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Neurochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919446/increased-interferon-mediated-immunity-following-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-modafinil-treatment-on-peripheral-immune-cells
#1
Adriano Zager, Wesley Nogueira Brandão, Rafael Oliveira Margatho, Daniel Sanzio Gimenes Cruz, Jean Pierre Peron, Sergio Tufik, Monica Levy Andersen, Monica Moresco, Fabio Pizza, Giuseppe Plazzi, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, João Palermo-Neto
The wake-promoting drug Modafinil has been used for treatment of sleep disorders, such as Narcolepsy, excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep apnea, due to its stimulant action. Despite the known effect of Modafinil on brain neurochemistry, particularly on brain dopamine system, recent evidence support an immunomodulatory role for Modafinil treatment in neuroinflammatory models. Here, we aimed to study the effects of in vitro and in vivo Modafinil treatment on activation, proliferation, cell viability, and cytokine production by immune cells in splenocytes culture from mice...
September 15, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893565/a-review-of-the-effects-of-physical-activity-and-sports-concussion-on-brain-function-and-anatomy
#2
Sara Tremblay, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Hugo Théoret
Physical activity has been associated with widespread anatomical and functional brain changes that occur following acute exercise or, in the case of athletes, throughout life. High levels of physical activity through the practice of sports also lead to better general health and increased cognitive function. Athletes are at risk, however, of suffering a concussion, the effects of which have been extensively described for brain function and anatomy. The level to which these effects are modulated by increased levels of fitness is not known...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882631/neurochemical-dynamics-of-acute-orofacial-pain-in-the-human-trigeminal-brainstem-nuclear-complex
#3
Nuno M P de Matos, Andreas Hock, Michael Wyss, Dominik A Ettlin, Mike Brügger
The trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex is the first central relay structure mediating orofacial somatosensory and nociceptive perception. Animal studies suggest a substantial involvement of neurochemical alterations at such basal CNS levels in acute and chronic pain processing. Translating this animal based knowledge to humans is challenging. Human related examining of brainstem functions are challenged by MR related peculiarities as well as applicability aspects of experimentally standardized paradigms...
September 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872674/the-methylazoxymethanol-acetate-rat-model-molecular-and-epigenetic-effect-in-the-developing-prefrontal-cortex-an-editorial-highlight-for-epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-animals-in-the-mam-model
#4
EDITORIAL
Xiyu Zhu, Felipe V Gomes, Anthony A Grace
This Editorial highlights an article by Gulchina and colleagues in the current issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry, in which the authors describe molecular and epigenetic changes in the developing prefrontal cortex of the rats exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM). They found an NMDAR hypofunction present in the prefrontal cortex of juvenile MAM rats which was associated with abnormal epigenetic regulation of the Grin2b gene. These changes may be related to early cognitive impairments observed in MAM rats and schizophrenia patients...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867482/neurochemical-differences-betweentarget-specific-populations-of-rat-dorsal-raphe-projection-neurons
#5
Eric W Prouty, Daniel J Chandler, Barry D Waterhouse
Serotonin (5-HT)-containing neurons in the dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus project throughout the forebrain and are implicated in many physiological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders. Diversity among these neurons has been characterized in terms of their neurochemistry and anatomical organization, but a clear sense of whether these attributes align with specific brain functions or terminal fields is lacking. DR 5-HT neurons can co-express additional neuroactive substances, increasing the potential for individualized regulation of target circuits...
August 31, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867438/neuromuscular-paralysis-by-the-basic-phospholipase-a2-subunit-of-crotoxin-from-crotalus-durissus-terrificus-snake-venom-needs-its-acid-chaperone-to-concurrently-inhibit-acetylcholine-release-and-produce-muscle-blockage
#6
Walter L G Cavalcante, José B Noronha-Matos, Maria A Timóteo, Marcos R M Fontes, Márcia Gallacci, Paulo Correia-de-Sá
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Crotoxin (CTX), a heterodimeric phospholipase A2 (PLA2) neurotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, promotes irreversible blockade of neuromuscular transmission. Indirect electrophysiological evidence suggests that CTX exerts a primary inhibitory action on transmitter exocytosis, yet contribution of a postsynaptic action of the toxin resulting from nicotinic receptor desensitization cannot be excluded. Here, we examined the blocking effect of CTX on nerve-evoked transmitter release measured directly using radioisotope neurochemistry and video microscopy with the FM4-64 fluorescent dye...
