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Cytokine expression

Mi-Young Lee, Sung Hoon Kim, Young Sang Oh, Seung-Ho Heo, Kang-Hyun Kim, Hee Dong Chae, Chung-Hoon Kim, Byung Moon Kang
STUDY QUESTION: Does interleukin-32 (IL-32) play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: IL-32 might be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis through increased viability, proliferation and invasion of endometrial cells. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Endometriosis is characterized as a chronic inflammatory disease and several proinflammatory cytokines are suggested to be involved in its pathogenesis and pathophysiology...
March 19, 2018: Human Reproduction
Xu-Tao Lin, Xiao-Bin Zheng, De-Jun Fan, Qiu-Qiong Yao, Jian-Cong Hu, Lei Lian, Xiao-Jian Wu, Ping Lan, Xiao-Sheng He
Background: Dysfunctional autophagy is recognized as a contributing factor in many chronic inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease (CD). Genetic analyses have found that microRNA (miRNA) levels are altered in the intestinal tissues of CD patients. Methods: The Sequencing Alternative Poly-Adenylation Sites (SAPAS) method was used to compare the 3' end of the total mRNA sequence of 3 surgical specimens of CD patients (including inflamed tissues and corresponding noninflamed tissues in each case)...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
J Manji, A Thamboo, M Tacey, C Garnis, N K Chadha
BACKGROUND: Sinonasal disease is a common feature of cystic fibrosis (CF) and can cause significant morbidity in these patients. Our objective was to determine if CF individuals with concomitant nasal polyposis (NP) express a unique profile of inflammation and if so, whether these inflammatory cytokine mediators have predictive value in identifying these individuals for prompt management by an Otolaryngologist. METHODOLOGY: Nasal lavage samples and clinical outcomes of disease severity were obtained from thirty-eight pediatric CF individuals...
March 21, 2018: Rhinology
Chunjing Yang, Longtai You, Xingbin Yin, Yi Liu, Xin Leng, Wenping Wang, Na Sai, Jian Ni
Heterophyllin B (HB), an active cyclic peptide, is a compound existing in the ethyl acetate extract of Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax and exhibited the activity of inhibiting the production of NO and cytokines, such as IL-1β and IL-6, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, HB suppressed the production of ROS and the apoptosis induced by LPS in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The underlying mechanism was investigated in the LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. The results showed that HB decreased the level of IL-1β and IL-6 expression by qRT-PCR analysis...
March 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sawsan Aboul-Fotouh, Mohamed Habib, Tarek Asaad, Samar K Kassim, Mohamed H Ghanem
Depression is the disease of the modern era. The lack of response to the available antidepressants, which were developed on the basis of the monoaminergic deficit hypothesis of depression, has encouraged scientists to think about new mechanisms explaining the pathogenesis of depression. In this context, the inflammatory theory has emerged to clarify many aspects of depression that the previous theories have failed to explain. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) has a regulatory role in the brain's immune response to stress, and its activation is suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of depression...
March 20, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Nicolás De Silva, Mirian Samblas, J Alfredo Martínez, Fermín I Milagro
Obesity is usually associated with low-grade inflammation, which determines the appearance of comorbidities like atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. Infiltrated macrophages in adipose tissue are partly responsible of this inflammatory condition. Numerous studies point to the existence of close intercommunication between macrophages and adipocytes and pay particular attention to the proinflammatory cytokines released by both cell types. However, it has been recently described that in both, circulation and tissue level, there are extracellular vesicles (including microvesicles and exosomes) containing miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins that can influence the inflammatory response...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Ting Xin, Xintao Gao, Hongjun Yang, Pingjun Li, Qianqian Liang, Shaohua Hou, Xiukun Sui, Xiaoyu Guo, Weifeng Yuan, Hongfei Zhu, Jiabo Ding, Hong Jia
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is primarily caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis , which belongs to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. The airborne route is considered the most common for transmission of M. bovis , and more than 15% of cattle with bTB shed the Mycobacterium , which can be detect by nested PCR to amplify mycobacterial mpb 70 from a nasal swab from a cow. To screen for cytokines fostering early and accurate detection of bTB, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from naturally M...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Zheyi Li, Ronald J Jackson, Charani Ranasinghe
