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Antibiotics guidelines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820705/the-impact-of-introducing-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-tests-on-fever-case-management-a-synthesis-of-ten-studies-from-the-act-consortium
#1
Katia J Bruxvoort, Baptiste Leurent, Clare I R Chandler, Evelyn K Ansah, Frank Baiden, Anders Björkman, Helen E D Burchett, Sîan E Clarke, Bonnie Cundill, Debora D DiLiberto, Kristina Elfving, Catherine Goodman, Kristian S Hansen, S Patrick Kachur, Sham Lal, David G Lalloo, Toby Leslie, Pascal Magnussen, Lindsay Mangham-Jefferies, Andreas Mårtensson, Ismail Mayan, Anthony K Mbonye, Mwinyi I Msellem, Obinna E Onwujekwe, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Mark W Rowland, Delér Shakely, Sarah G Staedke, Lasse S Vestergaard, Jayne Webster, Christopher J M Whitty, Virginia L Wiseman, Shunmay Yeung, David Schellenberg, Heidi Hopkins
Since 2010, the World Health Organization has been recommending that all suspected cases of malaria be confirmed with parasite-based diagnosis before treatment. These guidelines represent a paradigm shift away from presumptive antimalarial treatment of fever. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) are central to implementing this policy, intended to target artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) to patients with confirmed malaria and to improve management of patients with nonmalarial fevers. The ACT Consortium conducted ten linked studies, eight in sub-Saharan Africa and two in Afghanistan, to evaluate the impact of mRDT introduction on case management across settings that vary in malaria endemicity and healthcare provider type...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820687/identification-of-subsets-of-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-associated-with-diarrheal-disease-among-under-5-year-old-children-from-rural-gambia
#2
Usman N Ikumapayi, Nadia Boisen, Mohammad J Hossain, Modupeh Betts, Modou Lamin, Debasish Saha, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Michel Dione, Richard A Adegbola, Anna Roca, James P Nataro, Martin Antonio
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) cause acute and persistent diarrhea, mostly in children worldwide. Outbreaks of diarrhea caused by EAEC have been described, including a large outbreak caused by a Shiga toxin expressing strain. This study investigated the association of EAEC virulence factors with diarrhea in children less than 5 years. We characterized 428 EAEC strains isolated from stool samples obtained from moderate-to-severe diarrhea cases (157) and healthy controls (217) children aged 0-59 months recruited over 3 years as part of the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in The Gambia...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819087/investigation-and-characterization-of-%C3%AE-lactam-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-bamboo-rats-rhizomys-sinensis-in-zhejiang-province-china
#3
Hui Zhang, Kun Li, Yajing Wang, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Yijiang Liu, Junjie Jin, Junping Peng, Fazul Nabi, Khalid Mehmood, Houqiang Luo, Jiaxiang Wang
This study was undertaken to investigate drug resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from bamboo rats in Zhejiang province of China. One hundred and fifty-four E. coli strains were isolated from dead bamboo rats. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the representative genes encoding resistance to commonly used β-lactam antibiotics. Highest resistance was observed for cefradine (24.03%), followed by penicillin (20.78%) and ceftazidime (20.13%). The isolation rates of β-lactam resistance genes were 53...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818544/trends-in-antimicrobial-resistance-in-bloodstream-infection-isolates-at-a-large-urban-hospital-in-malawi-1998-2016-a-surveillance-study
#4
Patrick Musicha, Jennifer E Cornick, Naor Bar-Zeev, Neil French, Clemens Masesa, Brigitte Denis, Neil Kennedy, Jane Mallewa, Melita A Gordon, Chisomo L Msefula, Robert S Heyderman, Dean B Everett, Nicholas A Feasey
BACKGROUND: Bacterial bloodstream infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, yet few facilities are able to maintain long-term surveillance. The Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme has done sentinel surveillance of bacteraemia since 1998. We report long-term trends in bloodstream infection and antimicrobial resistance from this surveillance. METHODS: In this surveillance study, we analysed blood cultures that were routinely taken from adult and paediatric patients with fever or suspicion of sepsis admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi from 1998 to 2016...
