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Elena N Kaparullina, Yuri A Trotsenko, Nina V Doronina
Three strains of obligately methylotrophic Betaproteobacteria (ZT, SP and M3) with the ribulose monophosphate pathway of C1 assimilation are described. The isolates are strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, asporogenous, motile (strains ZT and M3) or non-motile (strain SP) rods multiplying by binary fisson, mesophilic and neutrophilic. All three strains utilize methanol but only strains SP and M3 utilize methylamine as the carbon and energy sources. The prevailing cellular fatty acids are straight-chain saturated C16 : 0 and unsaturated C16 : 1ω7c acids...
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Eun Mi Choi, Kwang Sik Suh, Sang Youl Rhee, Seungjoon Oh, Jeong-Taek Woo, Sung Woon Kim, Young Seol Kim, Youngmi Kim Pak, Suk Chon
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a stable organic perfluorinated compound, is an emerging persistent organic pollutant, found widely in human and wildlife populations. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to environmental toxicants can be associated with higher risks of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied the cellular toxicology of PFOA in MC3T3-E1osteoblast cells. To examine the effect of PFOA, we measured cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial superoxide, and mitochondrial parameters including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cardiolipin content, and cytochrome c release in MC3T3-E1 cells...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Luís Félix, M M Oliveira, Romeu Videira, Elisabete Maciel, Nuno D Alves, Fernando M Nunes, Anabela Alves, José M Almeida, M Rosário M Domingues, Francisco P Peixoto
Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic widely used to treat many types of bacterial infections. Although its properties, his clinical use is limited due to the occurrence of nephrotoxicity, which has been related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Carvedilol, an antihypertensive drug with strong antioxidant properties, has been tested in order to prevent gentamicin nephrotoxicity. This study aimed to test this hypothesis using a rat model of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Animals were treated subcutaneously with DMSO (control) (0...
November 26, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Edward Ross Pennington, Amy Fix, E Madison Sullivan, David A Brown, Anthony Kennedy, Saame Raza Shaikh
Cardiolipin (CL) has a critical role in maintaining mitochondrial inner membrane structure. In several conditions such as heart failure and aging, there is loss of CL content and remodeling of CL acyl chains, which are hypothesized to impair mitochondrial inner membrane biophysical organization. Therefore, this study discriminated how CL content and acyl chain composition influenced select properties of simple and complex mitochondrial mimicking model membranes. We focused on monolayer excess area/molecule (a measure of lipid miscibility), bilayer phase transitions, and microdomain organization...
November 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Hazel H Szeto, Shaoyi Liu, Yi Soong, Surya V Seshan, Leona Cohen-Gould, Viacheslav Manichev, Leonard C Feldman, Torgny Gustafsson
The innate immune system has been implicated in both AKI and CKD. Damaged mitochondria release danger molecules, such as reactive oxygen species, DNA, and cardiolipin, which can cause NLRP3 inflammasome activation and upregulation of IL-18 and IL-1β It is not known if mitochondrial damage persists long after ischemia to sustain chronic inflammasome activation. We conducted a 9-month study in Sprague-Dawley rats after 45 minutes of bilateral renal ischemia. We detected glomerular and peritubular capillary rarefaction, macrophage infiltration, and fibrosis at 1 month...
November 23, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Marcin Broniatowski, Monika Urbaś
Anionic phospholipids cardiolipins (CL) and phosphatidylglycerols (PG) dominate in the biomembranes of the majority of soil bacteria. CL to PG ratio differs between the species and is also dependent on the external conditions. CL/PG ratio is different in polluted than in unspoiled soils and it was hypothesized that it is connected with the activity of the membranelytic enzymes from the phospholipase A2 class (PLA2) as it was proved that persistent soil pollutants can activate PLA2. In our studies we applied the Langmuir monolayer technique and Brewster angle microscopy to elucidate the mechanism of the interactions of PLA2 with the model membranes formed by anionic phospholipids...
