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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439501/the-cell-biology-of-the-trichosporon-host-interaction
#1
REVIEW
Cláudio Duarte-Oliveira, Fernando Rodrigues, Samuel M Gonçalves, Gustavo H Goldman, Agostinho Carvalho, Cristina Cunha
Fungi of the genus Trichosporon are increasingly recognized as causative agents of superficial and invasive fungal disease in humans. Although most species are considered commensals of the human skin and gastrointestinal tract, these basidiomycetes are an increasing cause of fungal disease among immunocompromised hosts, such as hematological patients and solid organ transplant recipients. The initiation of commensal or pathogenic programs by Trichosporon spp. involves the adaptation to the host microenvironment and its immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438129/severe-type-1-upgrading-leprosy-reaction-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient-a-paradoxical-manifestation-associated-with-deficiency-of-antigen-specific-regulatory-t-cells
#2
Ana Paula Vieira, Maria Angela Bianconcini Trindade, Flávio Jota de Paula, Neusa Yurico Sakai-Valente, Alberto José da Silva Duarte, Francine Brambate Carvalhinho Lemos, Gil Benard
BACKGROUND: Due to its chronic subclinical course and large spectrum of manifestations, leprosy often represents a diagnostic challenge. Even with proper anti-mycobacteria treatment, leprosy follow up remains challenging: almost half of leprosy patients may develop reaction episodes. Leprosy is an infrequent complication of solid organ transplant recipients. This case report illustrates the challenges in diagnosing and managing leprosy and its reactional states in a transplant recipient...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435278/genetic-factors-in-pathogenesis-of-diabetes-mellitus-after-kidney-transplantation
#3
REVIEW
Maciej Tarnowski, Sylwia Słuczanowska-Głabowska, Andrzej Pawlik, Małgorzata Mazurek-Mochol, Elżbieta Dembowska
Posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is one of the major metabolic complications after transplantation of solid organs including the kidney. This type of diabetes mellitus affects allograft survival, cardiovascular complications and overall patient survival. The modifiable risk factors that contribute to PTDM include obesity, some viral infections (eg, hepatitis C virus, cytomegalovirus) and especially immunosuppressive drugs including corticosteroids, tacrolimus, cyclosporine and sirolimus. Currently, predisposing genetic factors have been considered important in PTDM development...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433078/haplotype-counting-for-sensitive-chimerism-testing-potential-for-early-leukemia-relapse-detection
#4
Marija Debeljak, Evelina Mocci, Max C Morrison, Aparna Pallavajjalla, Katie Beierl, Marie Amiel, Michaël Noë, Laura D Wood, Ming-Tseh Lin, Christopher D Gocke, Alison P Klein, Ephraim J Fuchs, Richard J Jones, James R Eshleman
Fields of forensics, transplantation, and paternity rely on human identity testing. Currently, this is accomplished through amplification of microsatellites followed by capillary electrophoresis. An alternative and theoretically better approach uses multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms located within a small region of DNA, a method we initially developed using HLA-A and called haplotype counting. Herein, we validated seven additional polymorphic loci, sequenced a total of 45 individuals from three of the 1000 Genomes populations (15 from each), and determined the number of haplotypes, heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content for each locus...
May 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431981/ventricular-assist-device-elicits-serum-natural-igg-that-correlates-with-the-development-of-primary-graft-dysfunction-following-heart-transplantation
#5
Sarah B See, Kevin J Clerkin, Peter J Kennel, Feifan Zhang, Matthew P Weber, Kortney J Rogers, Debanjana Chatterjee, Elena R Vasilescu, George Vlad, Yoshifumi Naka, Susan W Restaino, Maryjane A Farr, Veli K Topkara, Paolo C Colombo, Donna M Mancini, P Christian Schulze, Bruce Levin, Emmanuel Zorn
BACKGROUND: Pre-transplant sensitization is a limiting factor in solid-organ transplantation. In heart transplants, ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation has been associated with sensitization to human leukocyte antigens (HLA). The effect of VAD on non-HLA antibodies is unclear. We have previously shown that polyreactive natural antibodies (Nabs) contribute to pre-sensitization in kidney allograft recipients. Here we assessed generation of Nabs after VAD implantation in pre-transplant sera and examined their contribution to cardiac allograft outcome...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429866/successful-multiple-organ-donation-after-donor-brain-death-due-to-actinomyces-israelii-meningitis
#6
Leonel Lagunes, Oscar Len, Alberto Sandiumenge, Elena Martínez-Saez, Tomás Pumarola, Marta Bodro, Antonio Macías, Jose T Silva, F Xavier Nuvials, Ramon Charco, Francesc Moreso, Teresa Pont
The increasing gap between availability of solid organs for transplantation and the demand has led to the inclusion of donors which according to current guidelines may be discarded, some of them because of the possibility for transmission of infection to their recipients. We present the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of a case of a brain-dead donor with a localized and treated Actinomyces israelii central nervous system infection who, after a thorough evaluation, led to successful transplant procedures in four recipients...