August 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817780/us-internists-awareness-and-use-of-overtreatment-guidelines-a-national-survey
#5
Kira L Ryskina, Eric S Holmboe, Elizabeth Bernabeo, Rachel M Werner, Judy A Shea, Judith A Long
OBJECTIVES: To assess physician views and perceived adoption of overtreatment guidelines and measure whether adoption of these guidelines influenced the recommendation of a targeted service. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey mailed from July 2014 to January 2015 to 902 internists who completed residency between 2003 and 2013, randomly selected from the American Medical Association Masterfile. METHODS: Poisson regression was used to model the rate of recommending a targeted service included in the guidelines, based on the level of guideline adoption...
July 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814905/conjunctival-flora-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patients-on-antiretroviral-treatment
#6
Kagmeni Giles, Yannick Bilong, Andin Viola Dohvoma, Steve Robert Ebana, Hortance Gonsu
OBJECTIVES: To determine the conjunctival flora of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODOLOGY: A total of 104 conjunctival swabs from 104 HIV patients on ART underwent microbiological evaluation to describe the flora. RESULT: There were 71 (68.26%) women and 33 (31.74%) men. The mean age was 42.9 ± 9.77 (range: 22-70) years. Negative cultures were found in 39 (37.50%) cases. Bacterial growth occurred in 65 (62...
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814829/antibiotic-susceptibility-heteroresistance-and-updated-treatment-strategies-in-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#7
REVIEW
Maria Teresa Mascellino, Barbara Porowska, Massimiliano De Angelis, Alessandra Oliva
In this review, we discuss the problem of antibiotic resistance, heteroresistance, the utility of cultures and antibiotic susceptibility tests in Helicobacter pylori (Hp) eradication, as well as the updated treatment strategies for this infection. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance is increasing all over the world, especially for metronidazole and clarithromycin, because of their heavy use in some geographical areas. Heteroresistance (simultaneous presence of both susceptible and resistant strains in different sites of a single stomach) is another important issue, as an isolate could be mistakenly considered susceptible if a single biopsy is used for antimicrobial tests...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814444/implementing-an-inpatient-pediatric-prospective-audit-and-feedback-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-within-a-larger-medical-center
#8
Jennifer Lighter-Fisher, Sonya Desai, Anna Stachel, Vinh Philip Pham, Liana Klejmont, Yanina Dubrovskaya
BACKGROUND: Pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) within larger institutions have unique opportunities to develop programs specialized to the needs of the pediatric program. In January 2013, our institution established a formalized pediatric ASP utilizing the prospective audit and feedback process. In an effort to standardize therapy and improve quality of care, members of the ASP developed evidence-based guidelines for management of common inpatient pediatric infections...
August 16, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814443/antibiotic-use-by-pediatric-residents-identifying-opportunities-and-strategies-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#9
Prateek J Shukla, Maria Behnam-Terneus, Beatriz Cunill-De Sautu, Geovanny F Perez
OBJECTIVES: To determine the antibiotic prescribing practices of pediatric residents and assess how they acquire knowledge leading to prescribing behaviors. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional electronic survey of all pediatric residents at the Children's National Medical Center and Nicklaus Children's Hospital, assessing antibiotic prescribing patterns for common pediatric infections, use of antibiograms, and factors influencing antibiotic choice. RESULTS: Eighty-five surveys (45%) were returned complete and included in the analysis...
August 16, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814258/management-of-complicated-pneumonia-in-childhood-a-review-of-recent-literature
#10
John B Darby, Amrita Singh, Ricardo Quinonez
BACKGROUND: Despite declining rates of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children, complicated pneumonia has been on the rise in the last two decades. The management of complicated pneumonia is challenging and continues to be an area of investigation. Despite recently published guidelines, many gaps exist and recent studies attempt to answer challenging questions. OBJECTIVE: To review recently published literature to inform the clinician on the most up to date management of complicated pneumonia in children...
