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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326171/abdominal-vagal-afferents-modulate-the-brain-transcriptome-and-behaviors-relevant-to-schizophrenia
#1
Melanie Klarer, Jean-Philippe Krieger, Juliet Richetto, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Lydia Günther, Christine Winter, Myrtha Arnold, Wolfgang Langhans, Urs Meyer
Reduced activity of vagal efferents has long been implicated in schizophrenia and appears to be responsible for diminished parasympathetic activity and associated peripheral symptoms such as low heart rate variability and cardiovascular complications in affected individuals. In contrast, only little attention has been paid to the possibility that impaired afferent vagal signaling may be relevant for the disorder's pathophysiology as well. The present study explored this hypothesis using a model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) in male rats...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307007/neurophysiology-and-neurochemistry-of-corticobasal-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Aditya A Murgai, Mandar S Jog
Corticobasal syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disorder, which presents with a progressive, asymmetrical, akinetic rigid syndrome and early cortical signs. However, clinical, pathological, and electrophysiological heterogeneity makes the understanding of this syndrome challenging. Corticobasal syndrome can have various pathological substrates including corticobasal degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, Fronto-temporal degeneration with TDP inclusions, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297566/immunohistochemical-characteristics-of-neurons-in-the-ganglia-of-the-greater-splanchnic-nerve-of-the-pig
#3
Jamal Nourinezhad, Piotr Podlasz, Krzysztof Wasowicz
INTRODUCTION: Greater splanchnic nerve (GSN) is by far the largest of the splanchnic nerves and connects the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia to transmit the majority of nociceptive information from the viscera. Despite its importance, the immunohistochemical features of the porcine GSN neurons have not yet been examined. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the neurochemistry of the porcine GSN neurons and to compare their neurochemical coding with those of the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia...
January 3, 2018: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285771/endotoxemia-rocks-sphingolipid-metabolism-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-an-editorial-highlight-for-alteration-of-sphingolipid-metabolism-as-a-putative-mechanism-underlying-lps-induced-bbb-disruption-on-doi-10-1111-jnc-14236
#4
Eric Camerer
In this issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry, Vutukuri et al. evaluate the impact of endotoxemia-induced encephalopathy on the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling pathway at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Four hours after intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 4 mg/kg) to mice, they first demonstrate BBB dysfunction and then evaluate changes in sphingolipid metabolites in serum, isolated brain microvessels (MBMV), and whole brain. In parallel, they investigate the fate of indicated S1P generating and metabolizing enzymes and S1P receptors in brain and MBMV...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274742/effect-of-early-embryonic-deletion-of-huntingtin-from-pyramidal-neurons-on-the-development-and-long-term-survival-of-neurons-in-cerebral-cortex-and-striatum
#5
I Dragatsis, P Dietrich, H Ren, Y P Deng, N Del Mar, H B Wang, I M Johnson, K R Jones, A Reiner
We evaluated the impact of early embryonic deletion of huntingtin (htt) from pyramidal neurons on cortical development, cortical neuron survival and motor behavior, using a cre-loxP strategy to inactivate the mouse htt gene (Hdh) in emx1-expressing cell lineages. Western blot confirmed substantial htt reduction in cerebral cortex of these Emx-httKO mice, with residual cortical htt in all likelihood restricted to cortical interneurons of the subpallial lineage and/or vascular endothelial cells. Despite the loss of htt early in development, cortical lamination was normal, as revealed by layer-specific markers...
December 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251222/dietary-polydextrose-and-galactooligosaccharide-increase-exploratory-behavior-improve-recognition-memory-and-alter-neurochemistry-in-the-young-pig
#6
Stephen A Fleming, Supida Monaikul, Alexander J Patsavas, Rosaline V Waworuntu, Brian M Berg, Ryan N Dilger
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that dietary prebiotics have the potential to improve memory, alter social behavior, and reduce anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. The present research sought to expand upon such results and describe the effects of feeding prebiotics early in life on cognition and neurochemistry using a translational piglet model. METHODS: Pigs were provided customized milk replacer containing 2 g/L each of polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharide (PDX/GOS) or 0 g/L (Control) from postnatal day (PND) 2-33...
December 18, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250778/news-isn-december-2017
#7
(no author information available yet)
The 2016 Mark Smith Award winner is Sunmin Jung (Seoul National University), for the pa per Dual-specificity phosphatase 26 (DUSP26) stimulates Aβ42 generation by promoting amyloid precursor protein axonal transport during hypoxia. Journal of Neurochemistry (2016) 137(5): 770-781, Sunmin Jung, Jihoon Nah, Jonghee Han, Seon-Guk Choi, Hyunjoo Kim, Jaesang Park, Ha-Kyung Pyo, Yong-Keun Jung. https://doi.org/10.1111/jnc.13597.
