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Solid organ transplantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150348/de-novo-head-and-neck-cancer-arising-in-solid-organ-transplantation-recipients-the-asan-medical-center-experience
#1
Marn Joon Park, Jong-Lyel Roh, Seung-Ho Choi, Soon Yuhl Nam, Sang Yoon Kim, Yoon Se Lee
OBJECTIVE: De novo cancers of head and neck area in solid organ transplantation recipients show standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 3.8. Immunosuppression following transplantation is suggested to play as a crucial factor in pathogenesis of secondary malignancy. Prognosis of head and neck cancer arising in solid organ transplantation recipients is proven to have poor prognosis. The incidence, risk, prognosis, and survival of de novo malignancy of head and neck area in solid organ transplantation recipients in single-tertiary medical center followed up for 20 years...
November 14, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149964/chikungunya-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#2
E S Girão, B G Rodrigues Dos Santos, E S do Amaral, P E G Costa, K B Pereira, A H de Araujo Filho, E B Hyppolito, M U Mota, L C B F Marques, C M Costa de Oliveira, S L da Silva, J H P Garcia, P F C B C Fernandes
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne disease that causes acute febrile polyarthralgia and arthritis. CHIKV has spread rapidly to the Americas and, in Brazil, autochthonous cases are increasingly been reported. Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients who travel to or live in CHIKV endemic areas are under high risk of acquiring the disease. Few data exist regarding the clinical characteristics of CHIKV infections in this population. We report the first case series of CHIKV infection in SOT recipients...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148608/criteria-to-define-interruption-of-transmission-of-human-cytomegalovirus-from-organ-donor-to-recipient
#3
REVIEW
Ilona Anna Baraniak, Matthew B Reeves, Paul D Griffiths
In this review article, we consider results suggesting that transmission of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) from a donor of a solid organ to an immunologically naive individual can be reduced. Two randomized controlled trials have been conducted recently, one of active immunization of recipients pretransplant and another of passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies specific for HCMV given at the time of transplant. Although the available data are encouraging-providing evidence of a reduction in the incidence of HCMV viraemia-they fall short of what would be required to prove definitively that transmission has been completely prevented...
November 17, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142746/interaction-between-merkel-cell-carcinoma-and-the-immune-system-pathogenetic-and-therapeutic-implications
#4
Irene Zanetti, Ilaria Coati, Mauro Alaibac
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma. It usually appears on the face and neck of elderly Caucasian people as a flesh-colored, erythematous or violaceous dome-shaped, non-tender nodule with a smooth surface. In immunocompromised patients with T-cell dysfunction, such as patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or solid organ transplant recipients, the incidence of this disease is markedly increased. This suggests a link between the development of MCC and the immune system...
November 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139181/direct-antiviral-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-in-heart-transplant-recipients
#5
Martina Vitrone, Roberto Andini, Irene Mattucci, Ciro Maiello, Luigi Atripaldi, Emanuele Durante-Mangoni, Rosa Zampino
Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are a safe and effective treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC). This may be particularly valuable for patients with severe comorbidities or baseline conditions, including non-liver solid organ transplant. We report cases of two heart transplant recipients with CHC treated with DAA (sofosbuvir and daclatasvir) achieving sustained virological response. Treatment was well tolerated and no relevant side effects were observed. The drug-drug interactions and graft function were carefully monitored...
November 15, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137845/enumeration-of-bone-marrow-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-by-multiparameter-flow-cytometry-as-a-prognostic-marker-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#6
Ruijun Jeanna Su, Ralph Green, Mingyi Chen
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) promote tolerance in solid organ transplants and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). pDCs originate from CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors. Following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT), pDC reconstitution in the BM and PB gradually attain levels similar to those in healthy individuals. We have investigated the recovery of pDC following allo-HSCT as a means to predict successful marrow engraftment. We retrospectively studied immune reconstitution of pDC in the BM of 48 patients following allo-HSCT for initial diagnoses of leukemia or other malignancies...
October 31, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135830/tissue-resident-lymphocytes-in-solid-organ-transplantation-innocent-passengers-or-the-key-to-organ-transplant-survival
#7
Amy C Prosser, Axel Kallies, Michaela Lucas
Short-term outcomes of solid organ transplantation have improved dramatically over the past several decades; however, long-term survival has remained static over the same time period, and chronic rejection remains a major cause of graft failure. The importance of donor, or 'passenger', lymphocytes to the induction of tolerance to allografts was recognized in the 1990s; however, their precise contribution to graft acceptance or rejection has not been elucidated. Recently, specialized populations of tissue-resident lymphocytes in nonlymphoid organs have been described...