August 16, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813735/duration-of-antibiotics-prescribed-at-hospital-discharge
#11
Susan E Hoover
INTRODUCTION: A patient's transition from hospitalization to discharge may represent an additional opportunity for antibiotic stewardship. METHODS: We reviewed antimicrobial drugs prescribed at discharge to patients at our medical center over a nine-month period, and calculated the total duration of inpatient and outpatient antibiotic therapy. RESULTS: The median duration of inpatient antibiotics was three days (interquartile range [IQR] four days), of outpatient antibiotics was seven days (IQR six days), and of total antibiotics 10 days (IQR six days)...
April 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811792/antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-of-clinical-isolates-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-patients-of-respiratory-tract-infections-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-peshawar
#12
Abdul Samad, Tanveer Ahmed, Afaq Rahim, Abdul Khalil, Iftikhar Ali
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the prevalence and susceptibility pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates in patients suffering from respiratory tract infection. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from January to December 2014 in Northwest General Hospital and Research Centre, Peshawar. A total of 615 sputum samples were collected from both in and out-patients. Sputum samples were collected as per standard procedure and were inoculated on Blood, MacConkey and Chocolate agar...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809644/-endoprosthesis-infections-guidelines-for-antibiotic-therapy-common-guidelines-of-the-czech-society-for-orthopaedics-and-traumatology-and-the-society-for-infectious-diseases-of-the-czech-medical-association-of-j-e-purkyn%C3%A4
#13
D Musil, M Balejová, M Horníková, A Chrdle, N Mallátová, O Nyč, V Chmelík, J Gallo, D Jahoda, J Stehlík
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This study aims to articulate regional guidelines for curative and suppressive antibiotic therapy of total joint replacement infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS When developing the standard, used as source materials were the published foreign guidelines for antibiotic therapy of prosthetic joint infections, the analysis of resistance of bacterial strains conducted in the Hospital in České Budějovice, a.s. and the assessment of strain resistance for the Czech Republic published by the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net)...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809612/a-retrospective-study-evaluating-the-efficacy-of-identification-and-management-of-sepsis-at-a-district-level-hospital-internal-medicine-department-in-the-western-cape-province-south-africa-in-comparison-with-the-guidelines-stipulated-in-the-2012-survivi
#14
Raisa Bhikoo, Sarah Versfeld, M M De V Basson, Almero H Oosthuizen
BACKGROUND: Currently there is little information on the identification, management and outcomes of patients with sepsis in developing countries. Simple cost-effective measures such as accurate identification of patients with sepsis and early antibiotic administration are achievable targets, within reach without having to make use of unsustainable protocols constructed in developed countries. OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of clinicians at a district-level hospital to identify and manage sepsis, and to assess patient outcome in terms of in-hospital mortality and length of hospital stay given the above management...
July 28, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808771/multicentre-controlled-randomized-clinical-trial-to-compare-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-ambulatory-treatment-of-mild-acute-diverticulitis-without-antibiotics-with-the-standard-treatment-with-antibiotics
#15
Laura Mora Lopez, Neus Ruiz-Edo, Sheila Serra Pla, Anna Pallisera Llovera, Salvador Navarro Soto, Xavier Serra-Aracil
PURPOSE: Acute diverticulitis (AD) is a highly prevalent disease in Spain. Its chronic-recurrent appearance and high rate of relapse mean that it has a major epidemiological and economic impact on our health system. In spite of this, it has not been studied in any great depth. Reassessing its etiopathology, recent studies have observed that it is an inflammatory disease-not, as classic theories had postulated, an infectious one. In the light of these findings, the suitability of antibiotics for its treatment has been reconsidered...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808076/influence-of-the-duration-of-penicillin-prescriptions-on-outcomes-for-acute-sore-throat-in-adults-the-descarte-prospective-cohort-study-in-uk-general-practice
#16
Michael Moore, Beth Stuart, Fd Richard Hobbs, Chris C Butler, Alastair D Hay, John Campbell, Brendan C Delaney, Sue Broomfield, Paula Barratt, Kerenza Hood, Hazel Everitt, Mark Mullee, Ian Williamson, David Mant, Paul Little
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend 10-day treatment courses for acute sore throat, but shorter courses may be used in practice. AIM: To determine whether antibiotic duration predicts adverse outcome of acute sore throat in adults in routine care. DESIGN AND SETTING: A secondary analysis of the DESCARTE (Decision rule for the Symptoms and Complications of Acute Red Throat in Everyday practice) prospective cohort study of 12 829 adults presenting in UK general practice with acute sore throat...
