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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820431/high-throughput-screening-assay-for-laccase-engineering-toward-lignosulfonate-valorization
#1
David Rodríguez-Escribano, Felipe de Salas, Isabel Pardo, Susana Camarero
Lignin valorization is a pending issue for the integrated conversion of lignocellulose in consumer goods. Lignosulfonates (LS) are the main technical lignins commercialized today. However, their molecular weight should be enlarged to meet application requirements as additives or dispersing agents. Oxidation of lignosulfonates with fungal oxidoreductases, such as laccases, can increase the molecular weight of lignosulfonates by the cross-linking of lignin phenols. To advance in this direction, we describe here the development of a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for the directed evolution of laccases, with lignosulfonate as substrate and the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (FCR), to detect the decrease in phenolic content produced upon polymerization of lignosulfonate by the enzyme...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818852/accuracy-of-11-formulae-to-guide-umbilical-arterial-catheter-tip-placement-in-newborn-infants
#2
Wei Ling Lean, Jennifer A Dawson, Peter G Davis, Christiane Theda, Marta Thio
BACKGROUND: Umbilical arterial catheter (UAC) insertion is a common procedure in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Correct placement of the tip of the UAC at first attempt minimises handling of the infant and reduces the risk of infection and complications. We aimed to determine the accuracy of 11 published formulae to guide UAC placement. METHODS: This was a one-year prospective observational study in a tertiary NICU. Clinicians used their preferred formula for UAC insertion, with X-rays performed immediately post-procedure to check the tip position...
August 17, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818421/erbb-signaling-antagonist-ameliorates-behavioral-deficit-induced-by-phencyclidine-pcp-in-mice-without-affecting-metabolic-syndrome-markers
#3
Hagar Tadmor, Idit Golani, Ravid Doron, Ilana Kremer, Alon Shamir
Schizophrenia is a severe syndrome that affects about 1% of the world population. Since the mid-1950s, antipsychotics have been used to treat schizophrenia with preference for treating positive symptoms; however, their tolerance level is low, there are numerous side effects, and only some patients respond to the treatment. Antipsychotic medications that are more effective, better tolerated, and with fewer adverse effects are urgently needed. Given the accumulating evidence of the role filled by the ErbB signaling network in the biology of the dopamine, GABA, and glutamate systems, and in the etiology of schizophrenia, we hypothesized that the ErbB network is a candidate for development of a novel agent through which various symptoms of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders might be treated...
August 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817445/the-safety-of-pembrolizumab-in-metastatic-melanoma-and-rheumatoid-arthritis
#4
Akshjot Puri, Jade Homsi
Immunotherapy has been in use for the treatment of melanoma since a very long time, but only recently have the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibody ipilimumab and programmed cell death-1 inhibitors such as nivolimumab and pembrolizumab been shown to induce marked improvements in survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. An important concern arises in terms of the safety of the use of these agents in patients with autoimmune diseases, solid organ transplant recipients on immunosuppression, patients with a history of previous hepatitis B or C, and patients with HIV infections as these patients were excluded from pivotal immunotherapy studies...
August 16, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814323/efficacy-of-sarolaner-simparic%C3%A2-against-induced-infestations-of-amblyomma-cajennense-on-dogs
#5
Fabio Scott, Lilian Franz, Diefrey Ribeiro Campos, Thaís Ribeiro Correia Azevedo, Daise Cunha, Robert H Six, Steven Maeder, Travis Cree
BACKGROUND: Amblyomma cajennense is the main vector of Rickettsia rickettsii which causes Brazilian spotted fever. This adult tick preferably infests horses and capybaras, but has low host specificity during its immature stages, thus posing a threat to humans and dogs. In this study, the efficacy of sarolaner (Simparic™/Simparica®, Zoetis) when administered once orally to dogs at 2 mg/kg was evaluated against induced infestations of A. cajennense nymphs for up to 35 days after treatment...