This study demonstrates that the fate of a vaccine is influenced by the cytokines produced by the innate lymphoid cells (ILC) recruited to the vaccination site, and it is vaccine route and adjuvant dependent. Intranasal virus vaccination induced ST2/IL-33R+ ILC2 in lung, while intramuscular vaccination induced exclusively IL-25R+ ILC2 in muscle. Interestingly, a larger proportion of IL-13+ ILC2s were detected in muscle following i.m. viral vector vaccination compared to lung post i.n. delivery. These observations revealed that ILC2 were the main source of IL-13 at the vaccination site (24 h post vaccination) responsible for inducing T cells of varying avidities...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
Johaiber Fuchslocher Chico, Maren Falk-Paulsen, Anne Luzius, Carina Saggau, Barbara Ruder, Julia Bolik, Dirk Schmidt-Arras, Andreas Linkermann, Christoph Becker, Philip Rosenstiel, Stefan Rose-John, Dieter Adam
The disintegrin metalloprotease ADAM17 has a critical role in intestinal inflammation and regeneration in mice, as illustrated by the dramatically increased susceptibility of ADAM17 hypomorphic (ADAM17ex/ex ) mice to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Similarly, necroptosis has been implicated in inflammatory responses in the intestine. In this study, we have investigated the contribution of necroptosis to ADAM17-regulated intestinal inflammation in vivo by crossing ADAM17ex/ex mice with mice that lack the necroptotic core protein RIPK3...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Xian-Qin Luo, Ao Li, Xue Yang, Xiao Xiao, Rong Hu, Tian-Wen Wang, Xiao-Yun Dou, Da-Jian Yang, Zhi Dong
Background: Cerebral hypoperfusion is a pivotal risk factor for vascular dementia (VD), for which effective therapy remains inadequate. Persistent inflammatory responses and excessive chemotaxis of microglia/macrophages in the brain may accelerate the progression of VD. Endocannabinoids are involved in neuronal protection against inflammation-induced neuronal injury. Cannabinoids acting at cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2 R) can decrease inflammation. Based on the identification of paeoniflorin (PF) as a CB2 R agonist, we investigated the neuroprotective and microglia/macrophages M1 to M2 polarization promoting effects of PF in a permanent four-vessel occlusion rat model...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Ahmad Al-Attar, Steven R Presnell, Jody L Clasey, Douglas E Long, R Grace Walton, Morgan Sexton, Marlene E Starr, Philip A Kern, Charlotte A Peterson, Charles T Lutz
Natural killer (NK) lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion control infections and cancers, but these crucial activities decline with age. NK cell development, homeostasis, and function require IL-15 and its chaperone, IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Rα). Macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) are major sources of these proteins. We had previously postulated that additional IL-15 and IL-15Rα is made by skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. These sources may be important in aging, when IL-15-producing immune cells decline...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Afsar R Naqvi, Jennifer Shango, Alexandra Seal, Deepak Shukla, Salvador Nares
Prevalence of the members of herpesvirus family in oral inflammatory diseases is increasingly acknowledged suggesting their likely role as an etiological factor. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In our recent miRNA profiling of healthy and diseased human tooth pulps, elevated expression of human herpesvirus encoded viral microRNAs (v-miRs) were identified. Based on the fold induction and significance values, we selected three v-miRs namely miR-K12-3-3p [Kaposi sarcoma-associated virus (KSHV)], miR-H1 [herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1)], and miR-UL-70-3p [human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)] to further examine their impact on host cellular functions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Benjamin J Wolf, Jiyoung Elizabeth Choi, Mark A Exley
iNKT cells are a subset of innate-like T cells that utilize an invariant TCR alpha chain complexed with a limited repertoire of TCR beta chains to recognize specific lipid antigens presented by CD1d molecules. Because iNKT cells have an invariant TCR, they can be easily identified and targeted in both humans and mice via standard reagents, making this a population of T cells that has been well characterized. iNKT cells are some of the first cells to respond during an infection. By making different types of cytokines in response to different infection stimuli, iNKT cells help determine what kind of immune response then develops...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Dragana Nikitovic, Aikaterini Berdiaki, Ioanna Spyridaki, Theodoros Krasanakis, Aristidis Tsatsakis, George N Tzanakakis
