križaj, Beata Halassy
Viperfav(TM) is a commercial F(ab')₂ antivenom prepared against European vipers venom. It is safe and effective for treating envenomation caused by Vipera aspis and Vipera berus. Therapeutic efficacy for treating Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (V. a. ammodytes) envenoming has not been yet described, although protective efficacy has been demonstrated in preclinical studies. We report on a 32-year-old man bitten by V. a. ammodytes who was treated with Viperfav™. Viperfav™ promptly reduced local extension and improved systemic pathological signs, but 24 h after the incident a recurrence of thrombocytopenia occurred despite a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with systemic clearance (1...
2016: Toxins
Vance G Nielsen, Philip A Losada
Since the introduction of antivenom administration over a century ago to treat venomous snake bite, it has been the most effective therapy for saving life and limb. However, this treatment is not always effective and not without potential life-threatening side effects. We tested a new paradigm to abrogate the plasmatic anticoagulant effects of fibrinogenolytic snake venom metalloproteinases by inhibiting these Zn(+2) -dependent enzymes directly with carbon monoxide exposure. Assessment of the fibrinogenolytic effects of venoms collected from the Arizona Black rattlesnake, Northern Pacific rattlesnake, Western cottonmouth, Eastern cottonmouth, Broad-banded copperhead and Southern copperhead on human plasmatic coagulation kinetics was performed with thrombelastography in vitro...
August 22, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Rodolfo Melaré, Rafael Stuani Floriano, Marta Gracia, Léa Rodrigues-Simioni, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling, Thalita Rocha
Bites by Bothrops snakes normally induce local pain, haemorrhage, oedema and myonecrosis. Mammalian isolated nerve-muscle preparations exposed to Bothrops venoms and their phospholipase A2 toxins (PLA2 ) can exhibit a neurotoxic pattern as increase in frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs) as well as in amplitude of end-plate potentials (EPPs); neuromuscular facilitation followed by complete and irreversible blockade without morphological evidence for muscle damage. In this work, we analysed the ultrastructural damage induced by Bothrops jararacussu and Bothrops bilineatus venoms and their PLA2 toxins (BthTX-I and Bbil-TX) in mouse isolated nerve-phrenic diaphragm preparations (PND)...
August 18, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin Asd, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Rouf Akram, Naeem Raza Khawaja, Saiqa Muneer, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Muhammad Saqib Khan, Ghulam Murtaza, Izhar Hussain
Present study was carried out regarding enzymatic assay for 5'-nucleotidase enzymes present in snake venom Naja naja karachiensis and to evaluate twenty eight medicinal plants as their antidotes. Elevated enzymatic activities i.e., 119, 183, 262 and 335 U/mL were observed in 10, 20, 30 and 40 µg of crude venom, respectively, in dose dependent manner. Among various plant extracts only two (Bauhinia vaiiegate L. and Citms linion (L.) Burm. f.) were found 94% effective at 160 µg to neutralize 112 U/mL activities (p 0...
May 2016: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
Desalew Mekonnen, Tadesse Mitiku, Yenesew Tamir, Aklilu Azazh
Snakebite is an important public health challenge. Venomous snake bites cause significant morbidity and mortality if treatment measures, especially antivenom therapy, are delayed. We did a case series of 27 adult patients admitted after snakebite to the medical wards of Gondar University Hospital (GUH) from September 2013 to August 2014. The age range was from 15 to 74 years. The male to female ratio was 8:1. The majority (25) of patients presented after 12 hours of being bitten. Most of the bites occurred on the legs...
April 2016: Ethiopian Medical Journal
T M Davidson, S F Schafer, M D Bracker
In brief: All rattlesnakes are venomous, but | they vary in degree of dangerousness. They also vary in length, color, and markings. Because they like warm weather, most of them live in the southern states, from California to Florida. Unfortunately, it is difficult to identify rattlesnakes, because harmless snakes share some of their characteristics. The primary purpose of the rattlesnake's venom is to obtain food; to a lesser extent it is used as a defensive tool. In offensive bites the volume of venom is well controlled, while in defensive bites it is not...
April 1989: Physician and Sportsmedicine
José P Prezotto-Neto, Louise F Kimura, André F Alves, José María Gutiérrez, Rafael Otero, Ana M Suárez, Marcelo L Santoro, Katia C Barbaro
Snakebites inflicted by the arboreal viperid snake Bothriechis schlegelii in humans are characterized by pain, edema, and ecchymosis at the site of the bite, rarely with blisters, local necrosis, or defibrination. Herein, a comparative study of Bothriechis schlegelii snake venoms from Colombia (BsCo) and Costa Rica (BsCR) was carried out in order to compare their main activities and to verify the efficacy of Bothrops antivenom produced in Brazil to neutralize them. Biochemical (SDS-PAGE and zymography) and biological parameters (edematogenic, lethal, hemorrhagic, nociceptive, and phospholipase A2 activities) induced by BsCo and BsCR snake venoms were evaluated...
July 19, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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