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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908304/the-role-and-diagnostic-value-of-cell-free-dna-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#1
REVIEW
Anna Truszewska, Bartosz Foroncewicz, Leszek Pączek
Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) represents a small fraction of total DNA pool that circulates freely in the blood both in normal and pathological conditions. Data indicate that cfDNA plays an important role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and hypomethylation may be crucial for its immunogenic properties. Although differences in quantification methodology hinder the comparison of results between the studies, it appears that levels of cfDNA are abnormally elevated in SLE patients and correlate with various antibody titers, but not with disease activity...
November 14, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902995/systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-review-of-the-clinical-approach-to-diagnosis-and-update-on-current-targeted-therapies
#2
Joanne Szczygiel Cunha, Katarzyna Gilek-Seibert
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, complicated and challenging disease to diagnose and treat. The etiology of SLE is unknown, but certain risk factors have been identified that lead to immune system dysfunction with antibody formation and immune complex deposition. This immune system dysregulation causes organ injury, contributing to the variable manifestations and relapsing-remitting course of the disease. Criteria were created to aide in the diagnosis, focusing on clinical manifestations and antibody profiles specific to SLE...
December 1, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885378/netosis-provides-the-link-between-activation-of-neutrophils-on-hemodialysis-membrane-and-comorbidities-in-dialyzed-patients
#3
REVIEW
Marie Korabecna, Vladimir Tesar
INTRODUCTION: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are formed by activated neutrophils during the process of NETosis in which the nuclear material is released into extracellular space, including DNA molecules, citrullinated histones, and neutrophil granule enzymes, such as elastase. This material forms networks that are able not only to physically entrap bacteria but also to provide elevated concentration of bactericidal components. Over the last years, it has become clear that NETs can also be formed under numerous sterile inflammatory conditions, i...
November 24, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884379/purinergic-signalling-in-autoimmunity-a-role-for-the-p2x7r-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#4
REVIEW
Francesco Di Virgilio, Anna Lisa Giuliani
Purinergic signalling plays a crucial role in immunity and autoimmunity. Among purinergic receptors, the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has an undisputed role as it is expressed to high level by immune cells, triggers cytokine release and modulates immune cell differentiation. In this review, we focus on evidence supporting a possible role of the P2X7R in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
October 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882473/foxp3-regulatory-t-cell-and-autoimmune-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Jin-Hui Tao, Miao Cheng, Jiang-Ping Tang, Qin Liu, Fan Pan, Xiang-Pei Li
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) represent a cell type that promotes immune tolerance to autologous components and maintains immune system homeostasis. The abnormal function of Tregs is relevant to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and other autoimmune diseases. Therefore, therapeutic modulation of Tregs could be a potent means of treating autoimmune diseases. Human Tregs are diverse, however, and not all of them have immunosuppressive effects. Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), a pivotal transcription factor of Tregs that is crucial in maintaining Treg immunosuppressive function, can be expressed heterogeneously or unstably across Treg subpopulations...
November 24, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880973/immunopathogenesis-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-rheumatoid-arthritis-the-role-of-aberrant-expression-of-non-coding-rnas-in-t-cells
#6
REVIEW
Ning-Sheng Lai, Malcolm Koo, Chia-Li Yu, Ming-Chi Lu
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), are RNA molecules that do not translate into protein. Both miRNAs and lncRNAs are known to regulate gene expression and to play an essential role in T cell differentiation and function. Both systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototypic systemic autoimmune disease, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a representative disease of inflammatory arthritis, are characterized by a complex dysfunction in the innate and adaptive immunity...
November 23, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878954/biomarkers-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-identified-using-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Orthodoxia Nicolaou, Andreas Kousios, Andreas Hadjisavvas, Bernard Lauwerys, Kleitos Sokratous, Kyriacos Kyriacou
Advances in mass spectrometry technologies have created new opportunities for discovering novel protein biomarkers in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We performed a systematic review of published reports on proteomic biomarkers identified in SLE patients using mass spectrometry-based proteomics and highlight their potential disease association and clinical utility. Two electronic databases, MEDLINE and EMBASE, were systematically searched up to July 2015. The methodological quality of studies included in the review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878308/-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-unusual-cutaneous-manifestations
#8
REVIEW
T Stockinger, L Richter, M Kanzler, M Melichart-Kotik, H Pas, K Derfler, E Schmidt, K Rappersberger
BACKGROUND: Various different mucocutaneous symptoms may affect up to 80 % of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. OBJECTIVES: To investigate, various unspecific, but otherwise typical clinical symptoms of skin and mucous membranes that arise in SLE patients other than those defined as SLE criteria such as butterfly rash, chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, oral ulcers, and increased photosensitivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extensive search of peer-reviewed scientific articles was performed, medical histories of several SLE patients seen in our department were analyzed, and the rare disease courses in three SLE patients are presented...
