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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128447/developmental-perspectives-on-methamphetamine-abuse-exploring-adolescent-vulnerabilities-on-brain-and-behavior
#1
REVIEW
Sophia J Luikinga, Jee Hyun Kim, Christina J Perry
Most people that experience illicit drugs do so for the first time during adolescence, and methamphetamine (meth) is no exception. Therefore, research into the effects of meth should highlight the adolescent period. Despite this, the vast majority of current literature has mainly focused on meth exposure during adulthood. In this review, we first describe existing literature that compares the behavioral effects of meth where exposure occurs in adolescence compared to adulthood. Given that there are actually very few such studies, we also look at what is known about neural effects of meth in the adult brain, and relate these to normal neural development occurring during the adolescent period to establish how meth may target maturing regions and related neurochemistry...
November 8, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096633/cerebral-malaria-induces-electrophysiological-and-neurochemical-impairment-in-mice-retinal-tissue-possible-effect-on-glutathione-and-glutamatergic-system
#2
Karen R H M Oliveira, Nayara Kauffmann, Luana K R Leão, Adelaide C F Passos, Fernando A F Rocha, Anderson M Herculano, José L M do Nascimento
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication resulting from Plasmodium falciparum infection. This condition has usually been associated with cognitive, behavioural and motor dysfunctions, being the retinopathy the most serious consequence resulting from the disease. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this complication remain incompletely understood. Several experimental models of CM have already been developed in order to clarify those mechanisms related to this syndrome...
November 2, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094304/perineuronal-nets-labeled-by-monoclonal-antibody-vc1-1-ensheath-interneurons-expressing-parvalbumin-and-calbindin-in-the-rat-amygdala
#3
Alexander J McDonald, Patricia G Hamilton, Colin J Barnstable
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized condensations of extracellular matrix that ensheath particular neuronal subpopulations in the brain and spinal cord. PNNs regulate synaptic plasticity, including the encoding of fear memories by the amygdala. The present immunohistochemical investigation studied PNN structure and distribution, as well as the neurochemistry of their ensheathed neurons, in the rat amygdala using monoclonal antibody VC1.1, which recognizes a glucuronic acid 3-sulfate glycan associated with PNNs in the cerebral cortex...
November 1, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077651/exploring-the-relationship-between-body-mass-index-and-positive-symptom-severity-in-persons-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#4
Fernando Caravaggio, Gary Brucato, Lawrence S Kegeles, Eugénie Lehembre-Shiah, Leigh Y Arndt, Tiziano Colibazzi, Ragy Girgis
Metabolic health and positive symptom severity has been investigated in schizophrenia, but not in clinical high risk (CHR) patients. We hypothesized that greater body mass index (BMI) in CHR patients would be related to less positive symptoms. We examined this relationship in CHR patients being treated with 1) no psychotropic medications (n = 58), 2) an antipsychotic (n = 14), or 3) an antidepressant without an antipsychotic (n = 10). We found no relationship between BMI and positive symptoms in unmedicated CHR patients, the majority of whom had a narrow BMI range between 20 and 30...
November 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027666/alexander-george-karczmar-1917-2017
#5
Hermona Soreq, Israel Silman
The neurochemistry community at large and the Advisory Board of The International Symposia on Cholinergic Mechanisms mourn the loss of Alexander George Karczmar, the elected Honorary President of these international symposia, who passed away peacefully in his Chicago home at the age of 100 on August 17, 2017. For many of us Alex was the essence of cholinergic signaling, and personified its versatile power to send messages between the brain and the peripheral tissues and organs, and to connect between body and soul...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022518/research-on-a-drug-centred-approach-to-psychiatric-drug-treatment-assessing-the-impact-of-mental-and-behavioural-alterations-produced-by-psychiatric-drugs
#6
J Moncrieff
AIMS: This article explores an alternative understanding of how psychiatric drugs work that is referred to as the drug-centred model of drug action. Unlike the current disease-centred model, which suggests that psychiatric drugs work by correcting an underlying brain abnormality, the drug-centred model emphasises how psychiatric drugs affect mental states and behaviour by modifying normal brain processes. The alterations produced may impact on the emotional and behavioural problems that constitute the symptoms of mental disorders...
