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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737000/chemoprofile-and-functional-diversity-of-fungal-and-bacterial-endophytes-and-role-of-ecofactors-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Aiyatullah Shah, Qazi Parvaiz Hassan, Saleem Mushtaq, Aabid Manzoor Shah, Aehtesham Hussain
Endophytes represent a hidden world within plants. Almost all plants that are studied harbor one or more endophytes, which help their host to survive against pathogens and changing adverse environmental conditions. Fungal and bacterial endophytes with distinct ecological niches show important biological activities and ecological functions. Their unique physiological and biochemical characteristics lead to the production of niche specific secondary metabolites that may have pharmacological potential. Identification of specific secondary metabolites in adverse environment can also help us in understanding mechanisms of host tolerance against stress condition such as biological invasions, salt, drought, temperature...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736622/nutrition-and-osteoporosis-prevention-for-the-orthopaedic-surgeon-a-wholefoods-approach
#2
Jennette Higgs, Emma Derbyshire, Kathryn Styles
Osteoporosis is a prevalent and debilitating condition with no signs of subsiding. Rising numbers of people consuming nutrient-poor diets coupled with ageing populations and sedentary lifestyles appear to be the main drivers behind this.While the nutrients calcium and vitamin D have received most attention, there is growing evidence that wholefoods and other micronutrients have roles to play in primary and potentially secondary osteoporosis prevention.Until recently, calcium and vitamin D were regarded as the main nutrients essential to bone health but now there are emerging roles for iron, copper and selenium, among others...
June 2017: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736167/an-actomyosin-arf-gef-negative-feedback-loop-for-tissue-elongation-under-stress
#3
Junior J West, Teresa Zulueta-Coarasa, Janna A Maier, Donghoon M Lee, Ashley E E Bruce, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez, Tony J C Harris
In response to a pulling force, a material can elongate, hold fast, or fracture. During animal development, multi-cellular contraction of one region often stretches neighboring tissue. Such local contraction occurs by induced actomyosin activity, but molecular mechanisms are unknown for regulating the physical properties of connected tissue for elongation under stress. We show that cytohesins, and their Arf small G protein guanine nucleotide exchange activity, are required for tissues to elongate under stress during both Drosophila dorsal closure (DC) and zebrafish epiboly...
July 13, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735389/the-fundamental-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-plant-stress-response
#4
Michael Liebthal, Karl-Josef Dietz
Chemical, physical, and biotic factors continuously vary in the natural environment. Such parameters are considered as stressors if the magnitude of their change exceeds the current acclimation norm of the plant. Activation of genetic programs allows for conditional expansion of the acclimation norm and depends on specific sensing mechanisms, intracellular communication, and regulation. The redox and reactive oxygen species (ROS) network plays a fundamental role in directing the acclimation response. These highly reactive compounds like H2O2 are generated and scavenged under normal conditions and participate in realizing a basal acclimation level...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731451/novel-blood-based-biomarkers-of-cognition-stress-and-physical-or-cognitive-training-in-older-adults-at-risk-of-dementia-preliminary-evidence-for-a-role-of-bdnf-irisin-and-the-kynurenine-pathway
#5
Olivia C Küster, Daria Laptinskaya, Patrick Fissler, Cathrin Schnack, Martina Zügel, Verena Nold, Franka Thurm, Sina Pleiner, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Björn von Einem, Patrick Weydt, Andre Liesener, Andreas Borta, Alexander Woll, Bastian Hengerer, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Christine A F von Arnim
 Psychosocial stress and physical, cognitive, and social activity predict the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The aim of this study was to elucidate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), irisin, and the kynurenine pathway (KP) as potential underlying biological correlates. We evaluated associations of irisin and the KP with BDNF in serum and with cognition, stress, and activities. Furthermore, changes in serum concentrations of BDNF, irisin, and KP metabolites were investigated after physical or cognitive training...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726269/previous-physical-exercise-alters-hepatic-profile-of-oxidative-inflammatory-status-and-limits-the-secondary-brain-damage-induced-by-severe-tbi-in-rats
#6
Mauro Robson Torres de Castro, Ana Paula de Oliveira Ferreira, Guilherme Lago Busanello, Luís Roberto Hart da Silva, Mauro Eduardo Porto da Silveira Junior, Fernando Fiorin, Gabriela Arrifano, Maria Elena Crespo López, Rômulo Pillon Barcelos, María J Cuevas, Guilherme Bresciani, Javier González-Gallego, Michele Rechia Fighera, Luiz Fernando Freire Royes
Although systemic responses have been described after traumatic brain injury (TBI), little is known regarding potential interactions between brain and peripheral organs after neuronal injury. In this sense, we decided to investigate whether peripheral oxidative/inflammatory response contributes to the neuronal dysfunction after TBI as well as prophylactic role of exercise training. Animals were submitted to fluid percussion injury (FPI) after 6 weeks of swimming training. Previous exercise training increased mRNA expression of X receptor alpha (LXR-α), ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1), and decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 expression per se in liver...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724842/short-term-effect-of-back-school-based-on-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-involving-multidisciplinary-collaboration
#7
Ryo Motoya, Koji Otani, Takuya Nikaido, Yoko Ono, Takatomo Matsumoto, Ryohei Yamagishi, Shoji Yabuki, Shin-Ichi Konno, Shin-Ichi Niwa, Hirooki Yabe
ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive back school program that included elements of CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy), implement this through multidisciplinary collaboration, and ascertain its effectiveness as a pilot study. DesignThis school was implemented in the form of five 90-minute group sessions held every other week.MethodsParticipants comprised 7 chronic low back pain patients with poor improvement in the usual treatment. Practitioners were orthopaedic surgeon, physical therapist, and a clinical psychologist...
