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Obstructive pulmonary disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922692/phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitors-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
REVIEW
Jimmy Chong, Bonnie Leung, Phillippa Poole
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with cough, sputum production or dyspnoea and a reduction in lung function, quality of life and life expectancy. Apart from smoking cessation, there are no other treatments that slow lung function decline. Roflumilast and cilomilast are oral phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors proposed to reduce the airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction seen in COPD. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2011 and updated in 2013...
September 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921655/fast-dynamic-ventilation-mri-of-hyperpolarized-129-xe-using-spiral-imaging
#2
Ozkan Doganay, Tahreema N Matin, Anthony Mcintyre, Brian Burns, Rolf F Schulte, Fergus V Gleeson, Daniel Bulte
PURPOSE: To develop and optimize a rapid dynamic hyperpolarized (129) Xe ventilation (DXeV) MRI protocol and investigate the feasibility of capturing pulmonary signal-time curves in human lungs. THEORY AND METHODS: Spiral k-space trajectories were designed with the number of interleaves Nint  = 1, 2, 4, and 8 corresponding to voxel sizes of 8 mm, 5 mm, 4 mm, and 2.5 mm, respectively, for field of view = 15 cm. DXeV images were acquired from a gas-flow phantom to investigate the ability of Nint  = 1, 2, 4, and 8 to capture signal-time curves...
September 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919731/sensitization-to-aspergillus-fumigatus-as-a-risk-factor-for-bronchiectasis-in-copd
#3
Stephanie Everaerts, Katrien Lagrou, Adriana Dubbeldam, Natalie Lorent, Kristina Vermeersch, Erna Van Hoeyveld, Xavier Bossuyt, Lieven J Dupont, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Wim Janssens
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap presents a possible clinical phenotype of COPD, but it is unclear why it develops in a subset of patients. We hypothesized that sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus (A fum) is associated with bronchiectasis in COPD and occurs more frequently in vitamin D-deficient patients. METHODS: This observational study investigated sensitization to A fum in an outpatient clinical cohort of 300 COPD patients and 50 (ex-) smoking controls...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919728/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-with-mild-airflow-limitation-current-knowledge-and-proposal-for-future-research-a-consensus-document-from-six-scientific-societies
#4
REVIEW
Andrea Rossi, Bojana Butorac-Petanjek, Marco Chilosi, Borja G Cosío, Matjaz Flezar, Nikolaos Koulouris, José Marin, Neven Miculinic, Guido Polese, Miroslav Samaržija, Sabina Skrgat, Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Andrea Vukić-Dugac, Spyridon Zakynthinos, Marc Miravitlles
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with high and growing prevalence. Its underdiagnosis and hence under-treatment is a general feature across all countries. This is particularly true for the mild or early stages of the disease, when symptoms do not yet interfere with daily living activities and both patients and doctors are likely to underestimate the presence of the disease. A diagnosis of COPD requires spirometry in subjects with a history of exposure to known risk factors and symptoms...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919143/long-term-safety-of-glycopyrrolate-eflow-%C3%A2-cs-in-moderate-to-very-severe-copd-results-from-the-glycopyrrolate-for-obstructive-lung-disease-via-electronic-nebulizer-golden-5-randomized-study
#5
Gary T Ferguson, Thomas Goodin, Robert Tosiello, Alistair Wheeler, Edward Kerwin
BACKGROUND: The use of long-acting bronchodilators is an essential component of the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The GOLDEN 5 Phase III, randomized, active-controlled, open-label study was conducted to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of a nebulized glycopyrrolate formulation (SUN-101) delivered via the investigational eFlow(®) Closed System (eFlow(®) CS) nebulizer in subjects with moderate-to-very-severe COPD. METHODS: Subjects were randomized in a 4:3 ratio to nebulized glycopyrrolate 50 μg twice daily (BID) or tiotropium 18 μg once daily (OD) and treated for 48 weeks...
