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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746978/clinical-studies-of-the-effectiveness-and-safety-of-antivenoms
#1
David J Williams, Abdulrazaq G Habib, David A Warrell
In the 1890s, hyperimmune sera proved effective in animals against challenge by the snake venom against which they had been raised. They were first used, apparently successfully, in a human patient in about 1895. Since then, antivenoms have become accepted as the only reliable specific treatment for snake-bite envenoming. Despite decades of accumulated clinical experience and a number of published randomised comparative and observational studies, the clinical effectiveness and safety of some antivenoms remain open to question, due to a lack of robust randomised controlled trial data...
May 7, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705149/assessment-of-the-potential-toxicological-hazard-of-the-green-parrot-snake-leptophis-ahaetulla-marginatus-characterization-of-its-venom-and-venom-delivery-system
#2
Matías N Sánchez, Gladys P Teibler, Carlos A López, Stephen P Mackessy, María E Peichoto
Snakes are the major group of venomous vertebrates, and the rear-fanged snakes represent the vast majority of species and occur worldwide; however, relatively few studies have characterized their venoms and evaluated their potential hazards for humans. Herein we explore the protein composition and properties of the venom of the rear-fanged Green Parrot Snake, Leptophis ahaetulla marginatus, the most common snake found in the Iguazu National Park (Argentina), as well as the main features of its venom delivery system...
April 26, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664034/incidence-prognosis-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-individuals-of-snakebite-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-india
#3
Ramulu Pulimaddi, Amruth Rao Parveda, Balkishan Brahmanpally, Paul Marx Kalakanda, K Ramakrishna, Venkata Ramana Devi Chinnapaka
Background & objectives: The snakebites are considered to be an occupational hazard in agriculture workers and the snake handlers, resulting in a considerable morbidity, mortality and economical implications. This study was conducted to determine the incidence, clinical presentation, renal injury and clinical outcome in snakebite victims who developed acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: This hospital-based prospective, observational study was done on 100 cases who were admitted for the management of snakebite and found to develop AKI in a tertiary care hospital at Hyderabad, India...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651298/true-or-false-coral-snake-is-it-worth-the-risk-a-micrurus-corallinus-case-report
#4
Marcelo Abrahão Strauch, Guilherme Jones Souza, Jordana Nahar Pereira, Tyelli Dos Santos Ramos, Marcelo Oliveira Cesar, Marcelo Amorim Tomaz, Marcos Monteiro-Machado, Fernando Chagas Patrão-Neto, Paulo A Melo
Background: Bites provoked by the genus Micrurus represent less than 1% of snakebite cases notified in Brazil, a tiny fraction compared with other genus such as Bothrops and Crotalus , which together represent almost 80% of accidents. In addition to their less aggressive behavior, habits and morphology of coral snakes are determinant factors for such low incidence of accidents. Although Micrurus bites are rare, victims must be rescued and hospitalized in a short period of time, because this type of envenoming may evolve to a progressive muscle weakness and acute respiratory failure...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626137/snakebites-in-africa-and-europe-a-military-perspective-and-update-for-contemporary-operations
#5
REVIEW
Daniel Wilkins, D S Burns, D Wilson, D A Warrell, L E M Lamb
Snakebite envenoming is rare among military patients, with few cases reported in recent years. Increasingly, however, military operations are taking place in remote parts of Africa, which are inhabited by numerous species of venomous snake, and in Europe, where dangerous species exist but are less common. Bites from a venomous snake may prove fatal, and therefore military medics must be adequately prepared to manage them. This paper reviews the most medically significant species of venomous snake present in Africa and Europe, before suggesting an evidence-based approach to snakebite prevention and management, including possible changes to the UK's Clinical Guidelines for Operations...
April 5, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625942/lethal-toxic-dose-i-p-ld50-total-protein-contents-and-comparative-hemolytic-potential-of-99mtc-labeled-non-labeled-naja-naja-karachiensis-venom
#6
Muhammad Hassham Bin Asad, Arooj Fatima Asad, Sumbal Bibi, Kaleem Ullah, Tariq Javed, Majeed Ullah, Atif Ali, Ziaur Rahman Qureshi, Muhammad Imran Amirzada, Yasser Msa Al-Kahraman, Syed Muhammad Farid Hasan, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Albert Rizvanov
Recent recognition about snake bite envenomation on June, 2017 as neglected tropical disease under category-A by World Health Organization advocated again its undeniable importance. Present circumstances reasoned to work on a neglected subspecies of Naja naja, i.e., Naja naja karachiensis (N. n. karachensis) has been documented for frequent deaths in Pakistan. In this study median lethal toxic dose (LD50 ) was determined intraperitoneally in Swiss albino mice and was found to be 2.0µg/g (2.0mg/kg) equal in potency to Naja pallida (red spitting African cobra)...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616641/snake-bites-by-bothrops-lanceolatus-in-martinique
#7
D Resiere, M Hossein, B Megarbane
Bothrops lanceolatus, a member of the Viperidae family and Crotalinae subfamily, is the only snake causing envenomation in Martinique, which is the only place it exists in the world. Any bite by this snake may result in severe thrombotic complications including cerebral, pulmonary, and myocardial infarction and affecting the patient's vital or functional prognosis. The exact composition of the venom as well as the mechanisms of toxicity involved are still debated today. The first specific antivenom immunotherapy (AVI), Bothrofav1, manufactured in 1991, reduced mortality and morbidity significantly...