July 20, 2017: Fukushima Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724737/stress-hormones-predict-a-host-superspreader-phenotype-in-the-west-nile-virus-system
#8
Stephanie S Gervasi, Sarah C Burgan, Erik Hofmeister, Thomas R Unnasch, Lynn B Martin
Glucocorticoid stress hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT), have profound effects on the behaviour and physiology of organisms, and thus have the potential to alter host competence and the contributions of individuals to population- and community-level pathogen dynamics. For example, CORT could alter the rate of contacts among hosts, pathogens and vectors through its widespread effects on host metabolism and activity levels. CORT could also affect the intensity and duration of pathogen shedding and risk of host mortality during infection...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723273/the-repair-project-examining-the-biological-impacts-of-sub-background-radiation-exposure-within-snolab-a-deep-underground-laboratory
#9
Christopher Thome, Sujeenthar Tharmalingam, Jake Pirkkanen, Andrew Zarnke, Taylor Laframboise, Douglas R Boreham
Considerable attention has been given to understanding the biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure at levels slightly above background. However, relatively few studies have been performed to examine the inverse, where natural background radiation is removed. The limited available data suggest that organisms exposed to sub-background radiation environments undergo reduced growth and an impaired capacity to repair genetic damage. Shielding from background radiation is inherently difficult due to high-energy cosmic radiation...
July 19, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722347/foxo3-longevity-interactome-on-chromosome-6
#10
Timothy A Donlon, Brian J Morris, Randi Chen, Kamal H Masaki, Richard C Allsopp, D Craig Willcox, Ayako Elliott, Bradley J Willcox
FOXO3 has been implicated in longevity in multiple populations. By DNA sequencing in long-lived individuals, we identified all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FOXO3 and showed 41 were associated with longevity. Thirteen of these had predicted alterations in transcription factor binding sites. Those SNPs appeared to be in physical contact, via RNA polymerase II binding chromatin looping, with sites in the FOXO3 promoter, and likely function together as a cis-regulatory unit. The SNPs exhibited a high degree of LD in the Asian population, in which they define a specific longevity haplotype that is relatively common...
July 19, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722022/opioid-release-after-high-intensity-interval-training-in-healthy-human-subjects
#11
Tiina Saanijoki, Lauri Tuominen, Jetro J Tuulari, Lauri Nummenmaa, Eveliina Arponen, Kari Kalliokoski, Jussi Hirvonen
Central opioidergic mechanisms may modulate the positive effects of physical exercise such as mood elevation and stress reduction. How exercise intensity and concomitant affective changes affect central opioidergic responses is unknown. We studied the effects of acute physical exercise on the cerebral μ-opioid receptors (MOR) of 22 healthy recreationally active males using positron emission tomography (PET) and the MOR-selective radioligand [(11)C]carfentanil. MOR binding was measured in three conditions on separate days: after a 60-min aerobic moderate-intensity exercise session, after a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session, and after rest...
July 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721562/reduced-energy-availability-implications-for-bone-health-in-physically-active-populations
#12
REVIEW
Maria Papageorgiou, Eimear Dolan, Kirsty J Elliott-Sale, Craig Sale
PURPOSE: The present review critically evaluates existing literature on the effects of short- and long-term low energy availability (EA) on bone metabolism and health in physically active individuals. METHODS: We reviewed the literature on the short-term effects of low EA on markers of bone metabolism and the long-term effects of low EA on outcomes relating to bone health (bone mass, microarchitecture and strength, bone metabolic markers and stress fracture injury risk) in physically active individuals...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720937/quality-characteristics-of-broiler-chicken-meat-from-free-range-and-industrial-poultry-system-for-the-consumers
#13
Débora Cristina Fernandes da Silva, Alex Martins Varela de Arruda, Alex Augusto Gonçalves
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the quality parameters of broiler chicken meat from free-range and industrial poultry system. Proximate composition, color, pH, shear force, microbial quality and sensory characteristics were evaluated. Both free-range and industrial chicken meat presented PSE (pale, soft and exudative) anomaly (L* > 53). An inverse correlation between lightness, pH and shear force was observed. The free range broiler meat had higher yellow color (b* 11...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720278/-development-of-a-liquid-fermentation-system-and-encystment-for-a-nitrogen-fixing-bacterium-strain-having-biofertilizer-potential
#14
Mauricio Camelo-Rusinque, Andrés Moreno-Galván, Felipe Romero-Perdomo, Ruth Bonilla-Buitrago
The indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers has contributed to the deterioration of the biological, physical and chemical properties of the soil, resulting in the loss of its productive capacity. For this reason, the use of biofertilizers has emerged as a technological alternative. The objective of this research was to develop a suitable liquid fermentation system and encystment for the multiplication of Azotobacter chroococcum AC1 strain, a bacterium employed in a biofertilizer formulation produced at present by CARPOICA, Colombia...
