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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530679/polymorphisms-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-and-overeating-the-intermediary-role-of-endophenotypic-risk-factors
#1
C Davis, K Patte, C Zai, J L Kennedy
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Oxytocin (OXT) is an evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide with strong links to affiliative and prosocial behaviors, and the management of stress. Increases in OXT also tend to decrease food intake, especially of sweet carbohydrates. The social correlates of low OXT levels mesh with the social deficits and stress proneness identified in interpersonal models of overeating, as well as the increased appetite for highly palatable foods typically seen in chronic overeaters...
May 22, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529114/perceptions-of-healthy-eating-amongst-indian-adolescents-in-india-and-canada
#2
Natasha Correa, Divya Rajaraman, Sumathi Swaminathan, Mario Vaz, K G Jayachitra, Scott A Lear, Zubin Punthakee
INTRODUCTION: Dietary patterns have contributed to the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity among Indian adolescents. Yet there are limited studies on their perspectives on healthy eating. The purpose of this study was to understand perceptions and attitudes of Indian-origin adolescents in India and Canada that may contribute to healthy eating behaviour. METHODS: Qualitative data collection and analysis of 13 focus group discussions (FGD) was conducted among 34 boys and 39 girls (total number of participants: 73) of different weight and socioeconomic status (SES) in rural and urban India, and urban Canada aged 11-18 years...
May 18, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528770/ethnic-variation-in-self-rated-health-mortality-association-results-from-a-17-year-follow-up-study-in-estonia
#3
Rainer Reile, Mall Leinsalu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Previous research has highlighted the role of self-rated health (SRH) as an important predictor of mortality. With substantial ethnic differences in SRH and mortality reported in Estonia, this study aims to examine the ethnic variation in SRH-mortality association in this setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The baseline data come from the nationally representative 1996 Estonian Health Interview Survey. Individual records of 3983 respondents in the 25-79 age group were linked with mortality data with 17 years follow-up time...
May 2, 2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526182/pharmacologic-management-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-available-therapies
#4
James Thrasher
Choices for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have multiplied as our understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic defects has evolved. Treatment should target multiple defects in T2DM and follow a patient-centered approach that considers factors beyond glycemic control, including cardiovascular risk reduction. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology and the American Diabetes Association recommend an initial approach consisting of lifestyle changes and monotherapy, preferably with metformin...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526159/anticoagulation-and-neuraxial-peripheral-anesthesia
#5
REVIEW
Mudit Kaushal, Ryan E Rubin, Alan D Kaye, Karina Gritsenko
Novel anticoagulants (NAGs) have emerged as the preferred alternatives to vitamin K antagonists. In patients being considered for regional anesthesia, these drugs present a layer of complexity in the preprocedure evaluation. There are no established tests to monitor anticoagulant activity and our experience is short with these drugs. These authors believe it is important to review the relevant hematology, orthopedics, and anesthesiology literature to provide a valuable reference for the clinician who is met with these challenges...
June 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525445/priorities-and-preferences-for-weight-management-and-cardiovascular-risk-reduction-in-primary-care
#6
Lynne S Nemeth, LaShanta J Rice, Maryellen Potts, Cathy Melvin, Melanie Jefferson, Chanita Hughes-Halbert
Implementing behavioral interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction and weight management is challenging in primary care. Primary care patients and providers were recruited for qualitative interviews to identify priorities and preferences for addressing weight management. Thematic analysis was used to identify relevant resources, barriers to lifestyle modification, health behavior change, and implementation of weight management strategies into care. Patients and providers prioritized increasing physical activity and healthy diets when managing chronic disease; and reported decreased patient motivation, knowledge, and limited organizational capacity and time among providers to deliver intensive interventions...
