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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811268/antecedent-adhd-dementia-and-metabolic-dysregulation-a-u-s-based-cohort-analysis
#1
Keith Fluegge, Kyle Fluegge
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological and genetic studies have reported a link between antecedent ADHD and dementia. The underpinning mechanisms of these associations are not known and have generated considerable speculation. METHODS: We have extracted hospitalization discharge data on dementia and ADHD (representing a severe phenotype) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUPnet) and utilized a Poisson regression with two-ways fixed effects to investigate this association...
August 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809040/a-mobile-app-for-sharing-contacts-on-your-cell-an-editorial-highlight-for-the-physiological-role-of-the-amyloid-precursor-protein-app-as-an-adhesion-molecule-in-the-developing-nervous-system-on-doi-10-1111-jnc-14122
#2
EDITORIAL
George William Rebeck, Daniel T S Pak
This is an Editorial for a review that Sosa and coworkers present in the current issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry of physiological functions for amyloid precursor protein (APP) at dynamic cellular contact sites such as growth cones, neuronal migration tracts, and synapses. Here, APP physically links the extracellular and intracellular milieus through a multitude of binding partners. From these observations, the authors offer a model of APP as a cell adhesion molecule in the brain, providing a context for understanding its role in Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800423/relationship-of-executive-functioning-deficits-to-n-acetyl-aspartate-naa-and-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-in-youth-with-bipolar-disorder
#3
Rebekah S Huber, Douglas G Kondo, Xian-Feng Shi, Andrew P Prescot, Elaine Clark, Perry F Renshaw, Deborah A Yurgelun-Todd
BACKGROUND: Although cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder (BD) have been repeatedly observed, our understanding of these impairments at a mechanistic level remains limited. Few studies that investigated cognitive impairments in bipolar illness have examined the association with brain biochemistry. This pilot study utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to evaluate the relationship between neurocognitive performance and brain metabolites in youth with BD. METHODS: Thirty participants, twenty depressed BD participants and ten healthy comparison participants, ages 13-21, completed mood and executive function measures...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793304/frontal-cortex-myo-inositol-is-associated-with-sleep-and-depression-in-adolescents-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#4
Anna S Urrila, Antti Hakkarainen, Anu Castaneda, Tiina Paunio, Mauri Marttunen, Nina Lundbom
AIM: This study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to evaluate the neurochemistry of the frontal cortex in adolescents with symptoms of sleep and depression. METHODS: Nineteen non-medicated adolescent boys (mean age 16.0 years; 9 clinical cases with depression/sleep symptoms and 10 healthy controls) underwent 1H MRS at 3 T. MR spectra were acquired from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and frontal white matter...
August 10, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790881/contrasting-coping-styles-meet-the-wall-a-dopamine-driven-dichotomy-in-behavior-and-cognition
#5
Erik Höglund, Patricia I M Silva, Marco A Vindas, Øyvind Øverli
Individual variation in the ability to modify previously learned behavior is an important dimension of trait correlations referred to as coping styles, behavioral syndromes or personality. These trait clusters have been shaped by natural selection, and underlying control mechanisms are often conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. In teleost fishes, behavioral flexibility and coping style have been studied in the high (HR) and low-responsive (LR) rainbow trout lines. Generally, proactive LR trout show a behavior guided by previously learned routines, while HR trout show a more flexible behavior relying on environmental cues...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777358/-functional-neurochemistry-of-sleep-waking-cycle-in-pathogenesis-of-neurological-diseases
#6
REVIEW
V M Kovalzon
Novel experimental data concerning the function of the basic cerebral neuromediator systems which take part in arousal reactions and waking maintenance are regarding in the review.