August 24, 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919116/global-regional-and-national-age-sex-specific-mortality-for-264-causes-of-death-1980-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#6
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. METHODS: We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918869/clinical-guidelines-in-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-how-useful-are-they-in-clinical-practice
#7
Bernardino Alcázar-Navarrete, Francisca Castellano Miñán, Pedro J Romero Palacios
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918868/does-the-exacerbator-phenotype-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-really-exist
#8
Adolfo Baloira Villar, Marta Palop Cervera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917949/linear-association-between-number-of-modifiable-risk-factors-and-multiple-chronic-conditions-results-from-the-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system
#9
Mary L Adams, Joseph Grandpre, David L Katz, Douglas Shenson
Multiple (≥2) chronic conditions (MCCs) are responsible for a large fraction of healthcare costs. Our aim was to examine possible associations between MCCs and composite measures of behavioral risk factors (RFs). Data were publicly available 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and included 483,865 non-institutionalized US adults ages ≥18years. Chronic conditions included asthma, arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cognitive impairment, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and kidney disease...
September 13, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917022/epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-management-of-takotsubo-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Shams Y-Hassan, Per Tornvall
Takotsubo syndrome is a recently recognized acute cardiac disease entity with a clinical presentation resembling that of an acute coronary syndrome. The typical takotsubo syndrome patient has a unique circumferential left (bi-) ventricular contraction abnormality profile that extends beyond a coronary artery supply territory and appears to follow the anatomical cardiac sympathetic innervation. The syndrome predominantly affects postmenopausal women and is often preceded by emotional or physical stress. Patients with predisposing factors such as malignancy and other chronic comorbidities are more prone to suffer from takotsubo syndrome...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916915/inflammatory-diseases-and-bone-fragility
#11
REVIEW
K Briot, P Geusens, I Em Bultink, W F Lems, C Roux
Systemic osteoporosis and increased fracture rates have been described in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most of these patients receive glucocorticoids, which have their own deleterious effects on bone. However, the other main determinant of bone fragility is the inflammation itself, as shown by the interactions between the inflammatory mediators, the actors of the immune system, and the bone remodelling...
September 15, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916185/alveolar-eosinophilia-in-current-smokers-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-the-spiromics-cohort
#12
Carlos H Martinez, Sara X Li, Andrew J Hirzel, Valerie R Stolberg, Neil E Alexis, R Graham Barr, Eugene R Bleecker, Elizabeth E Carretta, Stephanie A Christenson, Christopher B Cooper, David J Couper, Claire M Doerschuk, MeiLan K Han, Nadia N Hansel, Annette T Hastie, Eric A Hoffman, Robert J Kaner, Fernando J Martinez, Deborah A Meyers, Wanda K O'Neal, Robert Paine, Nirupama Putcha, Stephen I Rennard, Prescott G Woodruff, Michelle Zeidler, Jeffrey L Curtis, Christine M Freeman
Active smoking in stable COPD subjects significantly increased eosinophil accumulation in the distal airspaces, but not in sputum or peripheral blood. Our findings support the need to investigate this cell-type as a potential driver of COPD symptomatology and progression.
September 12, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915968/magnesium-to-counteract-elastin-degradation-and-vascular-calcification-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#13
Rob Janssen
Accelerated elastin degradation is an important pathogenic mechanism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) leading to irreversible lung function loss and cardiovascular comorbidities. The rate of elastin breakdown is a predictor of mortality in patients with COPD. Decelerating elastinolysis might be an attractive therapeutic target in this debilitating condition. Vascular calcification starts in the elastin network of the arterial wall and is enhanced in patients with COPD. Elastin calcification is accompanied by an upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase gene expression and consequently a shift in the elastase/anti-elastase balance towards degradation...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915942/development-of-a-validated-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-quantification-of-19-endogenous-asthma-copd-potential-urinary-biomarkers
#14
Mona M Khamis, Darryl J Adamko, Anas El-Aneed
Obstructive airways inflammatory diseases sometimes show overlapping symptoms that hinder their early and correct diagnosis. Current clinical tests are tedious and are of inadequate specificity in special population such as the elderly and children. Therefore, we are developing tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) methods for targeted analysis of urine biomarkers. Recently, proton-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) analysis proposed 50 urinary metabolites as potential diagnostic biomarkers among asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients...