October 12, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967972/in-search-of-a-good-night-s-sleep
#7
Laura G Leahy
A good night's sleep is essential to overall physical, cognitive, and emotional well-being. Sleep deprivation, whether general or related to time changes (e.g., daylight saving time), contributes to decreased cognition, impaired memory, poor coordination, mood fluctuations, increased risk of heart disease and diabetes, and weight gain, among others. The sleep cycle is defined by five stages and two distinct parts-rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep-that work to promote not only the quantity of sleep but also the quality of sleep, which impacts overall health...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962900/effects-of-tamoxifen-on-neuronal-morphology-connectivity-and-biochemistry-of-hypothalamic-ventromedial-neurons-impact-on-the-modulators-of-sexual-behavior
#8
Susana I Sá, Natércia Teixeira, Bruno M Fonseca
Tamoxifen (TAM) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator, widely used in the treatment and prevention of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Although with great clinical results, women on TAM therapy still report several side effects, such as sexual dysfunction, which impairs quality of life. The anatomo-functional substrates of the human sexual behavior are still unknown; however, these same substrates are very well characterized in the rodent female sexual behavior, which has advantage of being a very simple reflexive response, dependent on the activation of estrogen receptors (ERs) in the ventrolateral division of the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMNvl)...
September 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948086/detection-and-application-of-neurochemical-profile-by-multiple-regional-1-h-mrs-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Jitian Guan, Yu Rong, Ye Wen, Huanze Wu, Hong Qin, Qingying Zhang, Wei Chen
INTRODUCTION: The accurate diagnosis and monitoring of idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, has not been fully developed. This study sought to identify a neurochemical profile in multiple regions of the PD brain and healthy controls by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). We aimed to track changes of the brain neurochemical, quantify neuronal loss, and further determine the diagnostic value of (1)H-MRS. METHODS: PD patients and healthy controls recruited from Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, southern China, underwent (1)H-MRS...
September 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938084/the-evolving-understanding-of-dopamine-neurons-in-the-substantia-nigra-and-ventral-tegmental-area
#10
Stephanie C Gantz, Christopher P Ford, Hitoshi Morikawa, John T Williams
In recent years, the population of neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) has been examined at multiple levels. The results indicate that the projections, neurochemistry, and receptor and ion channel expression in this cell population vary widely. This review centers on the intrinsic properties and synaptic regulation that control the activity of dopamine neurons. Although all dopamine neurons fire action potentials in a pacemaker pattern in the absence of synaptic input, the intrinsic properties that underlie this activity differ considerably...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933033/sleep-disturbance-after-tbi
#11
REVIEW
Surendra Barshikar, Kathleen R Bell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Present relevant literature to update knowledge on sleep science, identify common sleep disturbances seen in TBI, discuss evidence for available treatment options, and illuminate future areas for research. RECENT FINDINGS: Sleep disturbances, including insomnia, circadian rhythm disturbances, and sleep apnea, are prevalent for all severities of traumatic brain injury (TBI), can be chronic, and affect both rehabilitation and recovery from the TBI...
September 20, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931353/blueberry-supplementation-attenuates-microglia-activation-and-increases-neuroplasticity-in-mice-consuming-a-high-fat-diet
#12
Amanda N Carey, Kelsea R Gildawie, Abigail Rovnak, Nopporn Thangthaeng, Derek R Fisher, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
OBJECTIVES: Consuming a high-fat diet (HFD) may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. Blueberries may prevent and even reverse age-related alterations in neurochemistry and behavior. It was previously demonstrated that middle-aged mice fed HFD had impaired memory; however, supplementation of HFD with blueberry reduced these memory deficits. As a follow-up to that study, the brain tissue from HFD-fed mice with and without blueberry supplementation was assessed to determine the neuroprotective mechanism(s) by which blueberry allayed cognitive dysfunction associated with HFD...
September 21, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919446/increased-interferon-mediated-immunity-following-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-modafinil-treatment-on-peripheral-immune-cells
#13
Adriano Zager, Wesley Nogueira Brandão, Rafael Oliveira Margatho, Daniel Sanzio Gimenes Cruz, Jean Pierre Peron, Sergio Tufik, Monica Levy Andersen, Monica Moresco, Fabio Pizza, Giuseppe Plazzi, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, João Palermo-Neto
The wake-promoting drug Modafinil has been used for treatment of sleep disorders, such as Narcolepsy, excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep apnea, due to its stimulant action. Despite the known effect of Modafinil on brain neurochemistry, particularly on brain dopamine system, recent evidence support an immunomodulatory role for Modafinil treatment in neuroinflammatory models. Here, we aimed to study the effects of in vitro and in vivo Modafinil treatment on activation, proliferation, cell viability, and cytokine production by immune cells in splenocytes culture from mice...