April 21, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425766/update-in-the-treatment-of-non-influenza-respiratory-virus-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#7
Shellee A Grim, Gail E Reid, Nina M Clark
Despite the improved outcomes in solid organ transplantation with regard to prevention of rejection and increased patient and graft survival, infection remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Respiratory viruses are a frequent and potentially serious cause of infection after solid organ transplantation. Furthermore, clinical manifestations of respiratory virus infection (RVI) may be more severe and unusual in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) compared with the non-immunocompromised population...
April 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425335/the-incidence-of-and-risk-factors-for-postintubation-hypotension-in-the-immunocompromised-critically-ill-adult
#8
Nathan J Smischney, Mohamed O Seisa, John Cambest, Robert A Wiegand, Kyle D Busack, Theodore O Loftsgard, Darrell R Schroeder, Daniel A Diedrich
OBJECTIVES: Our primary aim was to ascertain the frequency of postintubation hypotension in immunocompromised critically ill adults with secondary aims of arriving at potential risk factors for the development of postintubation hypotension and its impact on patient-related outcomes. METHODS: Critically ill adult patients (≥18 years) were included from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2014. We defined immunocompromised as patients with any solid organ or nonsolid organ malignancy or transplant, whether solid organ or not, requiring current chemotherapy...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424230/a-quiet-revolution-in-organ-transplant-ethics
#9
Arthur Caplan, Duncan Purves
A quiet revolution is occurring in the field of transplantation. Traditionally, transplants have involved solid organs such as the kidney, heart and liver which are transplanted to prevent recipients from dying. Now transplants are being done of the face, hand, uterus, penis and larynx that aim at improving a recipient's quality of life. The shift away from saving lives to seeking to make them better requires a shift in the ethical thinking that has long formed the foundation of organ transplantation. The addition of new forms of transplants requires doctors, patients, regulators and the public to rethink the risk and benefit ratio represented by trade-offs between saving life, extending life and risking the loss of life to achieve improvements in the quality of life...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424115/continuous-abdominal-irrigation-for-treatment-of-tertiary-peritonitis-in-the-immunosuppressed-patient-after-solid-organ-transplant-a-novel-approach
#10
Christine N Henderson, Kim Phung Nguyen, Abdullah Said, Mustafa Nazzal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423464/high-clinical-suspicion-of-donor-derived-disease-leads-to-timely-recognition-and-early-intervention-to-treat-solid-organ-transplant-transmitted-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus
#11
Gagan Mathur, Kunal Yadav, Bradley Ford, Ilana J Schafer, Shridhar V Basavaraju, Barbara Knust, Wun-Ju Shieh, Sam Hill, Garret D Locke, Patricia Quinlisk, Shelley Brown, Ardith Gibbons, Deborah Cannon, Matthew Kuehnert, Stuart T Nichol, Pierre E Rollin, Ute Ströher, Rachel Miller
Despite careful donor screening, unexpected donor-derived infections continue to occur in organ transplant recipients (OTRs). Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is one such transplant-transmitted infection that in previous reports has resulted in a high mortality among the affected OTRs. We report a LCMV case cluster that occurred 3 weeks post-transplant in three OTRs who received allografts from a common organ donor in March 2013. Following confirmation of LCMV infection at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, immunosuppression was promptly reduced and ribavirin and/or intravenous immunoglobulin therapy were initiated in OTRs...
April 19, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423227/a-national-survey-of-screening-and-management-of-hypogammaglobulinemia-in-canadian-transplantation-centers
#12
Samuel Bourassa-Blanchette, Greg Knoll, Jason Tay, Christopher Bredeson, Donald W Cameron, Juthaporn Cowan
BACKGROUND: Infection remains one of the most common transplant-related causes of death in patients undergoing transplantation. Secondary hypogammaglobulinemia (HGG) as a component of immune suppression and deficiency is associated with both solid organ (SOT) and hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Available data and clinical experience for the supplementation of immunoglobulin (Ig) in these patients is conflicting, and clinical equipoise accounts for non-uniform practice in the use of Ig treatment...
