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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904960/active-and-passive-involvement-of-claudins-in-the-pathophysiology-of-intestinal-inflammatory-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Christian Barmeyer, Michael Fromm, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke
Intestinal inflammatory diseases, four of which are discussed here, are associated with alterations of claudins. In ulcerative colitis, diarrhea and antigen entry into the mucosa occurs. Claudin-2 is upregulated but data on other claudins are still limited or vary (e.g., claudin-1 and -4). Apart from that, tight junction changes contribute to diarrhea via a leak flux mechanism, while protection against antigen entry disappears behind epithelial gross lesions (erosions) and apoptotic foci. Crohn's disease is additionally characterized by a claudin-5 and claudin-8 reduction which plays an active role in antigen uptake already before gross lesions appear...
November 30, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899040/clinical-role-of-fluorescence-imaging-in-colorectal-surgery-a-review
#2
Ido Mizrahi, Steven D Wexner
Introduction Anastomotic leak (AL) after colorectal surgery is a devastating complication; decreased blood perfusion is an important risk factor. Surgeons rely on subjective measures to assess bowel perfusion. Fluorescence imaging (FI) with indocyanine green (ICG) provides a real-time objective assessment of intestinal perfusion. Areas Covered A Pubmed search using the terms 'fluorescence imaging', 'indocyanine green', 'colon and rectal surgery' was undertaken. Sixteen articles between 2010 to present were identified...
November 30, 2016: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896159/intestinal-atresia-experience-at-a-busy-center-of-north-west-india
#3
Shilpi Gupta, Rahul Gupta, Soumyodhriti Ghosh, Arun Kumar Gupta, Arvind Shukla, Vinita Chaturvedi, Praveen Mathur
Objective: To evaluate the presentation, management, complications and outcome of intestinal atresia (IA) managed at our center over a period of 1 year. Materials and methods: Records of patients of IA admitted in our center from January 2015 to December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, antenatal history, presenting complaints, location (duodenal, jejunoileal, colonic) of atresia, surgery performed and peri-operative complications were noted. Results: Total 78 cases of IA were included in the analyses...
October 2016: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896157/congenital-neonatal-intestinal-obstruction-retrospective-analysis-at-tertiary-care-hospital
#4
Vijay Singh, Manish Pathak
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to analyze the etiology, clinical presentation and outcome of neonatal intestinal obstruction at our institute. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical record of all the patients, presented with intestinal obstruction in neonatal period during 2014 and 2015 was reviewed retrospectively for etiology, clinical features, investigations, management, and outcome. RESULTS: Out of total 53 cases of neonatal intestinal obstruction, 27 were of intestinal atresia (9 cases (17%) were of duodenal atresia, 7 (13%) were of jejunal atresia and 8 (13%) were ileal atresias and 3 cases were found with colonic atresia); 7 were malrotation, 17 were Hirschsprung's disease (HD)...
October 2016: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895400/esophagogastric-anastomosis-in-rats-improved-healing-by-bpc-157-and-l-arginine-aggravated-by-l-name
#5
Zeljko Djakovic, Ivka Djakovic, Vedran Cesarec, Goran Madzarac, Tomislav Becejac, Goran Zukanovic, Domagoj Drmic, Lovorka Batelja, Anita Zenko Sever, Danijela Kolenc, Alen Pajtak, Nikica Knez, Mladen Japjec, Kresimir Luetic, Dinko Stancic-Rokotov, Sven Seiwerth, Predrag Sikiric
AIM: To cure typically life-threatening esophagogastric anastomosis in rats, lacking anastomosis healing and sphincter function rescue, in particular. METHODS: Because we assume esophagogastric fistulas represent a particular NO-system disability, we attempt to identify the benefits of anti-ulcer stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, which was in trials for ulcerative colitis and currently for multiple sclerosis, in rats with esophagocutaneous fistulas. Previously, BPC 157 therapies have promoted the healing of intestinal anastomosis and fistulas, and esophagitis and gastric lesions, along with rescued sphincter function...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858187/duodeno-duodenostomy-or-duodeno-jejunostomy-for-duodenal-atresia-is-one-repair-better-than-the-other
#6
Augusto Zani, Jung-Pin Benjamin Yeh, Sebastian K King, Priscilla P L Chiu, Paul W Wales
PURPOSE: The surgical management of neonates with duodenal atresia (DA) involves re-establishment of intestinal continuity, either by duodeno-duodenostomy (DD) or by duodeno-jejunostomy (DJ). Although the majority of pediatric surgeons perform DD repair preferentially, we aimed to analyze the outcome of DA neonates treated with either surgical technique. METHODS: Following ethical approval (REB:1000047737), we retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients who underwent DA repair between 2004 and 2014...