February 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594003/snake-bite-in-third-trimester-of-pregnancy-with-systemic-envenomation-and-delivery-of-a-live-baby-in-a-low-resource-setting-a-case-report
#8
Adebayo A Adewole, Osadolor A Ugiagbe, Temitope G Onile, Gabriel A Joseph, Oluwamayowa D Kassim, Patricia F Medupin, Abiodun S Adeniran
Background: Snake bite in the third trimester of pregnancy with late presentation, systemic envenomation; disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and delivery of a live neonate is uncommon in a low resource setting. Case: We present a 22 year old unbooked Gravida 3 Para 1+ 1 1alive lentiviral positive woman at 32 weeks gestation with snake bite, leg swelling, vaginal bleeding and labour pains. At presentation, there were anemia, tachycardia, hypotension; a gravid uterus with a single fetus in longitudinal lie, cephalic presentation, regular fetal heart rate and cervical dilatation of 3 cm...
October 2017: Case Reports in Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572088/predictive-factors-for-death-after-snake-envenomation-in-myanmar
#9
Kyi-Phyu Aye, Vipa Thanachartwet, Chit Soe, Varunee Desakorn, Supat Chamnanchanunt, Duangjai Sahassananda, Thanom Supaporn, Visith Sitprija
INTRODUCTION: Factors predictive for death from snake envenomation vary between studies, possibly due to variation in host genetic factors and venom composition. This study aimed to evaluate predictive factors for death from snake envenomation in Myanmar. METHODS: A prospective study was performed among adult patients with snakebite admitted to tertiary hospitals in Yangon, Myanmar, from May 2015 to August 2016. Data including clinical variables and laboratory parameters, management, and outcomes were evaluated...
March 20, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567103/analysis-of-snake-venom-metalloproteinases-from-myanmar-russell-s-viper-transcriptome
#10
Khin Than Yee, Sissades Tongsima, Olga Vasieva, Chumpol Ngamphiw, Alisa Wilantho, Mark C Wilkinson, Poorichya Somparn, Trairak Pisitkun, Ponlapat Rojnuckarin
Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are the key enzymes in Russell's viper (RV) venom which target all important components of haemostasis, such as clotting factors, platelets, endothelial cells and basement membrane. The structural diversity of SVMPs contributes to the broad spectrum of biological activities. The aim of the study was to investigate the SVMP transcript profile to gain better insights into the characteristic clinical manifestations of the Myanmar Russell's viper (MRV) bites that distinguish it from the RVs of other habitats...
March 19, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547237/snakebite-poisoning-in-spain
#11
Cristina Martín-Sierra, Santiago Nogué-Xarau, Miguel Ángel Pinillos Echeverría, José Miguel Rey Pecharromán
Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.
2018: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462691/factor-x-activating-atractaspis-snake-venoms-and-the-relative-coagulotoxicity-neutralising-efficacy-of-african-antivenoms
#12
Brice Oulion, James S Dobson, Christina N Zdenek, Kevin Arbuckle, Callum Lister, Francisco C P Coimbra, Bianca Op den Brouw, Jordan Debono, Aymeric Rogalski, Aude Violette, Rudy Fourmy, Nathaniel Frank, Bryan G Fry
Atractaspis snake species are enigmatic in their natural history, and venom effects are correspondingly poorly described. Clinical reports are scarce but bites have been described as causing severe hypertension, profound local tissue damage leading to amputation, and deaths are on record. Clinical descriptions have largely concentrated upon tissue effects, and research efforts have focused upon the blood-pressure affecting sarafotoxins. However, coagulation disturbances suggestive of procoagulant functions have been reported in some clinical cases, yet this aspect has been uninvestigated...
May 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379986/ancient-diversification-of-three-finger-toxins-in-micrurus-coral-snakes
#13
Daniel Dashevsky, Bryan G Fry
Coral snakes, most notably the genus Micrurus, are the only terrestrial elapid snakes in the Americas. Elapid venoms are generally known for their potent neurotoxicity which is usually caused by Three-Finger Toxin (3FTx) proteins. These toxins can have a wide array of functions that have been characterized from the venom of other elapids. We examined publicly available sequences from Micrurus 3FTx to show that they belong to 8 monophyletic clades that diverged as deep in the 3FTx phylogenetic tree as the other clades with characterized functions...
