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Stellate ganglion

Mary R Summers, Remington L Nevin
Concerns over the rising prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), particularly among military service members returning from combat, and over barriers that hinder individuals from seeking out or adhering to standard therapies have contributed to interest in alternative therapies for the disorder. A novel alternative therapy for PTSD-stellate ganglion block (SGB)-may be considered lacking in formal evidence of efficacy despite having shown considerable promise. This review of the recent and historical literature related to SGB finds evidence of substantial beneficial psychiatric effects and substantiates that this fast-acting, somatic treatment may provide positive results for patients with PTSD and may reduce barriers to therapy, particularly among military populations...
October 14, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Wei-Chung Tsai, Yi-Hsin Chan, Kroekkiat Chinda, Zhenhui Chen, Jheel Patel, Changyu Shen, Ye Zhao, Zhaolei Jiang, Yuan Yuan, Michael Ye, Lan S Chen, Amanda A Riley, Scott A Persohn, Paul R Territo, Thomas H Everett, Shien-Fong Lin, Harry V Vinters, Michael C Fishbein, Peng-Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Renal sympathetic denervation (RD) is a promising method of neuromodulation for the management of cardiac arrhythmia. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that RD is antiarrhythmic in ambulatory dogs because it reduces the stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA) by remodeling the stellate ganglion (SG) and brain stem. METHODS: We implanted a radiotransmitter to record SGNA and electrocardiogram in 9 ambulatory dogs for 2 weeks, followed by a 2nd surgery for RD and 2 months SGNA recording...
October 5, 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Anisiia Doytchinova, Jonathan L Hassel, Yuan Yuan, Hongbo Lin, Dechun Yin, David Adams, Susan Straka, Keith Wright, Kimberly Smith, David Wagner, Changyu Shen, Vicenta Salanova, Chad Meshberger, Lan S Chen, John C Kincaid, Arthur C Coffey, Gang Wu, Yan Li, Richard J Kovacs, Thomas H Everett, Ronald Victor, Yong-Mei Cha, Shien-Fong Lin, Peng-Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Sympathetic nerve activity is important to cardiac arrhythmogenesis. OBJECTIVES: (1) To develop a method for simultaneous noninvasive recording of skin sympathetic nerve activity (SKNA) and electrocardiogram (ECG) using conventional ECG electrodes. (2) This method (neuECG) can be used to adequately estimate the sympathetic tone. METHODS: We recorded neuECG signals from the skin in 56 human subjects. The signals were low pass filtered to show the ECG and high pass filtered to show nerve activity...
September 23, 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Martin G Ferrillo
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a poorly understood, debilitating disorder characterized by severe chronic pain in an affected limb or region of the body. This case presentation is the first to describe the effectiveness and prolonged duration of the effect of liposome bupivacaine in stellate ganglion block for CRPS.
September 2016: Clinical Case Reports
Pauline M Maki, Leah H Rubin, Antonia Savarese, Lauren Drogos, Lee P Shulman, Suzanne Banuvar, David R Walega
OBJECTIVES: In a pilot randomized clinical trial of active stellate ganglion blockade (SGB) versus sham control, SGB significantly reduced the frequency of reported moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and the frequency of physiologic VMS measured using ambulatory skin conductance monitors. Here we examine secondary effects of SGB on verbal learning and memory. STUDY DESIGN: In a randomized, sham-controlled study, 36 women met eligibility criteria for cognitive assessments, of whom 17 were randomized to receive fluoroscopy-guided SGB and 19 to sham control...
October 2016: Maturitas
James H Lynch, Sean W Mulvaney, Eugene H Kim, Jason B de Leeuw, Matthew J Schroeder, Shawn F Kane
This study assessed which symptoms are most impacted following stellate ganglion block (SGB) used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. 30 active military service members with combat-related PTSD self-referred to their physician and psychologist. Patients were offered a SGB as part of their treatment program. Primary outcome was the magnitude of change for the 17 items on the PTSD Checklist-Military (PCL-M), which was administered the week before SGB, 1 week after SGB, and 2 to 4 months later...