August 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813849/effects-of-partial-body-weight-support-and-functional-electrical-stimulation-on-gait-characteristics-during-treadmill-locomotion-pros-and-cons-of-saddle-seat-type-body-weight-support
#6
Natsumi Kataoka, Hiroaki Hirai, Taya Hamilton, Fumiaki Yoshikawa, Akira Kuroiwa, Yuma Nagakawa, Eichi Watanabe, Yudai Ninomaru, Yuri Saeki, Mitsunori Uemura, Fumio Miyazaki, Hiroshi Nakata, Tomoki Nishi, Hiroaki Naritomi, Hermano Igo Krebs
Robotic therapy for rehabilitation of the lower extremity is currently in its early stage of development. Aiming at exploring an efficacious intervention for gait rehabilitation, we investigate the characteristics of an end-effector gait-training device that combines saddle-seat-type body-weight-supported treadmill training with functional electrical stimulation (FES). This is a task-oriented approach to restoring voluntary control of locomotion in patients with neuromuscular diseases. We evaluate the differences between walking with saddle-seat-type support and with harness-type support, in terms of personal preference, the preferred walking speed, profiles of kinematics and ground reaction force, and the effectiveness of FES...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812814/a-comparison-of-iran-and-uk-eq-5d-3l-value-sets-based-on-visual-analogue-scale
#7
Aliasghar A Kiadaliri
BACKGROUND: Preference weights for EQ-5D-3L based on visual analogue scale (VAS) has recently been developed in Iran. The aim of the current study was to compare performance of this value set against the UK VAS-based value set. METHODS: The mean scores for all possible 243 health states were compared using Student t test. Absolute agreement and consistency were investigated using concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and Bland-Altman plot. Health gains for 29 403 possible transitions between pairs of EQ-5D-3L health states were compared...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811848/skull-base-tumors-and-tumor-like-lesions-a-pictorial-review
#8
REVIEW
Akira Kunimatsu, Natsuko Kunimatsu
A number of tumors and tumor-like non-neoplastic lesions with different cell types on histology occur in the skull base. A wide variety in disease and lesion appearance often complicates the process of radiological diagnosis. The main role of radiographic imaging is the detection and characterization of skull base lesions, with evaluation of the extent of invasion or preservation of adjacent critical organs. Evaluation of the skull base anatomy and surgical planning by using image guidance are also important for surgeons...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811669/paraventricular-thalamic-control-of-food-intake-and-reward-role-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-signaling
#9
Zhi Yi Ong, Jing-Jing Liu, Zhiping P Pang, Harvey J Grill
Paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) neurons receive hindbrain and hypothalamic inputs, and project to forebrain sites involved in reward and motivation function. The role of PVT in energy balance and reward control is however understudied. Given that PVT neurons express glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1R), which are critical to feeding and body weight control, we tested the hypothesis that PVT GLP-1R signaling contributes to food intake and reward inhibition. To assess the hypothesis, behavioral tests including chow and high-fat diet intake, meal patterns, conditioned place preference for high-fat food, cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose-seeking, and motivation to work for sucrose were employed following intra-PVT delivery of either GLP-1R agonist, exendin-4 (Ex4), or GLP-1R antagonist, exendin-9-39 (Ex9)...
July 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809446/deferasirox-for-managing-iron-overload-in-people-with-thalassaemia
#10
REVIEW
Claudia Bollig, Lisa K Schell, Gerta Rücker, Roman Allert, Edith Motschall, Charlotte M Niemeyer, Dirk Bassler, Joerg J Meerpohl
BACKGROUND: Thalassaemia is a hereditary anaemia due to ineffective erythropoiesis. In particular, people with thalassaemia major develop secondary iron overload resulting from regular red blood cell transfusions. Iron chelation therapy is needed to prevent long-term complications.Both deferoxamine and deferiprone are effective; however, a review of the effectiveness and safety of the newer oral chelator deferasirox in people with thalassaemia is needed. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral deferasirox in people with thalassaemia and iron overload...
August 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808427/public-engagement-in-setting-healthcare-priorities-a-ranking-exercise-in-cyprus
#11
Antonis Farmakas, Mamas Theodorou, Petros Galanis, Georgios Karayiannis, Stefanos Ghobrial, Nikos Polyzos, Evridiki Papastavrou, Eirini Agapidaki, Kyriakos Souliotis
BACKGROUND: In countries such as Cyprus the financial crisis and the recession have severely affected the funding and priority setting of the health care system. There is evidence highlighting the importance of population' preferences in designing priorities for health care settings. Although public preferences have been thorough analysed in many countries, there is a research gap in terms of simultaneously investigating the relative importance and the weight of differing and competing criteria for determining healthcare priority settings...
2017: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807638/food-waste-in-the-national-school-lunch-program-1978-2015-a-systematic-review
#12
Carmen Byker Shanks, Jinan Banna, Elena L Serrano
BACKGROUND: Food waste studies have been used for more than 40 years to assess nutrient intake, dietary quality, menu performance, food acceptability, cost, and effectiveness of nutrition education in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). OBJECTIVE: Describe methods used to measure food waste and respective results in the NSLP across time. METHODS: A systematic review using PubMed, Science Direct, Informaworld, and Institute of Scientific Information Web of Knowledge was conducted using the following search terms: waste, school lunch, plate waste, food waste, kitchen, half method, quarter method, weight, and photography...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806049/electrolytes-oral-electrolyte-solutions
#13
Lisa Harris
Oral electrolyte solutions are used widely for rehydration in diarrheal illness and to maintain hydration during vigorous exercise. In diarrheal illness, an oral rehydration solution (ORS) typically is preferred over intravenous fluids except for patients with severe dehydration. The preferred ORS is one similar to the glucose-containing reduced osmolarity World Health Organization ORS. There also are polymer-based solutions that use rice or wheat as the source of carbohydrates but these are not widely recommended...
