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Stellate ganglion

Aneta Stefanidis, Nicole M Wiedmann, Sonika Tyagi, Andrew M Allen, Matthew J Watt, Brian J Oldfield
OBJECTIVE: The potential for brown adipose tissue (BAT) to be targeted as a therapeutic option to combat obesity has been heightened by the discovery of a brown-like form of inducible "beige" adipose tissue in white fat which has overlapping structural and functional properties to "classical" BAT. The likelihood that both beige and brown fat are recruited functionally by neural mechanisms, taken together with the lack of a detailed understanding of the nature of changes in the nervous system when white adipose tissue (WAT) is transformed to brown, provides the impetus for this study...
February 10, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Silvia Duong, Daniela Bravo, Keith J Todd, Roderick J Finlayson, De Q Tran
PURPOSE: Although multiple treatments have been advocated for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), the levels of supportive evidence are variable and sometimes limited. The purpose of this updated review is to provide a critical analysis of the evidence pertaining to the treatment of CRPS derived from recent randomized-controlled trials (RCTs). SOURCE: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Psychinfo, and CINAHL databases were searched to identify relevant RCTs conducted on human subjects and published in English between 1 May 2009 and 24 August 2017...
February 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Heidi L Lujan, Anne Tonson, Robert W Wiseman, Stephen E DiCarlo
Spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting in tetraplegia is a devastating, life-changing insult causing paralysis and sensory impairment as well as distinct autonomic dysfunction that triggers compromised cardiovascular, bowel, bladder and sexual activity. Life becomes a battle for independence as even routine bodily functions and the smallest activity of daily living become a major challenge. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a chronic pre-clinical model of tetraplegia. This report addresses this critical need by comparing, for the first time, resting, reflex and stress-induced cardiovascular, autonomic and hormonal responses each week for 4 weeks in 12 sham-operated intact rats and 12 rats with chronic, complete C6-7 spinal cord transection...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Gaochun Zhu, Zhenying Chen, Bo Dai, Chaoran Zheng, Huaide Jiang, Yurong Xu, Xuan Sheng, Jingjing Guo, Yu Dan, Shangdong Liang, Guilin Li
Chronic lead exposure causes peripheral sympathetic nerve stimulation, including increased blood pressure and heart rate. Purinergic receptors are involved in the sympathoexcitatory response induced by myocardial ischemia injury. However, whether P2X4 receptor participates in sympathoexcitatory response induced by chronic lead exposure and the possible mechanisms are still unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the change of the sympathoexcitatory response induced by chronic lead exposure via the P2X4 receptor in the stellate ganglion (SG)...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Brody Wehman, Michael Mazzeffi, Robert Chow, A Claire Watkins, Brittany Aicher, Si Pham, Whitney Burrows, Bradley Taylor
We report a patient with refractory electrical storm after coronary artery bypass grafting who was successfully treated with thoracoscopic sympathectomy. Cardiac arrest with ventricular tachycardia occurred on postoperative day 2, and the patient required emergency support with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Frequent episodes of ventricular tachycardia prevented cardiac recovery and weaning from mechanical circulatory support. A percutaneous left stellate ganglion block initially demonstrated successful prevention of ventricular tachycardia, and definitive sympathetic denervation was achieved by a left thoracoscopic sympathectomy...
March 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Ariadna Recasens, Iria Carballo-Carbajal, Annabelle Parent, Jordi Bové, Ellen Gelpi, Eduardo Tolosa, Miquel Vila
In Parkinson's disease (PD) there is widespread accumulation in the brain of abnormal α-synuclein aggregates forming intraneuronal Lewy bodies (LB). It is now well established that LB-type α-synuclein aggregates also occur in the peripheral autonomic nervous system in PD, from where it has been speculated they may progressively spread to the central nervous system through synaptically-connected brain networks and reach the substantia nigra to trigger herein dopaminergic dysfunction/degeneration and subsequent parkinsonism...