November 18, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Firdaus Samsudin, Maite L Ortiz-Suarez, Thomas J Piggot, Peter J Bond, Syma Khalid
The envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is highly complex, containing separate outer and inner membranes and an intervening periplasmic space encompassing a peptidoglycan (PGN) cell wall. The PGN scaffold is anchored non-covalently to the outer membrane via globular OmpA-like domains of various proteins. We report atomically detailed simulations of PGN bound to OmpA in three different states, including the isolated C-terminal domain (CTD), the full-length monomer, or the complete full-length dimeric form. Comparative analysis of dynamics of OmpA CTD from different bacteria helped to identify a conserved PGN-binding mode...
November 8, 2016: Structure
Reka A Haraszti, Marie-Cecile Didiot, Ellen Sapp, John Leszyk, Scott A Shaffer, Hannah E Rockwell, Fei Gao, Niven R Narain, Marian DiFiglia, Michael A Kiebish, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), are explored for use in diagnostics, therapeutics and drug delivery. However, little is known about the relationship of protein and lipid composition of EVs and their source cells. Here, we report high-resolution lipidomic and proteomic analyses of exosomes and MVs derived by differential ultracentrifugation from 3 different cell types: U87 glioblastoma cells, Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Dmitry Malyshka, Reinhard Schweitzer-Stenner
Ferricytochrome c binding to cardiolipin containing liposomes produces a heterogeneous distribution of conformations comprising native-like and non-native misfolded proteins. We utilized the photoreduction of native ferricytochrome c in the presence of potassium ferrocyanide and resonance Raman spectroscopy to probe the population of native and misfolded cytochrome c on liposomes with 20% TOCL/80% DOPC and with 100% TOCL as a function of TOCL concentration. Our data provide strong support for an earlier model, which predicts that the equilibrium between native and non-native conformations is shifted to the latter with decreasing protein occupation of liposomes...
November 9, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Laura K Cole, Edgard M Mejia, Marilyne Vandel, Genevieve C Sparagna, Steven M Claypool, Laura Dyck-Chan, Julianne Klein, Grant M Hatch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Diabetes
Song-Chou Hsieh, Chang-Youh Tsai, Chia-Li Yu
Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most frequent and serious complications in the patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoimmune-mediated inflammation in both renal glomerular and tubulointerstitial tissues is the major pathological finding of LN. In clinical practice, the elevated anti-dsDNA antibody titer concomitant with reduced complement C3 and C4 levels has become the predictive and disease-activity surrogate biomarkers in LN. However, more and more evidences suggest that autoantibodies other than anti-dsDNA antibodies, such as anti-nucleosome, anti-C1q, anti-C3b, anti-cardiolipin, anti-endothelial cell, anti-ribonuclear proteins, and anti-glomerular matrix (anti-actinin) antibodies, may also involve in LN...
2016: Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews
Lucas A Maddalena, Mikel Ghelfi, Jeffrey Atkinson, Jeffrey A Stuart
A variety of mitochondria-targeted small molecules have been invented to manipulate mitochondrial redox activities and improve function in certain disease states. 3-Hydroxypropyl-triphenylphosphonium-conjugated imidazole-substituted oleic acid (TPP-IOA) was developed as a specific inhibitor of cytochrome c peroxidase activity that inhibits apoptosis by preventing cardiolipin oxidation and cytochrome c release to the cytosol. Here we evaluate the effects of TPP-IOA on oxidative phosphorylation in isolated mitochondria and on mitochondrial function in live cells...