Proteoglycans (PGs), important constituents of the extracellular matrix, have been associated with cancer pathogenesis. Their unique structure consisting of a protein core and glycosaminoglycan chains endowed with fine modifications constitutes these molecules as capable cellular effectors important for homeostasis and contributing to disease progression. Indeed, differential expression of PGs and their interacting proteins has been characterized as specific for disease evolvement in various cancer types. Importantly, PGs to a large extent regulate the bioavailability of hormones, growth factors, and cytokines as well as the activation of their respective receptors which regulate phenotypic diversibility, gene expression and rates of recurrence in specific tumor types...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Hiroaki Senju, Asuka Kumagai, Yoichi Nakamura, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi, Katsumi Nakatomi, Shota Fukami, Kengo Shiraishi, Yuka Harada, Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Haruki Okamura, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Hiroshi Mukae
When pathogenic stresses are recognized by innate immune cells, inflammasomes are assembled and caspase-1 is activated, resulting in the conversion of pro-IL-18 into mature IL-18. Because natural killer (NK) cells express IL-18 receptors, IL-18 may play roles in immune functions of NK cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of IL-18 on NK cells derived from lung cancer patients and healthy adult volunteers. When peripheral blood NK cells were stimulated with IL-2, the cells formed clusters beginning on day 5-6 and proliferated thereafter, in which the number of NK cells increased by 10-fold in 10 days...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Elise Sofie Hovingh, Rob Mariman, Luis Solans, Daniëlle Hijdra, Hendrik-Jan Hamstra, Ilse Jongerius, Marjolein van Gent, Frits Mooi, Camille Locht, Elena Pinelli
Whooping cough, caused by Bordetella pertussis, has resurged and presents a global health burden worldwide. B. pertussis strains unable to produce the acellular pertussis vaccine component pertactin (Prn), have been emerging and in some countries represent up to 95% of recent clinical isolates. Knowledge on the effect that Prn deficiency has on infection and immunity to B. pertussis is crucial for the development of new strategies to control this disease. Here, we characterized the effect of Prn production by B...
March 21, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Yue Zhou, Zhilei Zhang, Ning Wang, Jizheng Chen, Xu Zhang, Min Guo, Li John Zhong, Qian Wang
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, is the leading cause of death from lung malignancies and has a poor prognosis due to metastasis. Suppressor of cytokine signalling-2 (SOCS2), a feedback inhibitor of cytokine signalling, has been shown to be involved in growth control. Here, we show that SOCS2 were significantly downregulated in tumour foci in NSCLC patients. The expression levels of SOCS2 significantly correlated with clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, histological subtype and survival time...
March 20, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Lauren D Aarreberg, Courtney Wilkins, Hilario J Ramos, Richard Green, Michael A Davis, Kwan Chow, Michael Gale
Induction of interferon beta (IFN-β), IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), and inflammatory responses is critical for control of viral infection. We recently identified an essential linkage of stimulation of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and induction of ISGs that function as host restriction pathways against the emerging flavivirus West Nile virus (WNV) in vivo Here we utilized ex vivo global transcriptome analysis of primary dendritic cells, known targets of WNV replication, to define gene signatures required for this IL-1β-driven antiviral response...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Paul Baran, Selina Hansen, Georg H Waetzig, Mohammad Akbarzadeh, Larissa Lamertz, Heinrich J Huber, M Reza Ahmadian, Jens M Moll, Jürgen Scheller
Interleukin (IL-)6 is the major pro-inflammatory cytokine within the IL-6 family. IL-6 signals via glycoprotein 130 (gp130) and the membrane-bound or soluble IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), referred to as classic or trans-signaling, respectively. Whereas inflammation triggers IL-6 expression, eventually rising to nanogram per mL serum levels, soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) and soluble gp130 (sgp130) are constitutively present in the upper nanogram per mL range. Calculations based on intermolecular affinities have suggested that systemic IL-6 is immediately trapped in IL-6:sIL-6R and IL-6:sIL-6R:sgp130 complexes, indicating that sIL-6R and sgp130 constitute a buffer system that increases the serum half-life of IL-6 or restricts systemic IL-6 signaling...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jian-Wei Lou, Liang-Liang Cao, Qiao Zhang, Dong-Jing Jiang, Wei-Feng Yao, Bei-Hua Bao, Yu-Dan Cao, Yu-Ping Tang, Li Zhang, Kun Wang, Guan-Cheng Dai
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kansui, the root of Euphorbia kansui S.L.Liou ex S.B.Ho (E.kansui), is a classical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with certain toxicity. According to the theory of TCM, kansui fry-baked with vinegar (VEK) possesses low toxicity and mild diuretic and purgative efficacy. In clinical practice, it is commonly used for the treatment of ascites and oliguria. The present study aimed to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of different fractions of VEK and reveal the underlying material basis by employing an animal model of malignant ascites effusion (MAE) in rats...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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