December 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872476/new-insights-into-the-immunopathogenesis-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#9
REVIEW
George C Tsokos, Mindy S Lo, Patricia Costa Reis, Kathleen E Sullivan
The aetiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is multifactorial, and includes contributions from the environment, stochastic factors, and genetic susceptibility. Great gains have been made in understanding SLE through the use of genetic variant identification, mouse models, gene expression studies, and epigenetic analyses. Collectively, these studies support the concept that defective clearance of immune complexes and biological waste (such as apoptotic cells), neutrophil extracellular traps, nucleic acid sensing, lymphocyte signalling, and interferon production pathways are all central to loss of tolerance and tissue damage...
November 22, 2016: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867431/the-avise-lupus-test-and-cell-bound-complement-activation-products-aid-the-diagnosis-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#10
James Mossell, John A Goldman, Derren Barken, Roberta Vezza Alexander
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifaceted disease, and its diagnosis may be challenging. A blood test for the diagnosis of SLE, the Avise Lupus test, has been recently commercialized and validated in clinical studies. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of the Avise Lupus test by community rheumatologists. METHODS: The study is a longitudinal, case-control, retrospective review of medical charts. Cases had a positive test result, and controls had a negative result; all patients were anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) positive but negative for SLE-specific autoantibodies...
2016: Open Rheumatology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867381/a-critical-reappraisal-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-and-netosis-mimics-based-on-differential-requirements-for-protein-citrullination
#11
Maximilian F Konig, Felipe Andrade
NETosis, an antimicrobial form of neutrophil cell death, is considered a primary source of citrullinated autoantigens in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and immunogenic DNA in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Activation of the citrullinating enzyme peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4) is believed to be essential for neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and NETosis. PAD4 is therefore viewed as a promising therapeutic target to inhibit the formation of NETs in both diseases. In this review, we examine the evidence for PAD4 activation during NETosis and provide experimental data to suggest that protein citrullination is not a universal feature of NETs...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856665/emerging-roles-of-egr2-and-egr3-in-the-control-of-systemic-autoimmunity
#12
REVIEW
Kaoru Morita, Tomohisa Okamura, Shuji Sumitomo, Yukiko Iwasaki, Keishi Fujio, Kazuhiko Yamamoto
SLE is an autoimmune disease characterized by multiple organ damage mediated by autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells. Approaches utilizing genetically engineered mice as well as genome-wide association studies have identified a number of lupus-related genes. Recently, early growth response gene 2 (Egr2) and Egr3 have emerged as regulatory molecules that suppress excessive immune responses. Mice deficient for Egr2 and Egr3 develop a lupus-like disease with dysregulated activation of effector T cells. Furthermore, Egr2 and Egr3 confer suppressive activity to CD4(+) T cells and regulate the production of inhibitory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β1...
December 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825411/clinical-features-of-patients-with-castleman-s-disease-complicated-by-br-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#13
Lu Zhang, Xin-Xin Cao, Shu-Jie Wang, Dao-Bin Zhou, Jian Li
Objective To investigate the clinical features of patients with Castleman's disease (CD) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods According to the diagnostic information between 1994 to 2014 extracted from the database of the Medical Record Department of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH),patients with CD and SLE were included. A thorough literature review utilizing the key words of "Castleman's disease","systemic lupus erythematosus","SLE",and "lupus" was performed in PubMed during the same period...
October 10, 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821390/update-on-lupus-nephritis
#14
Salem Almaani, Alexa Meara, Brad H Rovin
SLE is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the kidneys in about 50% of patients. Lupus nephritis is a major risk factor for overall morbidity and mortality in SLE, and despite potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive therapies still ends in CKD or ESRD for too many patients. This review highlights recent updates in our understanding of disease epidemiology, genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment in an effort to establish a framework for lupus nephritis management that is patient-specific and oriented toward maintaining long-term kidney function in patients with lupus...