November 17, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729657/the-gut-microbiota-and-gastrointestinal-surgery
#7
REVIEW
Kristina Guyton, John C Alverdy
Surgery involving the gastrointestinal tract continues to prove challenging because of the persistence of unpredictable complications such as anastomotic leakage and life-threatening infections. Removal of diseased intestinal segments results in substantial catabolic stress and might require complex reconstructive surgery to maintain the functional continuity of the intestinal tract. As gastrointestinal surgery necessarily involves a breach of an epithelial barrier colonized by microorganisms, preoperative intestinal antisepsis is used to reduce infection-related complications...
October 12, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690726/can-human-recombinant-epidermal-growth-factor-improve-ischemia-and-induce-healing-of-anastomosis-in-an-experimental-study-in-a-rabbit-model
#8
Rahman Şenocak, Mustafa Tahir Özer, Şahin Kaymak, Zafer Kılbaş, Armağan Günal, Metin Uyanık, Orhan Kozak
PURPOSE: Anastomotic leaks following intestinal operations may cause devastating effects on patients. Ischemia may also occur at the intestinal walls in the presence of strangulations. In this study, we examined the effects of human recombinant (Hr)-epidermal growth factor (EGF) given at a single intramural dose into the intestinal walls and daily intraperitoneal cavity on ischemia and the healing process of anastomosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen male New Zeland white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups (n = 4 in each group)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667666/suppressors-of-superoxide-h2o2-production-at-site-iq-of-mitochondrial-complex-i-protect-against-stem-cell-hyperplasia-and-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#9
Martin D Brand, Renata L S Goncalves, Adam L Orr, Leonardo Vargas, Akos A Gerencser, Martin Borch Jensen, Yves T Wang, Simon Melov, Carolina N Turk, Jason T Matzen, Victoria J Dardov, H Michael Petrassi, Shelly L Meeusen, Irina V Perevoshchikova, Heinrich Jasper, Paul S Brookes, Edward K Ainscow
Using high-throughput screening we identified small molecules that suppress superoxide and/or H2O2 production during reverse electron transport through mitochondrial respiratory complex I (site IQ) without affecting oxidative phosphorylation (suppressors of site IQ electron leak, "S1QELs"). S1QELs diminished endogenous oxidative damage in primary astrocytes cultured at ambient or low oxygen tension, showing that site IQ is a normal contributor to mitochondrial superoxide-H2O2 production in cells. They diminished stem cell hyperplasia in Drosophila intestine in vivo and caspase activation in a cardiomyocyte cell model driven by endoplasmic reticulum stress, showing that superoxide-H2O2 production by site IQ is involved in cellular stress signaling...
October 11, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571936/circulating-intestine-derived-exosomal-mir-328-in-plasma-a-possible-biomarker-for-estimating-bcrp-function-in-the-human-intestines
#10
Keisuke Gotanda, Takeshi Hirota, Jumpei Saito, Masato Fukae, Yu Egashira, Noritomo Izumi, Mariko Deguchi, Miyuki Kimura, Shunji Matsuki, Shin Irie, Ichiro Ieiri
A variant in the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) gene, 421C> A is a useful biomarker for describing large inter-individual differences in the pharmacokinetics of sulfasalazine (SASP), a BCRP substrate. However, large intra-genotypic variability still exists in spite of the incorporation of this variant into the pharmacokinetics of SASP. Since miR-328 negatively regulates BCRP expression in human tissues, we hypothesized that exosomal miR-328 in plasma, which leaks from the intestines, is a possible biomarker for estimating BCRP activity in the human intestines...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541027/discontinuity-of-the-bowel-following-damage-control-operation-revisited-a-multi-institutional-study
#11
Peep Talving, Konstantinos Chouliaras, Alexander Eastman, Margaret Lauerman, Pedro G Teixeira, Joseph DuBose, Joseph Minei, Thomas Scalea, Demetrios Demetriades
BACKGROUND: Discontinuity of the bowel following intestinal injury and resection is a common practice in damage control procedures for severe abdominal trauma. However, there are concerns that complete occlusion of the bowel, especially in the presence of hypotension or edema that may result in ischemic bowel changes or increase bacterial or toxin translocation. METHODS: This was a retrospective study from three Level-1 trauma centers. Included were trauma patients who required bowel resection and damage control...
August 19, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386865/effect-of-perioperative-dexamethasone-and-different-nsaids-on-anastomotic-leak-risk-a-propensity-score-analysis
#12
Christian Fredrik Rushfeldt, Uwe Conrad Agledahl, Baldur Sveinbjørnsson, Kjetil Søreide, Tom Wilsgaard
BACKGROUND: Perioperative use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with risk of anastomotic leak (AL). However, concomitant use of other drugs could infer a bias in risk assessment. Thus, we aimed to interrogate the risk of AL associated with NSAIDs and steroids used perioperatively. METHODS: This study includes a consecutive series of patients having surgery involving an intestinal anastomosis from Jan 2007 to Dec 2009. Data records included demographic, perioperative, and surgical characteristics; AL rates; and use of NSAIDs and steroids...