August 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805665/the-role-of-solvent-accessible-leu-208-of-cold-active-pseudomonas-fluorescens-strain-ams8-lipase-in-interfacial-activation-substrate-accessibility-and-low-molecular-weight-esterification-in-the-presence-of-toluene
#14
Norhayati Yaacob, Nor Hafizah Ahmad Kamarudin, Adam Thean Chor Leow, Abu Bakar Salleh, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd Rahman, Mohd Shukuri Mohamad Ali
The alkaline cold-active lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens AMS8 undergoes major structural changes when reacted with hydrophobic organic solvents. In toluene, the AMS8 lipase catalytic region is exposed by the moving hydrophobic lid 2 (Glu-148 to Gly-167). Solvent-accessible surface area analysis revealed that Leu-208, which is located next to the nucleophilic Ser-207 has a focal function in influencing substrate accessibility and flexibility of the catalytic pocket. Based on molecular dynamic simulations, it was found that Leu-208 strongly facilitates the lid 2 opening via its side-chain...
August 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804702/testing-socio-cultural-valuation-methods-of-ecosystem-services-to-explain-land-use-preferences
#15
Katja Schmidt, Ariane Walz, Berta Martín-López, René Sachse
Socio-cultural valuation still emerges as a methodological field in ecosystem service (ES) research and until now lacks consistent formalisation and balanced application in ES assessments. In this study, we examine the explanatory value of ES values for land use preferences. We use 563 responses to a survey about the Pentland Hills regional park in Scotland. Specifically, we aim to (1) identify clusters of land use preferences by using a novel visualisation tool, (2) test if socio-cultural values of ESs or (3) user characteristics are linked with land use preferences, and (4) determine whether both socio-cultural values of ESs and user characteristics can predict land use preferences...
August 2017: Ecosystem Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803707/patients-reasons-for-and-against-undergoing-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-adjustable-gastric-banding-and-vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy
#16
Melissa Opozda, Gary Wittert, Anna Chur-Hansen
BACKGROUND: The most common bariatric procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG), generally induce significant weight loss and health improvements. However, little is known about how patients decide which procedure to undergo. OBJECTIVE: Investigate patients' reasons for and against undergoing RYGB, LAGB, and SG. SETTING: Online questionnaire. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 236 Australian adults with current RYGB (15...
July 15, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803597/somali-latino-and-hmong-parents-perceptions-and-approaches-about-raising-healthy-weight-children-a-community-based-participatory-research-study
#17
Chrisa Arcan, Kathleen A Culhane-Pera, Shannon Pergament, Maira Rosas-Lee, Mai Bao Xiong
OBJECTIVE: Immigrants in the USA are confronted with health disparities, including childhood obesity and obesity-related chronic diseases. We aimed to identify perceptions of childhood body weight, approaches to raising healthy children and desires for supportive programmes of Somali, Latino and Hmong (SLM) parents in the Twin Cities, Minnesota, USA. DESIGN: Using community-based participatory research, ten focus groups (FG) were conducted with sixty-seven parents (n 28 Somali, three FG; n 19 Latino, four FG; n 20 Hmong, three FG) of 3-12-year-old children in their native language...
August 14, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802901/effect-of-vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-on-alcohol-consumption-and-preferences-in-dietary-obese-rats-and-mice-a-plausible-role-for-altered-ghrelin-signaling
#18
Elise R Orellana, Catherine Jamis, Nelli Horvath, Andras Hajnal
Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are the most common surgical options for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disorder. Whereas RYGB may result in greater and more durable weight loss, recent clinical and pre-clinical studies in rats have raised concerns that RYGB surgery may increase risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). In contrast, recent clinical reports suggest a lesser risk for AUD following VSG, although no preclinical studies have been done to confirm that. Therefore, the present study sought to determine the effects of VSG on ethanol intake and preferences in rodent models using protocols similar to those previously used in animal studies for RYGB...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802295/food-acceptance-and-anthropometry-in-relation-to-6-n-propylthiouracil-sensitivity-in-japanese-college-women
#19
Ayako Nagai, Masaru Kubota, Kanako Morinaga, Yukie Higashiyama
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Differences in anthropometry and food acceptance among tasters and non-tasters of 6-n-propylthiouracil has been well studied in Western countries. However, reports on this issue from Asian countries are still limited. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Healthy Japanese students attending Nara Women's University (n=153) were recruited and classified into 3 groups based on taste sensitivity to a 0.32 mM 6-npropylthiouracil solution as scored on a labeled magnitude scale...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801181/the-use-of-oral-corticosteroids-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-in-italy-an-ig-ibd-survey
#20
Federica Fascì-Spurio, Gianmichele Meucci, Claudio Papi, Simone Saibeni
AIM: To evaluate how Italian gastroenterologists use corticosteroids in clinical practice for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: All members of the Italian Group for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IG-IBD) were invited to fill in a web-based questionnaire. RESULTS: 131/448 (29.2%) members completed the survey. In mild-to-moderate UC and CD relapses, low-bioavailability steroids (LBS) are first-line therapy for 37% and 42% of clinicians, respectively...
July 22, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
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