September 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866684/functional-connectivity-pattern-of-the-internal-hippocampal-network-in-awake-pigeons-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#7
Mehdi Behroozi, Felix Ströckens, Martin Stacho, Onur Güntürkün
In the last two decades, the avian hippocampus has been repeatedly studied with respect to its architecture, neurochemistry, and connectivity pattern. We review these insights and conclude that we unfortunately still lack proper knowledge on the interaction between the different hippocampal subregions. To fill this gap, we need information on the functional connectivity pattern of the hippocampal network. These data could complement our structural connectivity knowledge. To this end, we conducted a resting-state fMRI experiment in awake pigeons in a 7-T MR scanner...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835408/sugar-addiction-is-it-real-a-narrative-review
#8
REVIEW
James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe, William L Wilson
In animal studies, sugar has been found to produce more symptoms than is required to be considered an addictive substance. Animal data has shown significant overlap between the consumption of added sugars and drug-like effects, including bingeing, craving, tolerance, withdrawal, cross-sensitisation, cross-tolerance, cross-dependence, reward and opioid effects. Sugar addiction seems to be dependence to the natural endogenous opioids that get released upon sugar intake. In both animals and humans, the evidence in the literature shows substantial parallels and overlap between drugs of abuse and sugar, from the standpoint of brain neurochemistry as well as behaviour...
August 23, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833144/retraction-statement-anti-inflammatory-properties-of-tianeptine-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-changes-in-microglial-cells-involve-toll-like-receptor-related-pathways
#9
(no author information available yet)
'Anti-inflammatory properties of tianeptine on lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in microglial cells involve toll-like receptor-related pathways' by Slusarczyk, J., Trojan, E., Glombik, K., Piotrowska, A., Budziszewska, B., Kubera, M., Popiolek-Barczyk, K., Lason, W., Mika, J. and Basta-Kaim, A. The above article from the Journal of Neurochemistry published on 14 February 2016 on Wiley Online Library ( www.onlinelibrary.com), and in Volume 136, pp. 958-970, is being retracted by agreement between the corresponding author Agnieszka Basta-Kaim, the Journal's Editor-in-Chief Jörg Schulz, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd...
September 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811268/antecedent-adhd-dementia-and-metabolic-dysregulation-a-u-s-based-cohort-analysis
#10
Keith Fluegge, Kyle Fluegge
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological and genetic studies have reported a link between antecedent ADHD and dementia. The underpinning mechanisms of these associations are not known and have generated considerable speculation. METHODS: We have extracted hospitalization discharge data on dementia and ADHD (representing a severe phenotype) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUPnet) and utilized a Poisson regression with two-ways fixed effects to investigate this association...
August 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809040/a-mobile-app-for-sharing-contacts-on-your-cell-an-editorial-highlight-for-the-physiological-role-of-the-amyloid-precursor-protein-app-as-an-adhesion-molecule-in-the-developing-nervous-system-on-doi-10-1111-jnc-14122
#11
EDITORIAL
George William Rebeck, Daniel T S Pak
This is an Editorial for a review that Sosa and coworkers present in the current issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry of physiological functions for amyloid precursor protein (APP) at dynamic cellular contact sites such as growth cones, neuronal migration tracts, and synapses. Here, APP physically links the extracellular and intracellular milieus through a multitude of binding partners. From these observations, the authors offer a model of APP as a cell adhesion molecule in the brain, providing a context for understanding its role in Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800423/relationship-of-executive-functioning-deficits-to-n-acetyl-aspartate-naa-and-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-in-youth-with-bipolar-disorder
#12
Rebekah S Huber, Douglas G Kondo, Xian-Feng Shi, Andrew P Prescot, Elaine Clark, Perry F Renshaw, Deborah A Yurgelun-Todd
BACKGROUND: Although cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder (BD) have been repeatedly observed, our understanding of these impairments at a mechanistic level remains limited. Few studies that investigated cognitive impairments in bipolar illness have examined the association with brain biochemistry. This pilot study utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to evaluate the relationship between neurocognitive performance and brain metabolites in youth with BD. METHODS: Thirty participants, twenty depressed BD participants and ten healthy comparison participants, ages 13-21, completed mood and executive function measures...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793304/frontal-cortex-myo-inositol-is-associated-with-sleep-and-depression-in-adolescents-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#13
Anna S Urrila, Antti Hakkarainen, Anu Castaneda, Tiina Paunio, Mauri Marttunen, Nina Lundbom
AIM: This study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to evaluate the neurochemistry of the frontal cortex in adolescents with symptoms of sleep and depression. METHODS: Nineteen non-medicated adolescent boys (mean age 16.0 years; 9 clinical cases with depression/sleep symptoms and 10 healthy controls) underwent 1H MRS at 3 T. MR spectra were acquired from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and frontal white matter...