November 14, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135628/endothelial-factors-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-chronic-kidney-disease-part-ii-role-in-disease-conditions-a-joint-consensus-statement-from-the-european-society-of-hypertension-working-group-on-endothelin-and-endothelial-factors-and-the-japanese-society
#8
Gian Paolo Rossi, Teresa M Seccia, Matthias Barton, A H Jan Danser, Peter W de Leeuw, Neeraj Dhaun, Damiano Rizzoni, Patrick Rossignol, Luis-Miguel Ruilope, Anton H van den Meiracker, Sadayoshi Ito, Naoyuki Hasebe, David J Webb
: After examining in Part I the general mechanisms of endothelial cell injury in the kidney, the Working Group on Endothelin and Endothelial Factors of the European Society of Hypertension and the Japanese Society of Hypertension will herein review current knowledge on the role of endothelial dysfunction in multiple disease conditions that affect the kidney, including diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, solid organ transplantation, hyperhomocysteinemia and antiangiogenic therapy in cancer. The few available randomized controlled clinical trials specifically designed to evaluate strategies for correcting endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypertension and/or chronic kidney disease are also discussed alongside their cardiovascular and renal outcomes...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128027/pulmonary-considerations-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#9
EDITORIAL
Vivek N Ahya, Joshua M Diamond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128025/posttransplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#10
REVIEW
Sarah J Nagle, Ran Reshef, Donald E Tsai
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) represent an immunosuppression-related lymphoid or plasmacytic proliferation that occur in the setting of solid organ transplant or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). PTLD is a devastating consequence of HSCT and solid organ transplantation with a high morbidity and mortality. Most commonly, PTLD is related to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, but an increasing number of non-EBV-related cases are occurring. Initial therapy involves withdrawal of immunosuppression with or without antibody or cytotoxic chemotherapy...
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128024/mycobacterial-infections-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#11
REVIEW
Tahuanty Pena, Julia Klesney-Tait
Mycobacterial infections are uncommon in solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients but carry significant morbidity and mortality. Donor screening strategies for tuberculosis should be emphasized in high-risk populations. Both tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections can have pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations of infections. Recommended treatment regimens typically involve multiple drugs with significant adverse effects and drug interactions.
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128022/noninfectious-pulmonary-complications-of-liver-heart-and-kidney-transplantation-an-update
#12
REVIEW
Shruti Gadre, Robert M Kotloff
Despite significant advances in surgical techniques, perioperative care, and immunosuppressive therapy, solid organ transplantation still carries considerable risk of complications. Pulmonary complications, in particular, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Although infectious complications prevail, the lungs are also vulnerable to a variety of noninfectious complications related to the transplant surgery and adverse effects of the immunosuppressive regimen. This article focuses on noninfectious pulmonary complications associated with the 3 most commonly performed solid organ transplant procedures: liver, kidney, and heart...
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128021/respiratory-fungal-infections-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#13
REVIEW
Oveimar De La Cruz, Fernanda P Silveira
Respiratory fungal infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell (HSCT) and solid organ (SOT) transplant recipients, and are caused primarily by molds. Aspergillus is the most common pathogen. The net state of immunosuppression plays a major role in the risk of respiratory fungal infections after transplantation. Clinical presentation can be atypical and diagnosis can be delayed due to low sensitivity of diagnostic methods or inability to obtain adequate specimens. Fungal infections in HSCT and SOT carry a higher risk of dissemination...
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128020/respiratory-viral-infections-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#14
REVIEW
Grant C Paulsen, Lara Danziger-Isakov
Respiratory viruses are common in solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients and a recognized cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Epidemiology, risk factors, and attributable mortality in both populations are reviewed. In addition, virus-specific prevention and treatment options, including emerging investigational therapies, are discussed for respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, adenovirus, parainfluenza, and other respiratory viruses.