December 18, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235100/embryonic-exposure-to-valproic-acid-affects-the-histaminergic-system-and-the-social-behavior-of-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#8
Diego Baronio, Henri A J Puttonen, Maria Sundvik, Svetlana Semenova, Essi Lehtonen, Pertti Panula
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Histamine modulates several behaviors and physiological functions and its deficiency is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Gestational intake of valproic acid (VPA) is linked to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), which is characterized by impaired sociability and stereotypies. VPA effects on the neurochemistry and functional morphology of the histaminergic system in ASD are unclear. Zebrafish are highly social and given the similarities between zebrafish and human neurotransmitter systems, we decided to use zebrafish to study VPA effects on histamine...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222591/dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-current-concepts-and-controversies
#9
REVIEW
Kurt A Jellinger
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease-dementia (PDD), although sharing many clinical, neurochemical and morphological features, according to DSM-5, are two entities of major neurocognitive disorders with Lewy bodies of unknown etiology. Despite considerable clinical overlap, their diagnosis is based on an arbitrary distinction between the time of onset of motor and cognitive symptoms: dementia often preceding parkinsonism in DLB and onset of cognitive impairment after onset of motor symptoms in PDD...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219634/using-molecular-imaging-to-understand-early-schizophrenia-related-psychosis-neurochemistry-a-review-of-human-studies
#10
Christin Schifani, Sina Hafizi, Tania Da Silva, Jeremy Joseph Watts, M Saad Khan, Romina Mizrahi
Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder generally preceded by a so-called prodromal phase, which is characterized by attenuated psychotic symptoms. Advances in clinical research have enabled prospective identification of those individuals who are at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis, with the power to predict psychosis onset within the near future. Changes in several brain neurochemical systems and molecular mechanisms are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the psychosis spectrum, including the dopaminergic, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic, glutamatergic, endocannabinoid, and immunologic (i...
December 8, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184999/lc-ms-ms-imaging-with-thermal-film-based-laser-microdissection
#11
Michiko Oya, Hiromi Suzuki, Andrea Roxanne J Anas, Koichi Oishi, Kenji Ono, Shun Yamaguchi, Megumi Eguchi, Makoto Sawada
Mass spectrometry (MS) imaging is a useful tool for direct and simultaneous visualization of specific molecules. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is used to evaluate the abundance of molecules in tissues using sample homogenates. To date, however, LC-MS/MS has not been utilized as an imaging tool because spatial information is lost during sample preparation. Here we report a new approach for LC-MS/MS imaging using a thermal film-based laser microdissection (LMD) technique. To isolate tissue spots, our LMD system uses a 808-nm near infrared laser, the diameter of which can be freely changed from 2...
November 28, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181815/effects-of-adolescent-alcohol-exposure-on-stress-induced-reward-deficits-brain-crf-monoamines-and-glutamate-in-adult-rats
#12
Nathalie Boutros, Andre Der-Avakian, James P Kesby, Soon Lee, Athina Markou, Svetlana Semenova
BACKGROUND: Adolescent alcohol exposure may increase depression vulnerability in adulthood by increasing the anhedonic response to stress. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (postnatal days 28-53) were exposed to binge-like adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) or water. In adulthood, rats were exposed to social defeat, consisting of daily confrontations with an aggressive conspecific, followed by testing of brain reward function in a discrete-trial current-intensity intracranial self-stimulation procedure for 10 consecutive days...
November 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177616/medial-frontal-lobe-neurochemistry-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-is-marked-by-reduced-n-acetylaspartate-and-unchanged-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-and-glutamate%C3%A2-%C3%A2-glutamine-levels
#13
Andreia Carvalho Pereira, Inês R Violante, Susana Mouga, Guiomar Oliveira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
The nature of neurochemical changes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains controversial. We compared medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neurochemistry of twenty high-functioning children and adolescents with ASD without associated comorbidities and fourteen controls. We observed reduced total N-acetylaspartate (tNAA) and total creatine, increased Glx/tNAA but unchanged glutamate + glutamine (Glx) and unchanged absolute or relative gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA+) in the ASD group. Importantly, both smaller absolute and relative GABA+ levels were associated with worse communication skills and developmental delay scores assessed by the autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R)...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174305/perinatal-hypothyroidism-increases-play-behaviors-in-juvenile-rats
#14
Spencer G Smith, Katharine V Northcutt
Thyroid hormones play an instrumental role in the development of the central nervous system. During early development, the fetus is dependent on maternal thyroid hormone production due to the dysfunction of its own thyroid gland. Thus, maternal thyroid dysfunction has been shown to elicit significant abnormalities in neural development, neurochemistry, and behavior in offspring. Previous reports have suggested that human maternal hypothyroidism may increase the chances of having children with autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
November 21, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169841/distribution-and-neurochemistry-of-porcine-urinary-bladder-projecting-sensory-neurons-in-subdomains-of-the-dorsal-root-ganglia-a-quantitative-analysis
#15
Anna Kozłowska, Anita Mikołajczyk, Mariusz Majewski
The aim of the present study has been to verify the inter- and intraganglionic distribution pattern of porcine urinary bladder-projecting (UBP) neurons localized in the sacral dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). The morphology and chemical phenotype of these cells have also been investigated. These neurons were visualized using the fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB) which was injected bilaterally into the urinary bladder wall of five juvenile female pigs. The intraganglionic distribution showed that small- and medium-sized FB+ perikarya were mainly located in the central (S3-S4) and periphero-central (S2) region of the ganglia, while large cells were heterogeneously distributed...