August 10, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790881/contrasting-coping-styles-meet-the-wall-a-dopamine-driven-dichotomy-in-behavior-and-cognition
#14
Erik Höglund, Patricia I M Silva, Marco A Vindas, Øyvind Øverli
Individual variation in the ability to modify previously learned behavior is an important dimension of trait correlations referred to as coping styles, behavioral syndromes or personality. These trait clusters have been shaped by natural selection, and underlying control mechanisms are often conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. In teleost fishes, behavioral flexibility and coping style have been studied in the high (HR) and low-responsive (LR) rainbow trout lines. Generally, proactive LR trout show a behavior guided by previously learned routines, while HR trout show a more flexible behavior relying on environmental cues...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777358/-functional-neurochemistry-of-sleep-waking-cycle-in-pathogenesis-of-neurological-diseases
#15
REVIEW
V M Kovalzon
Novel experimental data concerning the function of the basic cerebral neuromediator systems which take part in arousal reactions and waking maintenance are regarding in the review.
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776681/another-piece-in-the-progranulin-puzzle-special-binding-between-progranulin-and-prosaposin-creates-additional-lysosomal-access-an-editorial-comment-for-the-interaction-between-progranulin-and-prosaposin-is-mediated-by-granulins-and-the-linker-region-between
#16
EDITORIAL
Philip Van Damme
Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the growth factor progranulin cause degeneration of the ageing brain in a dose-dependent manner. While heterozygous mutations result in adult onset frontotemporal dementia, the much rarer homozygous null mutations cause an early onset lysosomal storage disorder. A better understanding of the biology of progranulin in the central nervous system is needed to find solutions for these incurable diseases. This Editorial highlights a study by Zhou et al. in the current issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry, in which the authors provide data that are a step towards this goal...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750494/brain-pet-and-functional-mri-why-simultaneously-using-hybrid-pet-mr-systems
#17
Diego Cecchin, Alessandro Palombit, Marco Castellaro, Erica Silvestri, Franco Bui, Henryk Barthel, Osama Sabri, Maurizio Corbetta, Alessandra Bertoldo
INTRODUCTION: In the last 20 years growing attention has been devoted to multimodal imaging. The recent literature is rich of clinical and research studies that have been performed using different imaging modalities on both separate and integrated Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) scanners. However, today, hybrid PET/MR systems measure signals related to brain structure, metabolism, neurochemistry, perfusion, and neuronal activity simultaneously, i.e. in the same physiological conditions...
July 27, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741701/dissecting-molecular-architecture-of-post-synaptic-density-at-excitatory-synapses-an-editorial-highlight-for-hierarchical-organization-and-genetically-separable-subfamilies-of-psd95-postsynaptic-supercomplexes-on-page-504
#18
EDITORIAL
Jinjun Chen, Hui-Lin Pan
This Editorial highlights a study by Frank and colleagues (2017) in the current issue of Journal of Neurochemistry. The authors report the genetic composition and stoichiometry of endogenous subfamilies of PSD95-containing supercomplexes in the mouse brain using an innovative strategy of combining gene-tagging knock-in, targeted mutations, and quantitative biochemical assays. Their findings shed new light on our understanding of the genetic hierarchy required for the assembly of distinct supercomplex subfamilies at excitatory synapses in the brain...
August 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716608/opioidergic-and-dopaminergic-modulation-of-cost-benefit-decision-making-in-long-evans-rats
#19
Ileana Morales, Paul J Currie, Timothy D Hackenberg, Raúl Pastor
Eating disorders are associated with impaired decision-making and dysfunctional reward-related neurochemistry. The present study examined the potential contributions of dopamine and opioid signaling to these processes using two different decision-making tasks. In one task, Long Evans Rats chose between working for a preferred food (high-carbohydrate banana-flavored sucrose pellets) by lever pressing on a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement vs. obtaining less preferred laboratory chow that was concurrently available...
July 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716540/developmental-vitamin-d-deficiency-alters-multiple-neurotransmitter-systems-in-the-neonatal-rat-brain
#20
James P Kesby, Karly M Turner, Suzanne Alexander, Darryl W Eyles, John J McGrath, Thomas H J Burne
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests that developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. DVD deficiency in rats is associated with altered brain structure and adult behaviours indicating alterations in dopamine and glutamate signalling. Developmental alterations in dopamine neurotransmission have also been observed in DVD-deficient rats but a comprehensive assessment of brain neurochemistry has not been undertaken...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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