January 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302018/injuries-and-envenomation-by-exotic-pets-in-hong-kong
#14
V Ch Ng, A Ch Lit, O F Wong, M L Tse, H T Fung
INTRODUCTION: Exotic pets are increasingly popular in Hong Kong and include fish, amphibians, reptiles, and arthropods. Some of these exotic animals are venomous and may cause injuries to and envenomation of their owners. The clinical experience of emergency physicians in the management of injuries and envenomation by these exotic animals is limited. We reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of injuries and envenomation by exotic pets recorded by the Hong Kong Poison Information Centre...
February 2018: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299445/the-management-of-a-blood-donor-bitten-by-a-snake
#15
REVIEW
Giuseppe Marano, Massimo Franchini, Liviana Catalano, Stefania Vaglio, Simonetta Pupella, Giancarlo M Liumbruno
The worldwide burden of snakebite is high and venomous snakes are found in many regions of the world and are a threat to public health. In Italy, for instance, viper bites are an infrequent but not negligible event. Although people who have been bitten by a snake rarely wish to donate blood within a "short" time, it is however important to evaluate their eligibility to donate blood or blood components as their donation could be a problem for donor management, especially if a specific policy is not in place...
December 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289802/epidemiological-profile-of-snake-bite-cases-from-haryana-a-five-year-2011-2015-retrospective-study
#16
Saurabh Bhargava, Ramanjeet Kaur, Rajvinder Singh
Varieties of venomous snakes inhabit in the world which accidentally take thousands of human lives every year. This severe medical emergency constantly persuades national and international health agencies to look at efficient epidemiological profiling of snake-bite cases for the proper management of this sympathetic problem. Establishing the accurate database of snake-bite in humans from different localities of India may perhaps lack certainty due to few inevitable reasons such as consideration of this problem as less emergent problem in disparity to pesticide poisoning, difficulty in the accessibility to rural and tribal areas where chances of snake-bite remain ceiling, lack of inspiring models of snake-bite management training, reduced reporting system, and pitiable maintenance of hospital data in India...
February 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285352/evidence-for-in-vitro-antiophidian-properties-of-aqueous-buds-extract-of-eucalyptus-against-montivipera-bornmuelleri-venom
#17
Joseph Khoury, Ranin Dabbousy, Riyad Sadek, Sayed Antoun, Walid Hleihel, Christian Legros, Ziad Fajloun
Because snake venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive molecules, snake bites produce a large panel of symptoms which cannot be totally prevented by current antivenoms. Thus investigating plant extracts for antivenomics therapy approaches seemed relevant. Here, we evaluated the potency of the aqueous Buds extract of Eucalyptus (ABEE) to counteract the main enzymatic activities of Montivipera bornmuelleri venom. We showed that ABEE efficiently counteracts the proteolytic, Phospholipases A2 (PLA2), and L-aminoacid oxidase activities (LAAO) of M...
2017: Journal of Venom Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279485/clinical-condition-and-management-of-114-mamushi-gloydius-blomhoffii-bites-in-a-general-hospital-in-japan
#18
Takahito Chiba, Hidenobu Koga, Nanae Kimura, Maho Murata, Shunichi Jinnai, Asako Suenaga, Futoshi Kohda, Masutaka Furue
Objective Mamushi (Gloydius blomhoffii) snakebite is the most common type of snake injury in Japan and is also seen in China and Korea. Although the components of Mamushi venom have been investigated, epidemiological and clinical descriptions still remain limited in the English literature. The aim of this study was to review the clinical features and management of patients with injuries related to Mamushi snakebites. Methods We conducted a retrospective examination of 114 Mamushi snakebite cases encountered at a general hospital in Japan from January 2004 to November 2016...
December 27, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234603/a-retrospective-study-of-clinico-epidemiological-profile-of-snakebite-related-deaths-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-midnapore-west-bengal-india
#19
Rituparna Ghosh, Koushik Mana, Kripasindhu Gantait, Sumana Sarkhel
Objective: Snakebite is one of the neglected tropical diseases that World Health Organization (WHO) aimed to eradicate. The objective of the study is to investigate the mortality and morbidity due to snakebite at Midnapore Medical College & Hospital in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal, India. Methods & materials: This is a record-based, retrospective, descriptive epidemiological study conducted from January 2012 to December 2016 at Midnapore Medical College and Hospital(MMCH), Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal...
2018: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207729/comparison-of-different-dosing-protocols-of-anti-snake-venom-asv-in-snake-bite-cases
#20
B R Daswani, A S Chandanwale, D B Kadam, B B Ghongane, V S Ghorpade, H C Manu
Introduction: Considering the cost of Anti-Snake Venom (ASV) and irregularity in its supply, there is often a need to curtail doses of ASV, despite guidelines for management of snake bite. During June 2013 to September 2013, when ASV was in short supply, our institutional committee reviewed the overall hospital statistics of snake bite cases as well as scientific literature and formulated a working modified protocol that used low dose of ASV in snake bite cases. Aim: To retrospectively analyse and compare the modified ASV protocol versus conventional ASV protocol with respect to outcome, number of ASV vials required, duration of stay in the hospital/ ICU, and additional supportive interventions needed...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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