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776681/another-piece-in-the-progranulin-puzzle-special-binding-between-progranulin-and-prosaposin-creates-additional-lysosomal-access-an-editorial-comment-for-the-interaction-between-progranulin-and-prosaposin-is-mediated-by-granulins-and-the-linker-region-between
#7
EDITORIAL
Philip Van Damme
Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the growth factor progranulin cause degeneration of the ageing brain in a dose-dependent manner. While heterozygous mutations result in adult onset frontotemporal dementia, the much rarer homozygous null mutations cause an early onset lysosomal storage disorder. A better understanding of the biology of progranulin in the central nervous system is needed to find solutions for these incurable diseases. This Editorial highlights a study by Zhou et al. in the current issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry, in which the authors provide data that are a step towards this goal...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750494/brain-pet-and-functional-mri-why-simultaneously-using-hybrid-pet-mr-systems
#8
Diego Cecchin, Alessandro Palombit, Marco Castellaro, Erica Silvestri, Franco Bui, Henryk Barthel, Osama Sabri, Maurizio Corbetta, Alessandra Bertoldo
INTRODUCTION: In the last 20 years growing attention has been devoted to multimodal imaging. The recent literature is rich of clinical and research studies that have been performed using different imaging modalities on both separate and integrated Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) scanners. However, today, hybrid PET/MR systems measure signals related to brain structure, metabolism, neurochemistry, perfusion, and neuronal activity simultaneously, i.e. in the same physiological conditions...
July 27, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741701/dissecting-molecular-architecture-of-post-synaptic-density-at-excitatory-synapses-an-editorial-highlight-for-hierarchical-organization-and-genetically-separable-subfamilies-of-psd95-postsynaptic-supercomplexes-on-page-504
#9
EDITORIAL
Jinjun Chen, Hui-Lin Pan
This Editorial highlights a study by Frank and colleagues (2017) in the current issue of Journal of Neurochemistry. The authors report the genetic composition and stoichiometry of endogenous subfamilies of PSD95-containing supercomplexes in the mouse brain using an innovative strategy of combining gene-tagging knock-in, targeted mutations, and quantitative biochemical assays. Their findings shed new light on our understanding of the genetic hierarchy required for the assembly of distinct supercomplex subfamilies at excitatory synapses in the brain...
August 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716608/opioidergic-and-dopaminergic-modulation-of-cost-benefit-decision-making-in-long-evans-rats
#10
Ileana Morales, Paul J Currie, Timothy D Hackenberg, Raúl Pastor
Eating disorders are associated with impaired decision-making and dysfunctional reward-related neurochemistry. The present study examined the potential contributions of dopamine and opioid signaling to these processes using two different decision-making tasks. In one task, Long Evans Rats chose between working for a preferred food (high-carbohydrate banana-flavored sucrose pellets) by lever pressing on a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement vs. obtaining less preferred laboratory chow that was concurrently available...
July 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716540/developmental-vitamin-d-deficiency-alters-multiple-neurotransmitter-systems-in-the-neonatal-rat-brain
#11
James P Kesby, Karly M Turner, Suzanne Alexander, Darryl W Eyles, John J McGrath, Thomas H J Burne
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests that developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. DVD deficiency in rats is associated with altered brain structure and adult behaviours indicating alterations in dopamine and glutamate signalling. Developmental alterations in dopamine neurotransmission have also been observed in DVD-deficient rats but a comprehensive assessment of brain neurochemistry has not been undertaken...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698771/finding-the-hurt-in-pain
#12
Irene Tracey
Pain is unique to every person, and difficult to quantify and treat. Whether it is delivered as a jolt or a persistent, dull ache, pain is guaranteed to affect one's quality of life. Our author examines how brain imaging is opening our eyes to the richness and complexity of the pain experience, giving us extraordinary insight into the neurochemistry, network activity, wiring, and structures relevant to producing and modulating painful experiences in all their various guises.
November 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690587/brain-connectivity-patterns-dissociate-action-of-specific-acupressure-treatments-in-fatigued-breast-cancer-survivors
#13
Richard E Harris, Eric Ichesco, Chelsea Cummiford, Johnson P Hampson, Thomas L Chenevert, Neil Basu, Suzanna M Zick
Persistent fatigue is a pernicious symptom in many cancer survivors. Existing treatments are limited or ineffective and often lack any underlying biologic rationale. Acupressure is emerging as a promising new intervention for persistent cancer-related fatigue; however, the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. Our previous investigations suggested that fatigued breast cancer survivors have alterations in brain neurochemistry within the posterior insula and disturbed functional connectivity to the default mode network (DMN), as compared to non-fatigued breast cancer survivors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687854/neuroprotective-effects-of-vitamin-d-alone-or-in-combination-with-lamotrigine-against-lithium-pilocarpine-model-of-status-epilepticus-in-rats
#14
Amal M Mahfoz, Ali F Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed A Afify, Naiyer Shahzad, Ibrahim A A Ibrahim, Naser A ElSawy, Ghazi A Bamagous, Saeed S Al Ghamdi
Status epilepticus (SE) is considered one of the major serious forms of epilepsy with high mortality rate. Since the currently available antiepileptic drugs have low efficacy and high adverse effects, new more efficient and safe therapies are critically needed. There is increasing evidence supporting dietary and alternative therapies for epilepsy, including the ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, and omega-3 fatty acids. Recent studies have shown significant prophylactic and therapeutic potential of vitamin D (vit-D) use in many neurological disorders...