September 15, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893565/a-review-of-the-effects-of-physical-activity-and-sports-concussion-on-brain-function-and-anatomy
#14
Sara Tremblay, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Hugo Théoret
Physical activity has been associated with widespread anatomical and functional brain changes that occur following acute exercise or, in the case of athletes, throughout life. High levels of physical activity through the practice of sports also lead to better general health and increased cognitive function. Athletes are at risk, however, of suffering a concussion, the effects of which have been extensively described for brain function and anatomy. The level to which these effects are modulated by increased levels of fitness is not known...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882631/neurochemical-dynamics-of-acute-orofacial-pain-in-the-human-trigeminal-brainstem-nuclear-complex
#15
Nuno M P de Matos, Andreas Hock, Michael Wyss, Dominik A Ettlin, Mike Brügger
The trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex is the first central relay structure mediating orofacial somatosensory and nociceptive perception. Animal studies suggest a substantial involvement of neurochemical alterations at such basal CNS levels in acute and chronic pain processing. Translating this animal based knowledge to humans is challenging. Human related examining of brainstem functions are challenged by MR related peculiarities as well as applicability aspects of experimentally standardized paradigms...
September 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872674/the-methylazoxymethanol-acetate-rat-model-molecular-and-epigenetic-effect-in-the-developing-prefrontal-cortex-an-editorial-highlight-for-epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-animals-in-the-mam-model
#16
EDITORIAL
Xiyu Zhu, Felipe V Gomes, Anthony A Grace
This Editorial highlights an article by Gulchina and colleagues in the current issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry, in which the authors describe molecular and epigenetic changes in the developing prefrontal cortex of the rats exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM). They found an NMDAR hypofunction present in the prefrontal cortex of juvenile MAM rats which was associated with abnormal epigenetic regulation of the Grin2b gene. These changes may be related to early cognitive impairments observed in MAM rats and schizophrenia patients...
November 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867482/neurochemical-differences-between-target-specific-populations-of-rat-dorsal-raphe-projection-neurons
#17
Eric W Prouty, Daniel J Chandler, Barry D Waterhouse
Serotonin (5-HT)-containing neurons in the dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus project throughout the forebrain and are implicated in many physiological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders. Diversity among these neurons has been characterized in terms of their neurochemistry and anatomical organization, but a clear sense of whether these attributes align with specific brain functions or terminal fields is lacking. DR 5-HT neurons can co-express additional neuroactive substances, increasing the potential for individualized regulation of target circuits...
November 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867438/neuromuscular-paralysis-by-the-basic-phospholipase-a2-subunit-of-crotoxin-from-crotalus-durissus-terrificus-snake-venom-needs-its-acid-chaperone-to-concurrently-inhibit-acetylcholine-release-and-produce-muscle-blockage
#18
Walter L G Cavalcante, José B Noronha-Matos, Maria A Timóteo, Marcos R M Fontes, Márcia Gallacci, Paulo Correia-de-Sá
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Crotoxin (CTX), a heterodimeric phospholipase A2 (PLA2) neurotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, promotes irreversible blockade of neuromuscular transmission. Indirect electrophysiological evidence suggests that CTX exerts a primary inhibitory action on transmitter exocytosis, yet contribution of a postsynaptic action of the toxin resulting from nicotinic receptor desensitization cannot be excluded. Here, we examined the blocking effect of CTX on nerve-evoked transmitter release measured directly using radioisotope neurochemistry and video microscopy with the FM4-64 fluorescent dye...
November 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866684/functional-connectivity-pattern-of-the-internal-hippocampal-network-in-awake-pigeons-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#19
Mehdi Behroozi, Felix Ströckens, Xavier Helluy, Martin Stacho, Onur Güntürkün
In the last two decades, the avian hippocampus has been repeatedly studied with respect to its architecture, neurochemistry, and connectivity pattern. We review these insights and conclude that we unfortunately still lack proper knowledge on the interaction between the different hippocampal subregions. To fill this gap, we need information on the functional connectivity pattern of the hippocampal network. These data could complement our structural connectivity knowledge. To this end, we conducted a resting-state fMRI experiment in awake pigeons in a 7-T MR scanner...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835408/sugar-addiction-is-it-real-a-narrative-review
#20
REVIEW
James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe, William L Wilson
In animal studies, sugar has been found to produce more symptoms than is required to be considered an addictive substance. Animal data has shown significant overlap between the consumption of added sugars and drug-like effects, including bingeing, craving, tolerance, withdrawal, cross-sensitisation, cross-tolerance, cross-dependence, reward and opioid effects. Sugar addiction seems to be dependence to the natural endogenous opioids that get released upon sugar intake. In both animals and humans, the evidence in the literature shows substantial parallels and overlap between drugs of abuse and sugar, from the standpoint of brain neurochemistry as well as behaviour...
August 23, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
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