November 20, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168166/new-tool-to-tackle-alzheimer-s-disease-amyloid-%C3%AE-protofibril-selective-antibody-absl-an-editorial-highlight-for-the-conformational-epitope-for-a-new-a%C3%AE-42-protofibril-selective-antibody-partially-overlaps-with-the-peptide-n-terminal-region-on-doi-10-1111-jnc
#16
EDITORIAL
Elek Molnár
This Editorial highlights a study by Colvin et al. (2017) in the current issue of Journal of Neurochemistry, in which the authors describe the development and characterisation of a new rabbit antibody (termed antibody St. Louis; AbSL) that preferentially recognises amyloid-β (Aβ) protein 42 (Aβ42) protofibrils over other Aβ species.
November 23, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163069/notes-on-the-recent-history-of-neuroscience-in-africa
#17
REVIEW
Vivienne A Russell
Neuroscience began with neuroanatomy and neurosurgery in Egypt more than 5000 years ago. Knowledge grew over time and specialized neurosurgery centers were established in north Africa in the eleventh century. However, it was not until the twentieth century that neuroscience research became established in sub-Saharan Africa. In most African countries, clinical research focused on understanding the rationale and improving treatment of epilepsy, infections, nutritional neuropathies, stroke and tumors. Significant advances were made...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160692/s100a9-protein-aggregates-boost-hippocampal-glutamate-modifying-monoaminergic-neurochemistry-a-glutamate-antibody-sensitive-outcome-on-alzheimer-like-memory-decline
#18
Marina A Gruden, Tatiana V Davydova, Vladimir S Kudrin, Chao Wang, Victor B Narkevich, Ludmilla A Morozova-Roche, Robert D E Sewell
Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves dementia conceivably arising from integrated inflammatory processes, amyloidogenesis, and neuronal apoptosis. Glutamate can also cause neuronal death via excitotoxicity, and this is similarly implicated in some neurological diseases. The aim was to examine treatment with in vitro generated proinflammatory protein S100A9 aggregate species alone or with glutamate antibodies (Glu-Abs) on Morris water maze (MWM) spatial learning and memory performance in 12 month old mice. Amino acid and monoamine cerebral neurotransmitter metabolic changes were concurrently monitored...
December 4, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146099/art-the-visual-imagination-and-neuroscience-the%C3%A2-chauvet-cave-mona-lisa-s-smile-and-michelangelo-s-terribilit%C3%A3
#19
John Onians
This paper considers several types of imagination relevant to art historical enquiry. These are exemplified in artistic expressions ranging from palaeolithic paintings in the Chauvet Cave, to drawings, sculptures and buildings designed by Michelangelo and drawings and paintings by Leonardo, and are related to recent neuroscientific discoveries. From this it emerges that important types of imagination cannot be understood without an appreciation of the neural processes that underlie them and especially without an acknowledgement of the importance of neurochemistry...
October 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128447/developmental-perspectives-on-methamphetamine-abuse-exploring-adolescent-vulnerabilities-on-brain-and-behavior
#20
REVIEW
Sophia J Luikinga, Jee Hyun Kim, Christina J Perry
Most people that experience illicit drugs do so for the first time during adolescence, and methamphetamine (meth) is no exception. Therefore, research into the effects of meth should highlight the adolescent period. Despite this, the vast majority of current literature has mainly focused on meth exposure during adulthood. In this review, we first describe existing literature that compares the behavioral effects of meth where exposure occurs in adolescence compared to adulthood. Given that there are actually very few such studies, we also look at what is known about neural effects of meth in the adult brain, and relate these to normal neural development occurring during the adolescent period to establish how meth may target maturing regions and related neurochemistry...
November 8, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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