July 7, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687311/selective-changes-in-locomotor-activity-in-mice-due-to-low-intensity-microwaves-amplitude-modulated-in-the-eeg-spectral-domain
#15
Vincent Van Eeghem, Anissa El Arfani, Arta Anthoula, Laura Walrave, Ali Pourkazemi, Eduard Bentea, Thomas Demuyser, Ilse Smolders, Johan Stiens
Despite the numerous benefits of microwave applications in our daily life, microwaves were associated with diverse neurological complaints such as headaches and impaired sleep patterns, and changes in the electroencephalogram (EEG). To which extent microwaves influence the brain function remains unclear. This exploratory study assessed the behavior and neurochemistry in mice immediately or 4weeks after a 6-day exposure to low-intensity 10-GHz microwaves with an amplitude modulation (AM) of 2 or 8Hz. These modulation frequencies of 2 and 8Hz are situated within the delta and theta-alpha frequency bands in the EEG spectrum and are associated with sleep and active behavior, respectively...
July 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680541/understanding-the-cellular-and-molecular-alterations-in-ptsd-brains-the-necessity-of-post-mortem-brain-tissue
#16
EDITORIAL
Geertje M de Lange
The personal, social and economic burden of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high and therapeutic approaches are only partially effective. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand the cellular and molecular alterations in PTSD brains in order to design more effective treatment strategies. Although brain imaging strategies have considerably improved our understanding of PTSD, these strategies cannot identify molecular and cellular changes. Post-mortem examination of the brain is a crucial strategy to advance our understanding of the underlying neuropathology, neurochemistry and molecular pathways of PTSD...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677095/the-effects-of-hallucinogens-on-gene-expression
#17
David A Martin, Charles D Nichols
The classic serotonergic hallucinogens, or psychedelics, have the ability to profoundly alter perception and behavior. These can include visual distortions, hallucinations, detachment from reality, and mystical experiences. Some psychedelics, like LSD, are able to produce these effects with remarkably low doses of drug. Others, like psilocybin, have recently been demonstrated to have significant clinical efficacy in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and addiction that persist for at least several months after only a single therapeutic session...
July 5, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674504/antigliadin-antibodies-aga-igg-are-related-to-neurochemistry-in-schizophrenia
#18
Laura M Rowland, Haley K Demyanovich, S Andrea Wijtenburg, William W Eaton, Katrina Rodriguez, Frank Gaston, Daniela Cihakova, Monica V Talor, Fang Liu, Robert R McMahon, L Elliot Hong, Deanna L Kelly
Inflammation may play a role in schizophrenia; however, subgroups with immune regulation dysfunction may serve as distinct illness phenotypes with potential different treatment and prevention strategies. Emerging data show that about 30% of people with schizophrenia have elevated antigliadin antibodies of the IgG type, representing a possible subgroup of schizophrenia patients with immune involvement. Also, recent data have shown a high correlation of IgG-mediated antibodies between the periphery and cerebral spinal fluid in schizophrenia but not healthy controls, particularly AGA IgG suggesting that these antibodies may be crossing the blood-brain barrier with resulting neuroinflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645199/do-neurobiological-understandings-of-smoking-influence-quitting-self-efficacy-or-treatment-intentions
#19
Kylie Morphett, Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall, Jayne Lucke, Brad Partridge, Coral Gartner
Introduction: Addiction is increasingly defined as a "brain disease" caused by changes to neurochemistry. While nicotine addiction has historically been excluded in the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA), it is beginning to be labelled a chronic brain disease. We investigated whether Australian smokers endorse brain-based explanations of smoking, and whether these beliefs are associated with quitting self-efficacy or treatment intentions. Method: Cross-sectional study of Australian smokers (N=1,538) who completed a survey measuring their agreement with statements on the brain's role in smoking...
June 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642689/integrating-neural-circuits-controlling-female-sexual-behavior
#20
REVIEW
Paul E Micevych, Robert L Meisel
The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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