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preference weighted

Junsig Wang, Jason C Gillette
BACKGROUND: Individuals often carry items in one hand instead of both hands during activities of daily living. Research Question The purpose of this study was to investigate low back and lower extremity frontal plane moments for loaded limb stance and unloaded limb stance when carrying symmetric and asymmetric loads during stair negotiation. METHODS: Participants were instructed to ascend and descend a three-step staircase at preferred pace using a right leg lead and a left leg lead for each load condition: no load, 20% body weight (BW) bilateral load, and 20% BW unilateral load...
June 19, 2018: Gait & Posture
Michael Lejbach Bertelsen, Mette Hansen, Sten Rasmussen, Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen
Study Design An explorative 7-day prospective cohort study. Background Overweight and obese novice runners are subjected to a higher load per stride than their normal-weight peers. Yet, do they reduce their running dose accordingly when commencing a self-chosen running regime? Objectives To describe and compare the preferred running dose in normal-weight (NWR), overweight (OWR) and obese novice runners (OBR) when they commence a self-chosen running regime. Methods 914 novice runners were categorized into one of 3 exposure groups based on their body mass index (BMI): (i) NWR (BMI<25, n=405, reference group); (ii) OWR (BMI 25 to <30, n=341); and (iii) OBR (BMI ≥30, n=168)...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Catharina G M Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Edwin R van den Heuvel, Paul F M Krabbe
BACKGROUND: A new patient-reported health measurement model has been developed to quantify descriptions of health states. Known as the multi-attribute preference response (MAPR) model, it is based on item response theory. The response task in the MAPR is for a patient to judge whether hypothetical health-state descriptions are better or worse than his/her own health status. METHODS: In its most simple form MAPR is a Rasch model where for each respondent on the same unidimensional health scale values are estimated of their own health status and values of the hypothetical comparator health states...
June 22, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
L S Donnelly, R L Shaw, M Pegington, C J Armitage, D G Evans, A Howell, M N Harvie
BACKGROUND: Weight-loss programmes requiring intermittent energy restriction offer an alternative to continuous energy restriction programmes that typically have low adherence. We reported greater weight loss, better adherence and spontaneous reduced energy intake on healthy eating days with intermittent as opposed to continuous energy restriction. The present study aims to explore why intermittent energy restriction diets exert these positive effects. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 13 women aged 39-62 years, who followed a 4-month intermittent energy restriction (2 days of low energy/low carbohydrate, 5 days of healthy eating)...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Erik M Summerside, Rodger Kram, Alaa A Ahmed
Humans naturally select several parameters within a gait that correspond with minimizing metabolic cost. Much less is understood about the role of metabolic cost in selecting between gaits. Here, we asked participants to decide between walking or running out and back to different gait specific markers. The distance of the walking marker was adjusted after each decision to identify relative distances where individuals switched gait preferences. We found that neither minimizing solely metabolic energy nor minimizing solely movement time could predict how the group decided between gaits...
June 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Michelle L Wright, Christina Fournier, Madelyn C Houser, Malú Tansey, Jonathan Glass, Vicki Stover Hertzberg
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) etiology and pathophysiology are not well understood. Recent data suggest that dysbiosis of gut microbiota may contribute to ALS etiology and progression. This review aims to explore evidence of associations between gut microbiota and ALS etiology and pathophysiology. Databases were searched for publications relevant to the gut microbiome in ALS. Three publications provided primary evidence of changes in microbiome profiles in ALS. An ALS mouse model revealed damaged tight junction structure and increased permeability in the intestine versus controls along with a shifted microbiome profile, including decreased levels of butyrate-producing bacteria...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Carlo Alviggi, Alessandro Conforti, Daniele Santi, Sandro C Esteves, Claus Yding Andersen, Peter Humaidan, Paolo Chiodini, Giuseppe De Placido, Manuela Simoni
BACKGROUND: Genotype has been implicated in the outcome of ovarian stimulation. The analysis of patient-specific genotypes might lead to an individualized pharmacogenomic approach to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS). However, the validity of such an approach remains to be established. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To define the impact of specific genotype profiles of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and their receptors (FSHR, LHR and LHCGR) on ovarian stimulation outcome...
