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Analgesic for minor injuries

Mario I Ortiz, Raquel Cariño-Cortés, Héctor A Ponce-Monter, Gilberto Castañeda-Hernández, Aracely Evangelina Chávez-Piña
Preclinical Research & Development The combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with herbal products having analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects may increase their beneficial effects and limit their side effects. In this study, the effects of an interaction between α-bisabolol and the NSAID, diclofenac on nociception (formalin test), inflammation (paw inflammation produced by carrageenan) and gastric injury in rat was assessed. Diclofenac, α-bisabolol, or diclofenac-α-bisabolol combinations produced antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in rat (p < ...
February 2018: Drug Development Research
Egidio Del Fabbro
102 Background: Intrathecal pumps (ITP) are used to manage severe malignancy related pain by delivering analgesics directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, in theory allowing for a reduced opioid dose and fewer complications. Although there is literature to support efficacy in patients with cancer, including improved survival, this mode of drug delivery also carries a risk of serious complications. Reports of complications in non-malignant pain suggest the risks and mortality related to ITP may be under-appreciated and that injury and liability occur with both ITP placement and ITP maintenance...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
P Lascombes, C Mamie
Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I), although first described by the French surgeon Ambroise Paré as far back as the 16th century, nevertheless remains shrouded in mystery. The most common symptoms are pain in an entire hand or foot, allodynia, functional impairment induced by the pain, local oedema and skin color changes and transient sweating abnormalities. Most cases occur after a minor injury (i.e., a sprain or fracture), although there may be no identifiable triggering event, particularly in children...
February 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Ross T Miller, Bradley E Barth
OBJECTIVE: To describe the health conditions treated by a health services center at a Boy Scout summer camp and make recommendations for appropriate resources and supplies. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of health center utilization at a Boy Scout camp in central Missouri during the summers of 2012 and 2013. Health logbook data were compiled and analyzed using descriptive and comparative statistics. RESULTS: During the study period 19,771 camp participants made 1586 visits to the health care center...
December 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Hannah A Blair, James E Frampton
Methoxyflurane (Penthrox®) is a halogenated ether first used clinically as a volatile inhalational anaesthetic. It has been used as an analgesic in Australia and New Zealand for the past 30 years. In the UK and Europe, methoxyflurane has been approved for the emergency relief of moderate to severe trauma pain in conscious adult patients. Methoxyflurane is self-administered using a hand-held inhaler. This article reviews the pharmacological properties of methoxyflurane and its clinical efficacy and tolerability in these patients...
December 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
Katarzyna Kozera, Bogdan Ciszek
The aim of this paper is to compare anatomic descriptions of posterior branches of the lumbar spinal nerves and, on this basis, present the location of these structures. The majority of anatomy textbooks do not describe these nerves in detail, which may be attributable to the fact that for many years they were regarded as structures of minor clinical importance. The state of knowledge on these nerves has changed within the last 30 years. Attention has been turned to their function and importance for both diagnostic practice and therapy of lower back pain...
January 2016: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
Paola Nicoletti, Anneke N Werk, Ashley Sawle, Yufeng Shen, Thomas J Urban, Sally A Coulthard, Einar S Bjornsson, Ingolf Cascorbi, Aris Floratos, Thomas Stammschulte, Ursula Gundert-Remy, Matthew R Nelson, Guruprasad P Aithal, Ann K Daly
OBJECTIVE: Flupirtine is a nonopioid analgesic with regulatory approval in a number of European countries. Because of the risk of serious liver injury, its use is now limited to short-term pain management. We aimed to identify genetic risk factors for flupirtine-related drug-induced liver injury (DILI) as these are unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six flupirtine-related DILI patients from Germany were included in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving a further 614 European cases of DILI because of other drugs and 10,588 population controls...