July 2017: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522244/low-molecular-weight-heparin-and-the-relative-risk-of-surgical-site-bleeding-complications-results-of-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-of-venous-thromboprophylaxis-in-patients-after-total-joint-arthroplasty
#7
REVIEW
Kary Suen, Roger N Westh, Leonid Churilov, Andrew J Hardidge
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients after total joint arthroplasty. Although network meta-analyses have demonstrated a benefit of various thromboprophylactic agents, there remains a concern in the surgical community regarding the resulting wound complications. There is currently no systematic review of the surgical site bleeding complications of thromboprophylactic agents. The aim of this study was to systematically review the surgical site bleeding outcomes of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in this population...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522170/optimization-of-the-alpha-image-reconstruction-an-iterative-ct-image-reconstruction-with-well-defined-image-quality-metrics
#8
Sergej Lebedev, Stefan Sawall, Michael Knaup, Marc Kachelrieß
PURPOSE: Optimization of the AIR-algorithm for improved convergence and performance. METHODS: The AIR method is an iterative algorithm for CT image reconstruction. As a result of its linearity with respect to the basis images, the AIR algorithm possesses well defined, regular image quality metrics, e.g. point spread function (PSF) or modulation transfer function (MTF), unlike other iterative reconstruction algorithms. The AIR algorithm computes weighting images α to blend between a set of basis images that preferably have mutually exclusive properties, e...
May 15, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520762/indexical-and-linguistic-processing-by-12-month-olds-discrimination-of-speaker-accent-and-vowel-differences
#9
Karen E Mulak, Cory D Bonn, Kateřina Chládková, Richard N Aslin, Paola Escudero
Infants preferentially discriminate between speech tokens that cross native category boundaries prior to acquiring a large receptive vocabulary, implying a major role for unsupervised distributional learning strategies in phoneme acquisition in the first year of life. Multiple sources of between-speaker variability contribute to children's language input and thus complicate the problem of distributional learning. Adults resolve this type of indexical variability by adjusting their speech processing for individual speakers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516361/familiarity-with-own-population-s-appearance-influences-facial-preferences
#10
Carlota Batres, Mallini Kannan, David I Perrett
Previous studies have found that individuals from rural areas in Malaysia and in El Salvador prefer heavier women than individuals from urban areas. Several explanations have been proposed to explain these differences in weight preferences but no study has explored familiarity as a possible explanation. We therefore sought to investigate participants' face preferences while also examining the facial characteristics of the actual participants. Our results showed that participants from rural areas preferred heavier-looking female faces than participants from urban areas...
May 18, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511348/integrated-flood-hazard-assessment-based-on-spatial-ordered-weighted-averaging-method-considering-spatial-heterogeneity-of-risk-preference
#11
Yangfan Xiao, Shanzhen Yi, Zhongqian Tang
Flood is the most common natural hazard in the world and has caused serious loss of life and property. Assessment of flood prone areas is of great importance for watershed management and reduction of potential loss of life and property. In this study, a framework of multi-criteria analysis (MCA) incorporating geographic information system (GIS), fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and spatial ordered weighted averaging (OWA) method was developed for flood hazard assessment. The factors associated with geographical, hydrological and flood-resistant characteristics of the basin were selected as evaluation criteria...
May 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509763/achilles-tendon-load-is-progressively-increased-with-reductions-in-walking-speed
#12
Torsten Brauner, Philippe Pourcelot, Nathalie Crevier-Denoix, Thomas Horstmann, Scott C Wearing
INTRODUCTION: Achilles tendon rehabilitation protocols commonly recommend a gradual increase in walking speed to progressively intensify tendon loading. This study used transmission-mode ultrasound to evaluate the influence of walking speed on loading of the human Achilles tendon in vivo. METHODS: Axial transmission speed of ultrasound was measured in the right Achilles tendon of 33 adults (mean ± SD; age, 29 ± 3 years; height, 1.725 ± 0.069 m; weight, 71.4 ± 19...
May 15, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508106/differential-effects-of-pair-housing-on-voluntary-nicotine-consumption-a-comparison-between-male-and-female-adolescent-rats
#13
Hyunchan Lee, Minji Jang, Woonhee Kim, Jihyun Noh
RATIONALE: Tobacco smoking occurs in a wide array of social circumstances. Social support for quitting is generally used to stop smoking, while peer interactions may be a crucial factor in triggering tobacco use among adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of social factors on nicotine dependence, we compared single- and pair-housed rats subjected to voluntary oral nicotine consumption tests. METHODS: Six-week-old adolescent rats were subjected to experimental procedures and assigned to one of the following groups: a male single group, a male pair group with a sibling, a female single group, and a female pair group with a sibling...