November 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813554/association-of-interferon-induced-helicase-c-domain-ifih1-gene-polymorphisms-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-a-relevant-updated-meta-analysis
#15
J De Azevedo Silva, S C Lima, C Addobbati, R Moura, L A Cavalcanti Brandão, J A Trés Pancoto, E A Donadi, S Crovella, P Sandrin-Garcia
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disorder presenting heterogeneous clinical manifestations. A number of genes involved in SLE susceptibility are related to the type I interferon (IFN) pathway. IFN mediates innate immune responses and its increased levels contribute to the breakdown of peripheral tolerance. Interferon-induced helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1) activates and modulates IFN responses through its caspase recruitment domain. In this study, we analyzed four IFIH1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): rs6432714, rs10930046, rs1990760, and rs3747517, in 337 patients with SLE and 373 healthy individuals from southeast and northeast Brazil...
October 24, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812954/activation-of-the-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-in-sle-explosion-of-evidence-in-the-last-five-years
#16
REVIEW
Zachary Oaks, Thomas Winans, Nick Huang, Katalin Banki, Andras Perl
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator in cell growth, activation, proliferation, and survival. Activation of the mTOR pathway underlies the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). While mTOR activation and its therapeutic reversal were originally discovered in T cells, recent investigations have also uncovered roles in other cell subsets including B cells, macrophages, and "non-immune" organs such as the liver and the kidney. Activation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) precedes the onset of SLE and associated co-morbidities, such as anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), and may act as an early marker of disease pathogenesis...
December 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812953/monogenic-lupus
#17
REVIEW
Mindy S Lo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease known for its clinical heterogeneity. Over time, new insights into the complex genetic origin of SLE have started to explain some of this clinical variability. These findings, reviewed here, have also yielded important understanding in the immune mechanisms behind SLE pathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Several new monogenic disorders with lupus-like phenotype have been described...
December 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804863/candidate-biomarkers-for-fatigue-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-critical-review
#18
Mary A Mahieu, Rosalind Ramsey-Goldman
Fatigue impacts 80-90% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and an incomplete understanding of fatigue mechanisms limits effective treatment. Disease activity indices and laboratory markers inconsistently correlate with fatigue severity in SLE populations. Identification of fatigue biomarkers has important implications for understanding pathogenesis and defining novel therapeutic targets, but a paucity of evidence exists for fatigue biomarkers in SLE. The evidence for adipokines, reduced glutathione, iron deficiency, and vitamin D as potential biomarkers for SLE-related fatigue are reviewed...
October 29, 2016: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780774/the-contribution-of-the-programmed-cell-death-machinery-in-innate-immune-cells-to-lupus-nephritis
#19
FuNien Tsai, Harris Perlman, Carla M Cuda
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multi-factorial autoimmune disease initiated by genetic and environmental factors, which in combination trigger disease onset in susceptible individuals. Damage to the kidney as a consequence of lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most prevalent and severe outcomes, as LN affects up to 60% of SLE patients and accounts for much of SLE-associated morbidity and mortality. As remarkable strides have been made in unlocking new inflammatory mechanisms associated with signaling molecules of programmed cell death pathways, this review explores the available evidence implicating the action of these pathways specifically within dendritic cells and macrophages in the control of kidney disease...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777394/systemic-lupus-erythematosus-presenting-as-refractory-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura-a-diagnostic-and-management-challenge-a-case-report-and-concise-review-of-the-literature
#20
Mohammad Abu-Hishmeh, Alamgir Sattar, Fnu Zarlasht, Mohamed Ramadan, Aisha Abdel-Rahman, Shante Hinson, Caroline Hwang
BACKGROUND Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is one of the thrombotic microangiopathic (TMA) syndromes, caused by severely reduced activity of the vWF-cleaving protease ADAMTS13. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), on the other hand, is an autoimmune disease that affects various organs in the body, including the hematopoietic system. SLE can present with TMA, and differentiating between SLE and TTP in those cases can be very challenging, particularly in patients with no prior history of SLE. Furthermore, an association between these 2 diseases has been described in the literature, with most of the TTP cases occurring after the diagnosis of SLE...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
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