November 9, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Federica Sinibaldi, Lisa Milazzo, Barry D Howes, Maria Cristina Piro, Laura Fiorucci, Fabio Polticelli, Paolo Ascenzi, Massimo Coletta, Giulietta Smulevich, Roberto Santucci
Cytochrome c undergoes structural variations upon binding of cardiolipin, one of the phospholipids constituting the mitochondrial membrane. Although several mechanisms governing cytochrome c/cardiolipin (cyt c/CL) recognition have been proposed, the interpretation of the process remains, at least in part, unknown. To better define the steps characterizing the cyt c-CL interaction, the role of Lys72 and Lys73, two residues thought to be important in the protein/lipid binding interaction, were recently investigated by mutagenesis...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Johan van Beilen, Christoph J Blohmke, Hendrik Folkerts, Richard de Boer, Anna Zakrzewska, Wim Kulik, Fred M Vaz, Stanley Brul, Alexander Ter Beek
Weak organic acids like sorbic and acetic acid are widely used to prevent growth of spoilage organisms such as Bacilli. To identify genes involved in weak acid stress tolerance we screened a transposon mutant library of Bacillus subtilis for sorbic acid sensitivity. Mutants of the rodZ (ymfM) gene were found to be hypersensitive to the lipophilic weak organic acid. RodZ is involved in determining the cell's rod-shape and believed to interact with the bacterial actin-like MreB cytoskeleton. Since rodZ lies upstream in the genome of the essential gene pgsA (phosphatidylglycerol phosphate synthase) we hypothesized that expression of the latter might also be affected in rodZ mutants and hence contribute to the phenotype observed...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jan Domanski, George Hedger, Robert B Best, Phillip James Stansfeld, Mark S P Sansom
Potential of mean force (PMF) calculations are used to characterize the free energy landscape of protein-lipid and protein-protein association within membranes. Coarse-grained simulations allow binding free energies to be determined with reasonable statistical error. This accuracy relies on defining a good collective variable describing the binding and unbinding transition, and upon criteria for assessing the convergence of the simulation toward representative equilibrium sampling. As examples, we calculate protein-lipid binding PMFs for ANT/cardiolipin and Kir2...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Abhishek Mandal, Patrick C A van der Wel
The lipid bilayer typical of hydrated biological membranes is characterized by a liquid-crystalline, highly dynamic state. Upon cooling or dehydration, these membranes undergo a cooperative transition to a rigidified, more-ordered, gel phase. This characteristic phase transition is of significant biological and biophysical interest, for instance in studies of freezing-tolerant organisms. Magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy allows for the detection and characterization of the phase transitions over a wide temperature range...
November 1, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Tatyana Romantsov, Doreen E Culham, Tavia Caplan, Jennifer Garner, Robert S Hodges, Janet M Wood
Osmosensing transporter ProP protects bacteria from osmotically-induced dehydration by mediating the uptake of zwitterionic osmolytes. ProP activity is a sigmoidal function of the osmolality. ProP orthologues share an extended, cytoplasmic C-terminal domain. Orthologues with and without a C-terminal, α-helical coiled-coil domain respond similarly to the osmolality. ProP concentrates at the poles and septa of Escherichia coli cells in a cardiolipin (CL)-dependent manner. The roles of phospholipids and the C-terminal domain in subcellular localization of ProP were explored...
November 1, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Li Zeng, Lie Wu, Li Liu, Xiue Jiang
Apoptotic mechanisms are not fully understood due to limitations in present analytical methods. Such understanding may be ad-vanced by unravelling the structural properties of heterogeneous cardiolipin (CL)-bound cytochrome c (cyt c) and the factors or events that regulate them. In this study, surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) was employed to probe the adsorption of cyt c on CL membranes in biomimetic conditions. The results clearly show that pure electrostatic interactions result in the unfolding of partial α-helices, while the synergy between hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions governs orienta-tion homogeneity of adsorbed protein, and conformational transition between α-helices and β-sheet...
November 1, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Martin Klingenberg
This review focuses on the biochemical work of UCP1 starting from the early observation by Ricquier and Kader in 1976. We entered this field in 1980 with the isolation of native UCP1 and then reported the amino acid sequence structure discovering a strong homology to the ADP/ATP carrier. With the isolated native UCP1 we studied structural and functional features, in particular the complex characteristics of nucleotide binding. A strong pH dependence of binding and herein the differences between diphopho- and triphopho-nucleotides were observed, resulting in the identification of residues which control binding site access by their H(+) dissociation...
October 26, 2016: Biochimie
George Hedger, Sarah L Rouse, Jan Domanski, Matthieu Chavent, Heidi Koldsø, Mark S P Sansom
The exchange of ADP and ATP across the inner mitochondrial membrane is a fundamental cellular process. This exchange is facilitated by the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), the structure and function of which is critically dependent on the signature phospholipid of mitochondria, cardiolipin (CL). Here we employ multiscale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate CL interactions within a membrane environment. Using simulations at both coarse-grained (CG) and atomistic (AT) resolutions, we identify three CL binding sites on the translocase, in agreement with those seen in crystal structures and inferred from NMR measurements...
October 27, 2016: Biochemistry
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