June 18, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Judith Hellman, Soheyl Bahrami, Mihaly Boros, Irshad Chaudry, Gerhard Fritsch, Waldemar Gozdzik, Shigeaki Inoue, Peter Radermacher, Mervyn Singer, Marcin F Osuchowski, Markus Huber-Lang
As outlined in the "International Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2016", initial fluid resuscitation and administration of antibiotics are key steps in the early management of sepsis and septic shock. However, such clear guidelines do not exist for pre-clinical sepsis models. To address these shortcomings, the Wiggers-Bernard conference on pre-clinical sepsis models was held in Vienna in May, 2017. The participants reviewed 260 of the most highly cited papers between 2003 and 2012 that used sepsis models...
June 19, 2018: Shock
Lara A Kahale, Maram B Hakoum, Ibrahim G Tsolakian, Charbel F Matar, Irene Terrenato, Francesca Sperati, Maddalena Barba, Victor Ed Yosuico, Holger Schünemann, Elie A Akl
BACKGROUND: Cancer increases the risk of thromboembolic events, especially in people receiving anticoagulation treatments. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for the long-term treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in people with cancer. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted a literature search including a major electronic search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid), and Embase (Ovid); handsearching conference proceedings; checking references of included studies; use of the 'related citation' feature in PubMed and a search for ongoing studies in trial registries...
June 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jennifer Glenna Donenberg, Linda Fetters, Robert Johnson
PURPOSE: Discuss the effectiveness of locomotor training (LT) in children following spinal cord injury (SCI). This intervention was assessed following an exhaustive search of the literature using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta- Analyses: The PRISMA Statement as a guideline. METHOD: Six databases were searched including PubMed, PEDro, CINAHL, Cochrane, PsycINFO, and Web of Knowledge in January 2016 and November 2016, without date restrictions...
June 19, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
Ahmer M Hameed, Jinna Yao, Richard D M Allen, Wayne J Hawthorne, Henry C Pleass, Howard Lau
Robotic-assisted kidney transplantation (RAKT) represents the most recent innovation in the evolution of kidney transplantation surgery. Vascular techniques enabling kidney transplantation have existed since the early 20 century and contributed to the first successful open kidney transplant procedure in 1954. Technical advances have since facilitated minimally invasive laparoscopic and robotic techniques in live-donor surgery, and subsequently for the recipient procedure. This review follows the development of surgical techniques for kidney transplantation, with a special focus on the advent of robotic-assisted transplantation because of its potential to facilitate transplantation of those deemed previously too obese to transplant by standard means...
June 18, 2018: Transplantation
Deniz Çevirme, Taylan Adademir, Eylül Kafalı Başaran, Ömer Faruk Şavluk, Ahmet Elibol, Gözde Erkanlı Şentürk, Hatice Akkaya, Bayram Yılmaz
Background/aim: Alprostadil and iloprost are successful agents used for both pulmonary hypertension and extremity ischemia treatment. Different systemic effects of these agents may change the preferences of clinical usage. Superiority of preventing ischemia/ reperfusion (IR) injury is a criterion for clinical preference of these agents. The present study was designed to compare the protective effects of alprostadil and iloprost in a rat model of IR injury. Materials and methods: Twenty-three male Sprague Dawley rats were used (aged 8-12 weeks, mean weight 230 ± 30 g)...