October 9, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915625/long-term-cigarette-smoke-exposure-inhibits-histone-deacetylase-2-expression-and-enhances-the-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-skeletal-muscle-of-mice
#15
Dongmei Huang, Zhiying Ma, Yili He, Ying Xiao, Honglin Luo, Qiuli Liang, Xiaoning Zhong, Jing Bai, Zhiyi He
Long-term cigarette smoke induces lung inflammatory injury and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with skeletal muscle inflammation. This study aimed at investigating how cigarette smoke promotes skeletal muscle inflammation and its molecular pathogenesis. Mice were exposed to air or cigarette smoke for 12 or 24 weeks, and C2C12 cells were stimulated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The mass and function, myotube formation, inflammatory cytokine production, histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 expression were detected in the gastrocnemius muscles of mice and C2C12 cells...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915526/-exit-a-possible-intervention-for-new-and-earlyborn-babies-with-severe-hydrops-fetalis-and-hydrothoraces-on-both-sides
#16
Sandra Koch, Jochen Essers, Ortraud Beringer, Frank Reister, Helmut Hummler, Anja Moewes
The EXIT (ex utero intrapartum treatment) procedure is an established method of respiratory protection, originally used in the delivery of fetuses with congenital obstructive airway diseases (tumors in the throat area, hygromas, so-called congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS)). Meanwhile, the procedure is also carried out in large perinatal centers for pronounced diaphragmatic hernia or other special indications (EXIT to ECMO, congenital lung airway malformations (CCAM), pulmonary atresia). We present our experience with adapted EXIT procedures in 5 preterm infants with secondary generalized hydrops fetalis and pronounced bilateral hydrothoraces...
September 15, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914860/-new-opportunities-for-inhaled-therapy-for-inflammatory-diseases-of-the-respiratory-system
#17
G L Ignatova, V N Antonov
The paper considers current approaches to mucoregulatory therapy for various inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system. It gives the advantages and disadvantages of common drugs used in their treatment. Emphasis is laid on the use of inhaled hypertonic saline of NaCl in combination with hyaluronic acid (Hyaneb). Clinical examples of its use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute and chronic bronchitis, and severe asthma are considered.
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914826/pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-a-case-report
#18
Luis Alberto Concepción-Urteaga, Luis Alejandro Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Jorge Luis Cornejo-Portella, Oscar Neri Alquizar-Horna, Daniel Anderson Aguilar-Villanueva, Marcio José Concepción-Zavaleta, Mario Gustavo Azañero-Luján
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare, diffuse interstitial lung disease, characterized by alveolar obstruction due to the accumulation of pulmonary surfactant. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 30-year-old male with progressively worsening dyspnea and non-productive cough for one year. He was a sugar cane plantation worker and had prior recurrent respiratory infections. Physical exam revealed cyanosis, and bilateral coarse and fine rales. Chest computed tomography showed diffuse crazy paving pattern...
September 14, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914546/defibrotide-an-oligonucleotide-for-sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome
#19
May T Aziz, Payal P Kakadiya, Samantha M Kush, Kylie Weigel, Denise K Lowe
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy and safety of defibrotide as well as its pharmacology, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics (PK), drug-drug interactions, dosing, cost considerations, and place in therapy. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search was performed through August 2017 using the terms defibrotide, oligonucleotide, hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), and hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Other data sources were from references of identified studies, review articles, and conference abstracts plus manufacturer product labeling and website, the Food and Drug Administration website, and clinicaltrials...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914424/new-perspectives-in-nanotherapeutics-for-chronic-respiratory-diseases
#20
Adriana Lopes da Silva, Fernanda Ferreira Cruz, Patricia Rieken Macedo Roccco, Marcelo Marcos Morales
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), hundreds of millions of people of all ages and in all countries suffer from chronic respiratory diseases, with particular negative consequences such as poor health-related quality of life, impaired work productivity, and limitations in the activities of daily living. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, occupational lung diseases (such as silicosis), cystic fibrosis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension are the most common of these diseases, and none of them are curable with current therapies...
September 15, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
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