May 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507956/an-unusual-case-of-giant-cell-tumor-of-first-metatarsal-a-rare-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#14
Kumar Prashant, Tulsi Das Bhattacharyya, Herman Frank, Prema Ram
INTRODUCTION: Giant cell tumor (GCT) or osteoclastoma is an osteolytic, mostly benign but locally aggressive tumor occurring in young adults at the epiphysis. Area of predilection is mainly long bones (85-90%). 4% of GCT are also found in iliac bone, spine and only 2% in hand (of which GCT phalanges are more common than metacarpal). GCT of metatarsal is a very rare occurrence with very few cases being reported so far. We report a case of GCT 1(st) metatarsal in a 40-year-old male which is a very rare entity...
November 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504110/neurological-consequences-of-obesity
#15
REVIEW
Phillipe D O'Brien, Lucy M Hinder, Brian C Callaghan, Eva L Feldman
The high prevalence of obesity is associated with an enormous medical, social, and economic burden. The metabolic dysfunction, dyslipidaemia, and inflammation caused by obesity contribute to the development of a wide variety of disorders and effects on the nervous system. In the CNS, mild cognitive impairment can be attributed to obesity-induced alterations in hippocampal structure and function in some patients. Likewise, compromised hypothalamic function and subsequent defects in maintaining whole-body energy balance might be early events that contribute to weight gain and obesity development...
June 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501444/modern-scleral-lenses-mini-versus-large
#16
REVIEW
Daddi Fadel
The evolution of scleral lenses has led to new formulations of scleral fitting concepts and designs. The diameters of modern scleral lenses have been overhauled too and they are smaller comparing to the original ones. Nowadays, prescription of mini-sclerals supposedly seems in major extension and it appears indeed the necessity of some practitioner to differentiate the smaller mini-scleral lenses from larger mini-scleral lenses empathizing that they are the "smaller" ones. Therefore, it is maybe, necessary a definition of mini-scleral lenses referring to the landing zone width in relation to the horizontal visible iris diameter (HVID) and the limbus extension...
May 10, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500692/toll-like-receptor-4-mediates-fat-sugar-and-umami-taste-preference-and-food-intake-and-body-weight-regulation
#17
Simonetta Camandola, Mark P Mattson
OBJECTIVE: Immune and inflammatory pathways play important roles in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. This study investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in orosensory detection of dietary lipids and sugars. METHODS: Taste preferences of TLR4 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) male mice under a standard and a high-fat, high-sugar diet were assessed with two-bottle tests. Gene expression of taste signaling molecules was analyzed in the tongue epithelium...
May 12, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500391/anterior-referencing-of-tibial-slope-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-considerably-influences-knee-kinematics-a-musculoskeletal-simulation-study
#18
Marco A Marra, Marta Strzelczak, Petra J C Heesterbeek, Sebastiaan A W van de Groes, Dennis W Janssen, Bart F J M Koopman, Ate B Wymenga, Nico J J Verdonschot
PURPOSE: In total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the posterior tibial slope is not always reconstructed correctly, and the knee ligaments may become too tight in flexion. To release a tight flexion gap, surgeons can increase the posterior tibial slope using two surgical resection techniques: the anterior tibial cortex (ACR) or the centre of tibial plateau (CPR) referencing. It is not known how this choice affects the knee laxity and function during activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tibial slope on knee laxity, kinematics and forces during a squatting activity using computer simulation techniques...
May 12, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499084/psychological-assessment-of-emirati-patients-pursuing-bariatric-surgery-for-obesity
#19
Ossama T Osman, Essam Emam, Taoufik Zoubeidi, Fadwa Al-Mugaddam, Abdul-Kader Souid
Background: Obesity is currently a rapidly growing global problem of epidemic proportions and is especially prevalent in economically developed countries such as the United Arab Emirates. Obese individuals are increasingly considering bariatric surgery as their preferred means of choice for the reduction of excess body fat. This study explored the psychological characteristics that may potentially complicate the surgical management of obesity. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of Emirati patients attending a bariatric clinic at Tawam Hospital, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, between December 2010 and February 2012...
May 11, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497664/insulin-sensitizers-in-adolescents-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#20
Trang N LE, Edmond P Wickham Iii, John E Nestler
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common disorder of androgen excess in women of reproductive age. The diagnosis of PCOS can be more challenging in adolescents than in adult women given significant overlap between normal puberty and the signs of PCOS, including acne, menstrual irregularity, and polycystic ovarian morphology. Optimal treatments for adult women with PCOS vary depending on patient risk factors and reproductive goals, but mainly include hormonal contraception and insulin sensitizers...
May 11, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
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