April 18, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422316/regulatory-t-cells-tolerance-induction-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#13
REVIEW
Trishan Vaikunthanathan, Niloufar Safinia, Dominic Boardman, Robert I Lechler, Giovanna Lombardi
The concept of regulatory T cell (Treg) therapy in transplantation is now a reality. Significant advances in science and technology have enabled us to isolate human Tregs, expand them to clinically relevant numbers and infuse them into human transplant recipients. With several Phase I/II trials underway investigating Treg safety and efficacy it is now more crucial than ever to understand their complex biology. However, our journey is by no means complete, results from these trials will undoubtedly provoke both further knowledge and enquiry, which, alongside evolving science will continue to drive the optimization of Treg therapy in the pursuit of transplantation tolerance...
April 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421185/changes-in-composition-of-the-gut-bacterial-microbiome-after-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-pediatric-heart-transplant-patient
#14
Kyle L Flannigan, Taylor Rajbar, Andrew Moffat, Leanna S McKenzie, Frank Dicke, Kevin Rioux, Matthew L Workentine, Thomas J Louie, Simon A Hirota, Steven C Greenway
The microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important influence on human health and many of the comorbidities that affect patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT) have been shown to involve changes in gut bacterial populations. Thus, microbiome changes in an individual patient may have important health implications after SOT but this area remains understudied. We describe changes in the composition of the fecal microbiome from a pediatric heart transplant recipient before and >2.5 years after he underwent repeated fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419938/direct-acting-antivirals-the-endgame-for-hepatitis-c
#15
REVIEW
Roberta D'Ambrosio, Elisabetta Degasperi, Massimo Colombo, Alessio Aghemo
Directly-acting antivirals (DAA) have finally allowed all patients to be potentially cured from chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection. All-oral, Interferon (IFN)-free regimens are based upon the combination of molecules targeting different sites of the HCV replication process. Three classes of DAA exist: protease inhibitors (anti-NS3/4A), RNA-dependent polymerase inhibitors (anti-NS5B) and anti-NS5A inhibitors, which are characterized by different antiviral potency and barrier to resistance and therefore are usually combined in different treatment schedules...
April 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419684/should-organs-from-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-donors-be-used-for-transplantation-in-the-era-of-daas
#16
Hideki Ohdan
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been demonstrated to deleteriously impact both patient and graft survival following non-hepatic organ transplantation [1, 2]. Interferon (IFN)-based therapies prior to non-hepatic transplant in HCV-infected patients improved their survival, however, tolerability and low cure rates practically limited those therapies [3]. In addition, due to the risk of allograft rejection, IFN-based therapy following non-hepatic solid organ transplant is not generally recommended. This article is protected by copyright...
April 18, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419633/bk-virus-in-solid-organ-transplantation-pretransplant-screening-of-recipients-and-risk-factors-for-disease
#17
EDITORIAL
Arnaud G L'Huillier, Upton D Allen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418012/cyp3a4-is-a-crosslink-between-vitamin-d-and-calcineurin-inhibitors-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-implications-for-bone-health
#18
REVIEW
A Prytuła, K Cransberg, A Raes
The use of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the pathogenesis of post-transplant bone disease. CNIs and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (1,25(OH)2D3) are substrates of the drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. This review summarizes the indications for the use of activated vitamin D analogs in post-transplant care and the current knowledge on the impact of CNIs on bone. We searched for clinical evidence of the interaction between CNIs and 1,25(OH)2D3. We also provide an overview of the literature on the interplay between vitamin D metabolism and CYP3A4 in experimental and clinical settings and discuss its possible implications for solid organ transplant recipients...
April 18, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417321/adjuvanted-as03-a-h1n1-2009-pandemic-influenza-vaccines-and-solid-organ-transplant-rejection-systematic-signal-evaluation-and-lessons-learnt
#19
Gaël Dos Santos, Harry A Seifert, Vincent Bauchau, Vivek Shinde, Dominique M Barbeau, Catherine Cohet
INTRODUCTION: We investigated a signal of solid organ transplant (SOT) rejection after immunisation with (AS03) A/H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza vaccines. METHODS: Potential immunological mechanisms were reviewed and quantitative analyses were conducted. The feasibility of pharmacoepidemiological studies was explored. RESULTS: Overall results, including data from a pharmacoepidemiological study, support the safety of adjuvanted (AS03) pandemic influenza vaccination in SOT recipients...
April 17, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407197/autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-following-high-dose-chemotherapy-for-nonrhabdomyosarcoma-soft-tissue-sarcomas
#20
REVIEW
Frank Peinemann, Heike Enk, Lesley A Smith
BACKGROUND: Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a highly heterogeneous group of rare malignant solid tumors. Nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS) comprise all STS except rhabdomyosarcoma. In people with advanced local or metastatic disease, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) applied after high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) is a planned rescue therapy for HDCT-related severe hematologic toxicity. The rationale for this update is to determine whether any randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted and to clarify whether HDCT followed by autologous HSCT has a survival advantage...
April 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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