February 8, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Tom J Crijns, Bonheur A T D van der Gronde, David Ring, Nina Leung
BACKGROUND: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is frequently diagnosed in patients recovering from surgery or injury. The symptoms and signs included in consensus diagnostic criteria for CRPS are expected after injury. Categorizing symptoms and signs that occur on a continuum as disproportionate or not is subjective and prone to bias. Psychiatrists and psychologists do not diagnose CRPS and instead measure and treat anxiety and catastrophic thinking on its continuum. Given the expected variation in subjective diagnoses such as CRPS, this study addresses factors associated with use of this diagnosis and how it influences care...
February 5, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Deepak Thapa, Deepanshu Dhiman, Vanita Ahuja, Satinder Gombar, Ravi K Gupta
Background: Recent literature has established the role of stellate ganglion block (SGB) for management of acute postoperative pain. The effects of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to lignocaine in a preoperative SGB for postoperative pain relief have not been evaluated so far. Methods: The following randomised, double-blinded, control trail included 54 patients scheduled for upper limb orthopaedic surgery under general anaesthesia. Preoperative ultrasound-guided (USG) SGB was performed in all patients...
February 2018: British Journal of Pain
Rashmi Datta, Jyotsna Agrawal, Amit Sharma, Vikram Singh Rathore, Shivesh Datta
Background and Aims: The effect of stellate ganglion blocks (SGBs) was examined in complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS) of the upper body. Material and Methods: A total of 287 SGB were given to patients with documented CRPS on medications. Spontaneous and provoked pain assessment was done with numeric pain rating scale (NPRS). The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and range of motion (ROM) was recorded before and after each blockade...
October 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Luc A Sermeus, Luc E Vanlinthout, Guy H Hans, Tom Schepens, Margaretha B Breebaart, Veerle C Verheyen, Carine J Smitz, Marcel P Vercauteren
Objective: To use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to assess whether a stellate ganglion block (SGB) modulates the analgesia induced by cervical paravertebral block (CPVB). Design: A prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial. Setting: Department of Anesthesia, Antwerp University Hospital, October 2011 to December 2015. Subjects: Twenty-eight adults scheduled for arthroscopy of a nonfractured shoulder were enrolled...
February 2, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Gianfranco Piccirillo, Damiano Magrì, Gaetana D'Alessandro, Claudia Fiorucci, Federica Moscucci, Claudia Di Iorio, Fabiola Mastropietri, Ilaria Parrotta, Masahiro Ogawa, Shien-Fong Lin, Peng-Sheng Chen
The relationship between autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulation of the sinus node and heart rate variability has been extensively investigated. Current study sought to evaluate, in an animal experimental model of pacing-induced tachycardia congestive heart failure (CHF), a possible ANS influence on P wave duration and PR interval oscillations. Short term (5-minutes) time and frequency domain analysis has been obtained in six dogs for the following electrocardiographic intervals: P wave duration (P), from the onset to peak of P wave (Pp), from the onset of P wave to the q onset (PR) and from the end of P wave to the onset of q wave (PeR)...
February 2, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Wenbo He, Xiaoying Wang, Shan Liu, Xiaomei Yu, Zhibing Lu, Ruisong Ma, Da Luo, Jing Xie, Bo He, Hong Jiang
PURPOSE: Individuals predisposed to vasovagal syncope may have different autonomic nervous system control mechanisms from those without predisposition to vasovagal events. To test this hypothesis, we investigated different sympathetic responses in a canine model of vasovagal syncope. METHODS: Left thoracotomy was performed on 20 mongrel dogs. The heart was exposed and a bolus of veratridine (15 μg/kg), a neurotoxin which prevents the inactivation of sodium ion channels, was injected into the left atrium to induce a Bezold-Jarisch reflex-mediated vasovagal event, characterized by bradycardia, decreased inotropism, and hypotension...
January 24, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Aravind Krishnan, Alejandro Suarez-Pierre, Todd C Crawford, Xun Zhou, Stuart D Russell, Ronald D Berger, Hugh Calkins, William A Baumgartner, Harikrishna Tandri, Kaushik Mandal
We describe the novel use of bilateral cardiac sympathectomy in a woman with end-stage heart failure caused by ventricular tachycardia refractory to standard medical therapy who was under consideration for heart transplantation. Postoperatively, our patient has not experienced any symptoms of ventricular tachycardia, has returned to normal physical activity, and is no longer under consideration for transplantation as a result of the improvement in her cardiac function. Bilateral sympathectomy can be more effective than unilateral sympathectomy or percutaneous stellate ganglion blockade in patients with refractory ventricular tachycardia...