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127275/allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-fully-mhc-matched-mauritian-cynomolgus-macaques-recapitulates-diverse-human-clinical-outcomes
#15
Benjamin J Burwitz, Helen L Wu, Shaheed Abdulhaqq, Christine Shriver-Munsch, Tonya Swanson, Alfred W Legasse, Katherine B Hammond, Stephanie L Junell, Jason S Reed, Benjamin N Bimber, Justin M Greene, Gabriela M Webb, Mina Northrup, Wolfram Laub, Paul Kievit, Rhonda MacAllister, Michael K Axthelm, Rebecca Ducore, Anne Lewis, Lois M A Colgin, Theodore Hobbs, Lauren D Martin, Betsy Ferguson, Charles R Thomas, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Gabrielle Meyers, Jeffrey J Stanton, Richard T Maziarz, Jonah B Sacha
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a critically important therapy for hematological malignancies, inborn errors of metabolism, and immunodeficiency disorders, yet complications such as graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD) limit survival. Development of anti-GvHD therapies that do not adversely affect susceptibility to infection or graft-vs.-tumor immunity are hampered by the lack of a physiologically relevant, preclinical model of allogeneic HSCT. Here we show a spectrum of diverse clinical HSCT outcomes including primary and secondary graft failure, lethal GvHD, and stable, disease-free full donor engraftment using reduced intensity conditioning and mobilized peripheral blood HSCT in unrelated, fully MHC-matched Mauritian-origin cynomolgus macaques...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126177/cd30-expression-in-monomorphic-posttransplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-correlates-with-greater-regulatory-t-cell-infiltration
#16
Christopher Hartley, James W Vaughan, Jason Jarzembowski, Steven H Kroft, Paul Hosking, Alexandra M Harrington, Horatiu Olteanu
Objectives: CD30 is a protein thought to promote cell proliferation/survival and downregulate the immune response. Twenty percent to 40% of de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) express CD30, and some patients have been treated with the anti-CD30 agent brentuximab. In the solid organ transplant setting, allograft regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to be modulated via CD30 signaling. Methods: Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) constitute a heterogeneous group of lymphomas, and since CD30 expression has been rarely formally assessed in PTLDs, we analyzed a cohort of PTLDs...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123971/concepts-of-genomics-in-kidney-transplantation
#17
William S Oetting, Casey Dorr, Rory P Remmel, Arthur J Matas, Ajay K Israni, Pamala A Jacobson
Purpose of review: Identification of genetic variants to aid in individualized treatment of solid organ allograft recipients would improve graft survival. We will review the current state of knowledge for associations of variants with transplant outcomes. Recent findings: Many studies have yet to exhibit robust and reproducible results, however, pharmacogenomic studies focusing on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, transporters and HLA variants have shown strong associations with outcomes and have relevance towards drugs used in transplant...
June 2017: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123208/differential-t-cell-signaling-pathway-activation-by-tacrolimus-and-belatacept-after-kidney-transplantation-post-hoc-analysis-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Nynke M Kannegieter, Dennis A Hesselink, Marjolein Dieterich, Gretchen N de Graav, Rens Kraaijeveld, Carla C Baan
Pharmacokinetic immunosuppressive drug monitoring poorly correlates with clinical outcomes after solid organ transplantation. A promising method for pharmacodynamic monitoring of tacrolimus (TAC) in T cell subsets of transplant recipients might be the measurement of (phosphorylated) p38MAPK, ERK1/2 and Akt (activated downstream of the T cell receptor) by phospho-specific flow cytometry. Here, blood samples from n = 40 kidney transplant recipients (treated with either TAC-based or belatacept (BELA)-based immunosuppressive drug therapy) were monitored before and throughout the first year after transplantation...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121254/impact-of-donor-and-recipient-human-cytomegalovirus-status-on-kidney-transplantation
#19
Maciej Zielinski, Agnieszka Tarasewicz, Hanna Zielinska, Magdalena Jankowska, Grazyna Moszkowska, Alicja Debska-Slizien, Boleslaw Rutkowski, Piotr Trzonkowski
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is considered to be a major pathogen that affects the outcome of solid organ transplantation. Both recipient and donor may be HCMV positive, therefore HCMV reinfection is possible after transplantation. However, little is known how cytomegalovirus transmitted from an infected donor to an infected recipient modulates the recipient's already suppressed immunity, and what the clinical consequences are. To investigate these issues, 52 kidney recipients were followed up for two years after transplantation...
November 7, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120883/equipping-the-islet-graft-for-self-defence-targeting-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-implications-for-tolerance
#20
Nathan W Zammit, Shane T Grey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinical islet transplantation does not enjoy the success seen for solid organ transplants, indicating a need for new therapeutic approaches to improve patient outcomes. This has prompted investigation into islet autonomous factors and pathways that may represent druggable targets. These have the potential to synergize with approaches aimed at generating graft-specific tolerance. RECENT FINDINGS: There are emerging data that nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation can prevent and or overcome tolerance, whereas dampening NF-κB activation in immune cells is associated with prolonged allograft survival...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
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