July 15, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720102/environmental-lifestyle-factors-in-the-pathogenesis-and-prevention-of-type-2-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Hubert Kolb, Stephan Martin
BACKGROUND: Environmental and lifestyle changes, in addition to the ageing of populations, are generally believed to account for the rapid global increase in type 2 diabetes prevalence and incidence in recent decades. DISCUSSION: In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of factors contributing to diabetes risk, including aspects of diet quality and quantity, little physical activity, increased monitor viewing time or sitting in general, exposure to noise or fine dust, short or disturbed sleep, smoking, stress and depression, and a low socioeconomic status...
July 19, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719364/is-there-a-link-between-self-perceived-stress-and-physical-activity-levels-in-scottish-adolescents
#16
Joe Cowley, John Kiely, Dave Collins
Purpose Accumulating life stress is a driving factor underlying the most pervasive, incapacitating health conditions in 21st century, First World societies. The most widely supported strategy, for remediating the negative health consequences of elevated life stress, is physical activity (PA). Evidence also suggests accumulating life stress impedes PA uptake. Thus, ironically, persistently elevated life stress not only negatively impacts multiple dimensions of health, simultaneously it may also reduce likelihood of participation in the most effective remediating strategy, PA...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716911/activation-and-synchronization-of-the-oscillatory-morphodynamics-in-multicellular-monolayer
#17
Shao-Zhen Lin, Bo Li, Ganhui Lan, Xi-Qiao Feng
Oscillatory morphodynamics provides necessary mechanical cues for many multicellular processes. Owing to their collective nature, these processes require robustly coordinated dynamics of individual cells, which are often separated too distantly to communicate with each other through biomaterial transportation. Although it is known that the mechanical balance generally plays a significant role in the systems' morphologies, it remains elusive whether and how the mechanical components may contribute to the systems' collective morphodynamics...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715596/influence-of-physical-exercise-on-%C3%AE-amyloid-%C3%AE-synuclein-and-tau-accumulation-an-in-vitro-model-of-oxidative-stress-in-human-red-blood-cells
#18
C Iofrida, S Daniele, D Pietrobono, J Fusi, F Galetta, M L Trincavelli, U Bonuccelli, F Franzoni, C Martini
A common pathological feature of neurodegenerative disorders (NDs), such as Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases, is the abnormal accumulation and misfolding of specific proteins, primarily α-synuclein (α-syn), β-amyloid1-42 (Aβ) and tau, in brain and in peripheral tissues too. Oxidative stress has been proved to be involved in NDs at various levels and, in particular, in such protein alterations, on the contrary physical activity is emerging as a counteracting factor in NDs. In the present work, the content of Aβ, α-syn and tau in red blood cells (RBCs) derived from ten endurance athletes (ATHL) and ten sedentary volunteers (SED) were compared before and after in vitrooxidative stress treatment...
July 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715594/physical-exercise-and-oxidative-stress-in-muscular-dystrophies-is-there-a-good-balance
#19
L Chico, G Ricci, M Cosci O Di Coscio, C Simoncini, G Siciliano
The effect of oxidative stress on muscle damage inducted by physical exercise is widely debated. It is generally agreed that endurance and intense exercise can increase oxidative stress and generate changes in antioxidant power inducing muscle damage; however, regular and moderate exercise can be beneficial for the health improving the antioxidant defense mechanisms in the majority of cases. Growing evidences suggest that an increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of several muscular dystrophies (MDs)...
July 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714789/the-role-of-physical-activity-in-the-association-between-resilience-and-mental-health-in-older-adults
#20
Maria Priscila Wermelinger Ávila, Jimilly Caputo Corrêa, Alessandra Lamas Granero Lucchetti, Giancarlo Lucchetti
The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between resilience and mental health in older adults and how physical activity influences that relationship. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 312 older adults (179 active and 133 sedentary classified by IPAQ). Considering the whole sample, an inverse relationship was found for resilience (Wagnild-Young's Resilience Scale) with depression and stress (DASS-21). Among the sedentary, in spite of there not being an association between total resilience and mental health, there was an inverse relationship for the "meaning of life" component of the resilience and depression scale...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
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