September 2016: Military Medicine
Siamak Salavatian, Eric Beaumont, Jean-Philippe Longpré, John Andrew Armour, Alain Vinet, Vincent Jacquemet, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Jeffrey Laurence Ardell
BACKGROUND: Mediastinal nerve stimulation (MNS) reproducibly evokes atrial fibrillation (AF) by excessive and heterogeneous activation of intrinsic cardiac (IC) neurons. This study evaluated whether pre-emptive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) impacts MNS-induced evoked changes in IC neural network activity to thereby alter susceptibility to AF. METHODS: IC neuronal activity in the right atrial ganglionated plexus was directly recorded in anesthetized canines (n=8) using a linear microelectrode array concomitant with right atrial electrical activity in response to: 1) epicardial touch or great vessel occlusion vs (2) stellate or vagal stimulation...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Jiwon An, Youn-Woo Lee, Woo Young Park, Sungchul Park, Hyungbae Park, Ji Won Yoo, Jong Bum Choi
PURPOSE: Anatomic variations complicate surface landmark-guided needle placement, thereby increasing nerve blockade failure rate. However, little is understood about how anatomic distances change under different clinical conditions. As the cricoid cartilage is an easy and accurate landmark, we investigated changes in distance between the sixth or seventh cervical transverse processes (C6TP or C7TP) and the cricoid cartilage in neutral and extended supine positions. METHODS: Forty-two patients (16 men, 26 women) were included in this study...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
Alessandro Furlan, Gioele La Manno, Moritz Lübke, Martin Häring, Hind Abdo, Hannah Hochgerner, Jussi Kupari, Dmitry Usoskin, Matti S Airaksinen, Guillermo Oliver, Sten Linnarsson, Patrik Ernfors
Despite the variety of physiological and target-related functions, little is known regarding the cellular complexity in the sympathetic ganglion. We explored the heterogeneity of mouse stellate and thoracic ganglia and found an unexpected variety of cell types. We identified specialized populations of nipple- and pilo-erector muscle neurons. These neurons extended axonal projections and were born among other neurons during embryogenesis, but remained unspecialized until target organogenesis occurred postnatally...
October 2016: Nature Neuroscience
J H Coote, R A Chauhan
Autonomic control of the heart has a significant influence over development of life threatening arrhythmias that can lead to sudden cardiac death. Sympathetic activity is known to be upregulated during these conditions and hence the sympathetic nerves present a target for treatment. However, a better understanding of the anatomy and physiology of cardiac sympathetic nerves is required for the progression of clinical interventions. This review explores the organization of the cardiac sympathetic nerves, from the preganglionic origin to the postganglionic innervations, and provides an overview of literature surrounding anti-arrhythmic therapies including thoracic sympathectomy and dorsal spinal cord stimulation...
August 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Mingyan Dai, Mingwei Bao, Yijie Zhang, Lilei Yu, Quan Cao, Yanhong Tang, He Huang, Xi Wang, Dan Hu, Congxin Huang
BACKGROUND: Low-level carotid baroreflex stimulation (LL-CBS) appears to have potential antiarrhythmogenic effect. OBJECTIVES: To investigate effects of short term LL-CBS on atrial fibrillation (AF) canine model. METHODS: Group 1: anesthetized dogs underwent 6 h of rapid atrial pacing (RAP) with concomitant LL-CBS in last three hours (LL-CBS group, n=7) or without (Control group, n=6). Effective refractory period (ERP), ERP dispersion, and window of vulnerability (WOV) to AF were determined...
August 9, 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Peiling Liang, Aisheng Wei, Zhuliang Gu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy between acupuncture at stellate ganglion combined with intravenous administration of alprostadil and simple intravenous administration of alprostadil on lower limb atherosclerosis of early diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Sixty patients of lower limb atherosclerosis of early diabetes mellitus were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each one. Patients in the two groups were treated with basic treatment to control blood glucose and lipid...
May 2016: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Jens Buttgereit, Julia Shanks, Dan Li, Guoliang Hao, Arvinder Athwal, Thomas H Langenickel, Hannah Wright, Andrey C da Costa Goncalves, Jan Monti, Ralph Plehm, Elena Popova, Fatimunnisa Qadri, Irina Lapidus, Brent Ryan, Cemil Özcelik, David J Paterson, Michael Bader, Neil Herring
AIMS: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)-natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR-A) receptor signalling inhibits cardiac sympathetic neurotransmission, although C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is the predominant neuropeptide of the nervous system with expression in the heart and vasculature. We hypothesized that CNP acts similarly to BNP, and that transgenic rats (TGRs) with neuron-specific overexpression of a dominant negative NPR-B receptor would develop heightened sympathetic drive. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mean arterial pressure and heart rate (HR) were significantly (P < 0...