February 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Koji Yoshie, Pradeep S Rajendran, Louis Massoud, OhJin Kwon, Vasudev Tadimeti, Siamak Salavatian, Jeffrey Laurence Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Olujimi A Ajijola
Afferent fibers expressing the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) channel are implicated in cardiac nociception, however, their role in modulating reflex responses to cardiac stress is not well-understood. We evaluated this role in Yorkshire pigs by percutaneous epicardial application of resiniferatoxin (RTX), a toxic activator of the VR1 channel, resulting in depletion of cardiac VR1-expressing afferents. Hemodynamics, epicardial activation recovery intervals (ARIs), and in vivo activity of stellate ganglion (SG) neurons (SGNs) were recorded in control and RTX-treated animals...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Ömer Fatih Şahin, Ebru Tarıkçı Kılıç, Yakup Aksoy, Ayhan Kaydu, Erhan Gökçek
Stellate ganglion blockage (SGB) is a method used for treating Raynaud's phenomenon (RP). This study primarily aimed to determine whether the perfusion index (PI) can be used an alternative to Horner's signs in evaluating the efficacy of SGB in patients diagnosed with RP. In a total of 40 patients, aged 18-65 years and diagnosed with primary RP, SGB was applied for 5 days on the same side with the 2-finger method, using 6 mL of 5% levobupivacaine at the 7th cervical vertebra level. The PI values were recorded from the distal end of the 2nd finger of the upper extremity on the side applied with the block at baseline and at 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min...
December 2018: Libyan Journal of Medicine
Omar Viswanath, Musa Aner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Iwan Jones, Liudmila N Novikova, Lev N Novikov, Monika Renardy, Andreas Ullrich, Mikael Wiberg, Leif Carlsson, Paul J Kingham
Surgical intervention is the current gold standard treatment following peripheral nerve injury. However, this approach has limitations and full recovery of both motor and sensory modalities often remains incomplete. The development of artificial nerve grafts that either complement or replace current surgical procedures is therefore of paramount importance. An essential component of artificial grafts are biodegradable conduits and transplanted cells that provide trophic support during the regenerative process...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Kunshan He, Jian Zhou, Fan Yang, Chongwei Chi, Hao Li, Yamin Mao, Bengang Hui, Kun Wang, Jie Tian, Jun Wang
The sympathetic nervous system controls and regulates the activities of the heart and other organs. Sympathetic nervous system dysfunction leads to disease. Therefore, intraoperative real-time imaging of thoracic sympathetic nerves (ITSN) would be of great clinical significance for diagnosis and therapy. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of intraoperative ITSN using indocyanine green (ICG). METHODS: ITSN using ICG was performed on 10 rabbits to determine its feasibility...
2018: Theranostics
Osman Hakan Gunduz, Ozge Kenis-Coskun
The inputs from sympathetic ganglia have been known to be involved in the pathophysiology of various painful conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome, cancer pain of different origin, and coccygodynia. Sympathetic ganglia blocks are used to relieve patients who suffer from these conditions for over a century. Many numbers of local anesthetics such as bupivacaine or neurolytic agents such as alcohol can be chosen for a successful block. The agent is selected according to its duration of effect and the purpose of the injection...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
Lilei Yu, Yuhong Wang, Xiaoya Zhou, Bing Huang, Menglong Wang, Xuefei Li, Guannan Meng, Shenxu Yuan, Hao Xia, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Leptin is a peptide hormone produced by adipose tissue whose basic function is regulating energy balance and sympathetic outflow. Previous studies have shown that increased nerve activity of the left stellate ganglion (LSG) promotes ventricular arrhythmia (VA). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether leptin could facilitate VA through activation of the LSG. METHODS: Sixteen pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs were divided into a control group (saline; n = 8) and a leptin group (leptin; n = 8)...
December 8, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
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