November 2016: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341127/the-role-of-the-microbiota-in-surgical-recovery
#13
Monika A Krezalek, John C Alverdy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight new research findings in the complex bidirectional crosstalk that occurs between the intestinal microbiome and the host immune system in the context of surgical recovery and outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Significant evidence has been generated emphasizing the central role of the intestinal microbiome on surgical outcomes such as wound healing, surgical site infections and anastomotic leak. Current preventive strategies, including the use of some parenteral antibiotics, may actually exacerbate the problem by selecting for drug-resistant pathogens...
June 23, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27249921/-reconstructive-restoration-operations-after-obstructive-resection-of-large-bowel
#14
I P Yerko, S B Balabushko
The results of reconstructive-restoration operations, performed after obstructive resection of large bowel for colorectal cancer, were analyzed. The postoperative complications rate have constituted 11.7%. The most frequent cause of morbidity, 3.9%, was partial insufficiency of sutures of interintestinal anastomosis, formatted in the end to end fashion. Lethality have constituted 1.1%.
January 2016: Klinichna Khirurhiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27247539/management-of-colorectal-anastomotic-leak
#15
REVIEW
Michael S Thomas, David A Margolin
The aim of this article is to present strategies for preventing and managing the failure of the surgical restoration of intestinal continuity. Despite improvements in surgical technique and perioperative care, anastomotic leaks still occur, and with them occur increased morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and costs. Due to the devastating consequences for patients with failed anastomoses, there have been a myriad of materials and techniques used by surgeons to create better intestinal anastomoses. We will also discuss the management strategies for anastomotic leak when they do inevitably occur...
June 2016: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27162889/characteristics-of-hollow-viscus-injury-following-blunt-abdominal-trauma-a-single-centre-experience-from-eastern-india
#16
Nawal Kishore Jha, Sanjay Kumar Yadav, Rajshekhar Sharma, Dipendra Kumar Sinha, Sandip Kumar, Marshal Daud Kerketta, Mini Sinha, Abhinav Anand, Anjana Gandhi, Satish Kumar Ranjan, Jitin Yadav
OBJECTIVE: To determine the presentation, anatomical distribution, diagnostic method, management and outcome of hollow viscus injury (HVI) from blunt abdominal trauma. METHODS: This  was  a  retrospective  cross-ecnal  study  including  patients  with  blunt  abdominal  trauma leading to HVI admitted at Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, over a period of 4.5 years (January 2009 to July 2014). Data were retrieved from patients' medical records...
October 2014: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147588/supervised-autonomous-robotic-soft-tissue-surgery
#17
Azad Shademan, Ryan S Decker, Justin D Opfermann, Simon Leonard, Axel Krieger, Peter C W Kim
The current paradigm of robot-assisted surgeries (RASs) depends entirely on an individual surgeon's manual capability. Autonomous robotic surgery-removing the surgeon's hands-promises enhanced efficacy, safety, and improved access to optimized surgical techniques. Surgeries involving soft tissue have not been performed autonomously because of technological limitations, including lack of vision systems that can distinguish and track the target tissues in dynamic surgical environments and lack of intelligent algorithms that can execute complex surgical tasks...
May 4, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27140945/-devastating-surgical-complications-after-aflibercept-chemotherapy
#18
Estíbaliz Echazarreta-Gallego, Manuela Elía-Guedea, Elena Córdoba-Díaz de Laspra
BACKGROUND: The use of a new chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer is not free of complications. Monoclonal antibodies are associated with bleeding and intestinal perforations. OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a patient who developed a serious complication after treatment with an antiangiogenic drug for colorectal neoplasm. CLINICAL CASE: The case is presented of a 42-year-old male operated on due to subocclusive rectal cancer with metástasis at the time of diagnosis...
April 29, 2016: Cirugia y Cirujanos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27134898/multiple-small-intestine-perforations-after-organophosphorous-poisoning-a-case-report
#19
Rubina Khullar Mahajan, Sudha Jasmine Rajan, John Victor Peter, Mayur Keshav Suryawanshi
Organophosphate poisoning has significant gastrointestinal manifestations including vomiting, diarrhea, cramps and increased salivation. We report an uncommon gastrointestinal complication of multiple small intestinal perforations following organophosphorus poisoning. A 28-year old male presented after ingesting dichlorvos mixed with alcohol. Following the initial cholinergic symptoms, the patient developed severe shock with fever, attributed to aspiration pneumonia. Despite appropriate antibiotics, shock was persistent...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129540/laparoscopic-management-of-antenatally-detected-choledochal-cyst-a-10-year-review
#20
Kin Wai Edwin Chan, Kim Hung Lee, Siu Yan Bess Tsui, Jennifer Wai Cheung Mou, Yuk Him Peter Tam
BACKGROUND: The aim of this review was to study the characteristics and the outcome of children who underwent laparoscopic management of the antenatally detected choledochal cyst. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted for all children who underwent excision of antenatally detected choledochal cyst and hepaticojejunostomy from 2005 to 2015. RESULTS: Fourteen patients (11 females and 3 males) were included in this study. The mean diameter of the cyst was 5...
December 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
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