August 14, 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808074/trends-in-antibiotic-use-by-birth-season-and-birth-year
#17
Alan C Kinlaw, Til Stürmer, Jennifer L Lund, Lars Pedersen, Michael D Kappelman, Julie L Daniels, Trine Frøslev, Christina D Mack, Henrik Toft Sørensen
OBJECTIVES: We examined 2 birth cohort effects on antibiotic prescribing during the first year of life (henceforth, infancy) in Denmark: (1) the birth season effect on timing and overall occurrence of antibiotic prescribing, and (2) the birth year effect amid emerging nationwide pneumococcal vaccination programs and changing prescribing guidelines. METHODS: We linked data for all live births in Denmark from 2004 to 2012 (N = 561 729) across the National Health Service Prescription Database, Medical Birth Registry, and Civil Registration System...
August 14, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807835/the-role-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-programmes-in-children-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
André Ricardo Araujo da Silva, Déborah Cardoso Albernaz de Almeida Dias, Amanda Fáris Marques, Clara Biscaia di Biase, Indah K Murni, Angela Dramowski, Mike Sharland, Johanes Huebner, Walter Zingg
The United Nations and the World Health Organization have designated antimicrobial resistance (AMR) as a major health priority and developed action plans to reduce AMR in all healthcare settings. Establishment of institutional antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) is advocated as a key intervention to reduce antibiotic consumption in hospitals and address high rates of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. We searched PUBMED and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews (1/2007-3/2017) to identify studies reporting about the effectiveness of ASPs in general paediatric wards and paediatric intensive care units (PICU), on reducing antibiotic consumption, on using broad spectrum/restricted antibiotics, and on antibiotic resistance and healthcare-associated infections (HAIs)...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806902/monitoring-documenting-and-reporting-the-quality-of-antibiotic-use-in-the-netherlands-a-pilot-study-to-establish-a-national-antimicrobial-stewardship-registry
#19
Marvin Ah Berrevoets, Jaap Ten Oever, Tom Sprong, Reinier M van Hest, Ingeborg Groothuis, Inger van Heijl, Jeroen A Schouten, Marlies E Hulscher, Bart-Jan Kullberg
BACKGROUND: The Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy is developing a national antimicrobial stewardship registry. This registry will report both the quality of antibiotic use in hospitals in the Netherlands and the stewardship activities employed. It is currently unclear which aspects of the quality of antibiotic use are monitored by antimicrobial stewardship teams (A-teams) and can be used as indicators for the stewardship registry. In this pilot study we aimed to determine which stewardship objectives are eligible for the envisioned registry...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806686/simultaneous-determination-of-16-macrolide-antibiotics-and-4-metabolites-in-milk-by-using-quick-easy-cheap-effective-rugged-and-safe-extraction-quechers-and-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#20
Weie Zhou, Yun Ling, Tong Liu, Yuan Zhang, Jianzhi Li, Hongna Li, Wenjie Wu, Shoujun Jiang, Feng Feng, Fei Yuan, Feng Zhang
A novel analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 16 macrolide antibiotics and 4 metabolites in milk. A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction method (QuEChERS) optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) was used for sample preparation. All the drugs were subsequently separated and detected by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), using roxithromycin as internal standards for maximum accuracy and precision...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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