August 5, 2016: Cardiovascular Research
Songyun Wang, Xiaoya Zhou, Bing Huang, Zhuo Wang, Liping Zhou, Menglong Wang, Lilei Yu, Hong Jiang
Noninvasive magnetic stimulation has been widely used in autonomic disorders in the past few decades, but few studies has been done in cardiac diseases. Recently, studies showed that low-frequency electromagnetic field (LF-EMF) might suppress atrial fibrillation by mediating the cardiac autonomic nervous system. In the present study, the effect of LF-EMF stimulation of left stellate ganglion (LSG) on LSG neural activity and ventricular arrhythmia has been studied in an acute myocardium infarction canine model...
2016: Scientific Reports
X Zhang, Y Zhang, F Gao, F Zhang, Z Yang, S Ouyang, M Rao, Y Hou
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent heart rhythm disorder, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) is important to AF. This study aims to identify whether changes in transmitters released by ANS could reflect their activities. The right atrium (RA) groups (1-40V) included RA500 and RA1000. While ANS groups received high-frequency electrical stimulation (1-8V, 20 Hz, 2 ms), including left stellate ganglion stimulation (LSGS) andleft cervical vagus trunk stimulation (LVTS). The induced rate of AF, duration and atrial effective refractory period (AERP) were measured...
2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Chun-De Liao, Chi-Lun Rau, Tsan-Hon Liou, Jau-Yih Tsauo, Li-Fong Lin
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain associated with sympathetic overactivity can be effectively relieved by light irradiating the region near stellate ganglion (SGI), applied as an alternative to a conventional sympathetic blockade. The clinical effect of SGI on heart rate variability (HRV) and its association with pain outcomes require investigation. OBJECTIVE: This study attempted to identify the effects of SGI on pain outcomes and HRV indices and to determine the association between pain and HRV outcomes...
July 24, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Giuseppe Marulli, Lucia Battistella, Marco Mammana, Francesca Calabrese, Federico Rea
Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%...
June 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Ye Zhao, Zhaolei Jiang, Wei-Chung Tsai, Yuan Yuan, Kroekkiat Chinda, Eue-Keun Choi, Michael C Fishbein, Shien-Fong Lin, Peng-Sheng Chen, Thomas H Everett
BACKGROUND: Simultaneous activation of the stellate ganglion (SG), the ligament of Marshall (LOM), and the ganglionated plexi often precedes the onset of paroxysmal atrial tachyarrhythmia (PAT). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that ablation of the LOM and the superior left ganglionated plexi (SLGP) reduces atrial vulnerability and results in remodeling of the SG. METHODS: Nerve activity was correlated to PAT and ventricular rate (VR) at baseline, after ablation of the LOM and SLGP, and after atrial fibrillation...
October 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Yuan Zhang, Yanning Qian, Hongguang Bao, Hongwei Shi, Jianwei Zhou
The present study was to examine the effect of stellate ganglion block (SGB) on bilateral regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) and postoperative cognitive function. Eighty patients undergoing selective coronary artery bypass graft with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were randomly and equally divided into two groups. The patients in group S were given right SGB with ropivacaine, while the patients in group C were injected with normal saline. We compared the bilateral rSO2 after SGB. Minimum Mental State Examination (MMSE), Visual Verbal Learning Test (VVLT), and Digital Span Test (DST) were applied to observe the effect on cognitive function...
February 2016: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
Birgit Heinig, Andrè Koch, Uwe Wollina
Focal palmar hyperhidrosis is a common and often debilitating eccrine sweat gland disorder with negative impact on quality of life and self-esteem. For treatment of recalcitrant cases, a stellate ganglion block is a nonsurgical alternative. Although this method has only a temporary effect, surgical risks can be avoided. The usual way to perform the block is by ultrasound-guided injection of local anesthetics. Here we describe the use of therapeutic ultrasound at 0.8 MHz for stellate ganglion block. Ultrasound was applied for 1 min unilaterally every other day for 6 days...
July 5, 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
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