May 2016: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
Leonard J Paulozzi, Gail K Strickler, Peter W Kreiner, Caitlin M Koris
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Drug overdose is the leading cause of injury death in the United States. The death rate from drug overdose in the United States more than doubled during 1999-2013, from 6.0 per 100,000 population in 1999 to 13.8 in 2013. The increase in drug overdoses is attributable primarily to the misuse and abuse of prescription drugs, especially opioid analgesics, sedatives/tranquilizers, and stimulants. Such drugs are prescribed widely in the United States, with substantial variation by state...
October 16, 2015: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Deborshi Sharma, Kamal Yadav, Priya Hazrah, Saurabh Borgharia, Romesh Lal, Shaji Thomas
INTRODUCTION: Bilateral inguinal hernias form a part of the complex spectrum of weakness in the region of the myopectineal orifice. Laparoscopic surgery is one of the standard approaches for bilateral hernias. We describe the results of a randomized trial that was undertaken to compare and evaluate TAPP and TEP repair for bilateral inguinal hernias. METHODS: Sixty patients were randomized into two groups. Group I (TAPP) and Group II (TEP) were compared in terms of procedure related variables, conversion, post-operative recovery and complications...
October 2015: International Journal of Surgery
Mohamed Habib Grissa, Hamdi Boubaker, Asma Zorgati, Kaouthar Beltaïef, Wafa Zhani, Mohamed Amine Msolli, Nasri Bzeouich, Wahid Bouida, Riadh Boukef, Semir Nouira
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) titrated morphine with nebulized morphine given at 2 different doses in severe traumatic pain. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, controlled double-blind study, we included 300 patients with severe traumatic pain. They were assigned to 3 groups: Neb10 group received 1 nebulization of 10-mg morphine; Neb20 group received 1 nebulization of 20-mg morphine, repeated every 10 minutes with a maximum of 3 nebulizations; and the IV morphine group received 2-mg IV morphine repeated every 5 minutes until pain relief...
November 2015: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Hans Georg Predel, Helmut Pabst, Axel Schäfer, Diedrich Voss, Nicola Giordan
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the efficacy and the safety of a newly-developed patch containing diclofenac sodium 140 mg in patients affected by acute soft tissue sport injuries, such as contusion, strain and sprain with a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-four subjects were recruited within 3 hours of a soft-tissue sport injury and were equally assigned to receive diclofenac or placebo patch applied twice a day for 7 days...
January 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Ludwig Oberkircher, Natalie Schubert, Daphne-Asimenia Eschbach, Christopher Bliemel, Antonio Krueger, Steffen Ruchholtz, Benjamin Buecking
INTRODUCTION: As a part of aging, hip fractures are becoming more common. The connection between increased pain and a poor outcome has previously been shown. Therefore, even in prehospital situations, analgesic therapy appears to be reasonable. We established a prospective study with 153 patients to evaluate the patients' pain levels during the prehospital phase of treatment and prehospital analgesic therapy. METHODS: We performed a prospective study on 153 patients the age of 60 years or older in a University hospital setting between 2010 and 2011 who suffered hip fracture...
2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Koorosh Ahmadi, Amir Masoud Hashemian, Elham Pishbin, Ali Taheriniya, Saba Jafarpour, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the association between the responses of headache to IV morphine and the findings of brain CT scan in minor head injury (MHI), and to propose a new risk indicator to identify patients requiring CT scanning. METHODS: A total of 1857 MHI patients ≥15 years of age, presenting with headache and a GCS score of 14 or 15 were included in the study. Intravenous morphine sulfate was administered, and thereafter, patients were assessed for the relief or persistence of headache...
November 2014: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
Andis Graudins, Robert Meek, Dianna Egerton-Warburton, Ed Oakley, Robert Seith
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We compare the analgesic effectiveness of intranasal fentanyl and ketamine in children. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing fentanyl at 1.5 μg/kg with ketamine at 1 mg/kg in children aged 3 to 13 years and weighing less than 50 kg, with isolated limb injury and pain of more than 6 of 10 at triage. The sample size was 40 in each arm. Subjects were coadministered oral ibuprofen at 10 mg/kg. The primary outcome was median pain rating reduction at 30 minutes...