June 14, 2018: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Ravul Jindal, D B Dekiwadia, Pinjala Rama Krishna, Ajay K Khanna, Malay D Patel, Shoaib Padaria, Roy Varghese
Venous ulcer is an extremely common aetiology of lower extremity ulceration, which affects approximately 1% population in most of the countries, and the incidence rate increases with age and female gender. Proper assessment and diagnosis of both the patient and ulcer are inevitable in order to differentiate venous ulcers from other lower extremity ulceration and to frame an adequate and individualised management plan. Venous ulcers generally persist for weeks to many years and are typically recurrent in nature...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Surgery
Michelle S Lau, Peter D Mooney, William L White, Michael A Rees, Simon H Wong, Marios Hadjivassiliou, Peter H R Green, Benjamin Lebwohl, David S Sanders
OBJECTIVES: Celiac disease (CD) is common yet under-detected. A point of care test (POCT) may improve CD detection. We aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of an IgA/IgG-deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP)-based POCT for CD detection, patient acceptability, and inter-observer variability of the POCT results. METHODS: From 2013-2017, we prospectively recruited patients referred to secondary care with gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia and/or weight loss (group 1); and patients with self-reported gluten sensitivity with unknown CD status (group 2)...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Laura K Milton, Brian J Oldfield, Claire J Foldi
Patients suffering anorexia nervosa (AN) become anhedonic, in other words, unable or unwilling to derive normal pleasures and avoid rewarding outcomes, most profoundly in food intake. The neurobiological underpinnings of anhedonia are likely to involve mesolimbic reward circuitry. We propose here that this circuitry and its involvement in AN can be investigated using the activity-based anorexia (ABA) rodent model that recapitulates many of the characteristics of the human condition, most notably rapid weight loss...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Raïssa A de Boer, Marcel Eens, Wendt Müller
Inbreeding is a central topic in evolutionary biology and ecology and is of major concern for the conservation of endangered species. Yet, it remains challenging to comprehend the fitness consequences of inbreeding, because studies typically focus only on short-term effects on inbreeding in the offspring (e.g. survival until independence). However, there is no a priori reason to assume that inbreeding has no more effects in adulthood. Specifically, inbred males should have lower reproductive success than outbred males among other things because of inbreeding depression in attractiveness to females and a reduced lifespan...
2018: PloS One
Reut Agam-Bitton, Wiessam Abu Ahmad, Moria Golan
BACKGROUND: Investigation of the optimal setting for body image prevention programmes is important to maximize the outcomes of such programmes. OBJECTIVES: We examined the preferred setting for a school-based wellness programme called "In Favour of Myself". METHODS: A total of 259 girls (mean 13.82±0.64 years) were divided into a girls-only intervention group, a mixed-gender intervention and a waiting list control group. The participants completed self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-intervention (2 months) and at follow-up (3 months) examining changes in self-esteem, media literacy, body image and risk factors for eating disorders...
2018: PloS One
W K Coblentz, M S Akins, N M Esser, R K Ogden, S L Gelsinger
Various forms of overcrowding are common in heifer-rearing operations. Our objectives for this study were to evaluate the effects of overstocking at the feedbunk (100, 133, 160, or 200% of capacity) on the growth performance, feedbunk sorting behaviors, and hygiene of 128 gravid Holstein heifers (475 ± 55.3 kg) consuming an alfalfa haylage and corn silage diet diluted with processed wheat straw at an inclusion rate of 25.2% (DM basis). In this study, heifers were overstocked only at the feedbunk, and not with respect to available freestalls or pen area...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Yuanyuan Zhang, Peiyu Lu, Qinghua Sun, Tao Li, Lanjie Zhao, Xin Gao, Fanye Wang, Junhong Liu
A novel method to synthesize poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) through a three-step, lipase-mediated chemo-enzymatic reaction from cyclohexanone using an immobilized lipase from Trichosporon laibacchii (T. laibacchii) CBS5791 was developed. The immobilized preparation with 1280 U· g-1 used here was obtained by a method of purification and in situ immobilization where the crude intracellular lipase (cell homogenate) was subjected to partial purification by an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of 12% (w/w) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 and 13% (w/w) potassium phosphate (K2 HPO4 ) and then in situ immobilization directly on diatomite from the top PEG-rich phase of ATPS...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Marianne de Vasconcelos Carvalho, Sandra Lúcia Dantas de Moraes, Cleidiel Aparecido Araujo Lemos, Joel Ferreira Santiago Júnior, Belmiro Cavalcanti do Egito Vasconcelos, Eduardo Piza Pellizzer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to compare outcomes between surgical and non-surgical treatment of actinic cheilitis (AC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guideline was performed. A search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases was conducted. Articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria: randomized clinical trials, prospective/retrospective studies, and case series with at least 10 patients, with a minimum follow-up period of 6 months...
June 16, 2018: Oral Diseases
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