March 2015: Annals of Emergency Medicine
J Lieber
BACKGROUND: The distal forearm fracture is the most common injury (40%) in pediatric traumatology. OBJECTIVES: The treatment of distal forearm fractures in the growth phase contains two contrasting phenomena which are incompatible with the patient's interests and are discussed in this article. METHODS: A selective literature search was carried out and selected cases are discussed. RESULTS: On the one hand there is a unique property of the juvenile skeleton with an enormous potential for spontaneous correction enabling conservative treatment for the majority of fractures...
December 2014: Der Unfallchirurg
Alessio Moriconi, Thiago M Cunha, Guilherme R Souza, Alexandre H Lopes, Fernando Q Cunha, Victor L Carneiro, Larissa G Pinto, Laura Brandolini, Andrea Aramini, Cinzia Bizzarri, Gianluca Bianchini, Andrea R Beccari, Marco Fanton, Agostino Bruno, Gabriele Costantino, Riccardo Bertini, Emanuela Galliera, Massimo Locati, Sérgio H Ferreira, Mauro M Teixeira, Marcello Allegretti
Chronic pain resulting from inflammatory and neuropathic disorders causes considerable economic and social burden. Pharmacological therapies currently available for certain types of pain are only partially effective and may cause severe adverse side effects. The C5a anaphylatoxin acting on its cognate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), C5aR, is a potent pronociceptive mediator in several models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Although there has long been interest in the identification of C5aR inhibitors, their development has been complicated, as for many peptidomimetic drugs, mostly by poor drug-like properties...
November 25, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Steven C Curry, Angela Padilla-Jones, Ayrn D O'Connor, Anne-Michelle Ruha, Dale S Bikin, Diana G Wilkins, Douglas E Rollins, Matthew H Slawson, Richard D Gerkin
Elevated concentrations of serum acetaminophen-protein adducts, measured as protein-derived acetaminophen-cysteine (APAP-CYS), have been used to support a diagnosis of APAP-induced liver injury when histories and APAP levels are unhelpful. Adducts have been reported to undergo first-order elimination, with a terminal half-life of about 1.6 days. We wondered whether renal failure would affect APAP-CYS elimination half-life and whether continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), commonly used in liver failure patients, would remove adducts to lower their serum concentrations...
June 2015: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Erin Mills, Simon Craig, Ed Oakley
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to assess use of splinting prior to X-ray in paediatric ED patients with deformed upper limb fractures. Secondary objectives were to evaluate pharmaceutical analgesia use and the impact of demographic, hospital and clinical variables on splint and analgesia provision. METHODS: A retrospective study of 1407 paediatric ED patients who received upper limb X-rays. The records of those with fractures requiring manipulation were identified, and reviewed for data on demographics, mode of arrival, triage category, site of fracture, clinician seniority, pain scoring, splint application and analgesic use...
August 2014: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Jie Ma, Junhai Zhang, Tao Yang, Kaihua Fan, Jianwen Gu, Guangfu Yin
BACKGROUND/AIM: It is significant for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to receive prehospital emergency treatment as early as possible to reduce mortality. Therefore, a new prefilled multi-drug injector was developed to improve the treatment of TBI. Here, we studied the pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone (DXM) and nefopam using the injector to investigate the significance of drug interactions and the necessity of dose adjustment. METHODS: Rats were administered DXM and nefopam intramuscularly alone or in combination using the injector...
2014: Pharmacology
Ombretta Caspani, Marie-Céline Reitz, Angelo Ceci, Andreas Kremer, Rolf-Detlef Treede
Depression and anxiety are common comorbidities of neuropathic pain (NP). Pharmacological preclinical studies on NP have given abundant information on the effects of drugs on reflex measures of stimulus-evoked pain. However, few preclinical studies focus on relief of comorbidities evoked by NP. In this study, we investigated the effects of tramadol on nociceptive reflex, depression-associated and anxiety-related behaviors in a NP model in rats. We used chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve as an animal model of neuropathic pain...
September 2014: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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