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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778746/betulinic-acid-a-natural-pde-inhibitor-restores-hippocampal-camp-cgmp-and-bdnf-improve-cerebral-blood-flow-and-recover-memory-deficits-in-permanent-bccao-induced-vascular-dementia-in-rats
#1
Madhu Kaundal, Saima Zameer, Abul Kalam Najmi, Suhel Parvez, Mohd Akhtar
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common form of senile dementia, embraces memory deficits, neuroinflammation, executive function damage, mood and behavioral changes and abnormal cerebral blood flow. The purpose of the study was to explore the therapeutic potential of betulinic acid in bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) induced VaDin experimental rats.VaD was induced by BCCAO in rats and betulinic acid (10 and 15mg/kg/day po) was administered 1 week after surgery. The cerebral blood pressure of the animal was recorded before and after the treatment using Laser Doppler flow meter...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777319/what-does-sex-have-to-do-with-it-the-role-of-sex-as-a-biological-variable-in-the-development-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Sara L Kornfield, Liisa Hantsoo, C Neill Epperson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the neurobiological aspects of sex differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), specifically focusing on the physiological responses to trauma and presents evidence supporting hormone and neurosteroid/peptide differences from both preclinical and clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: While others have suggested that trauma type or acute emotional reaction are responsible for women's disproportionate risk to PTSD, neither of these explanations fully accounts for the sex differences in PTSD...
May 18, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773202/impaired-short-term-plasticity-in-restless-legs-syndrome-a-pilot-rtms-study
#3
Giuseppe Lanza, Bartolo Lanuzza, Debora Aricò, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Filomena Irene Ilaria Cosentino, Rita Bella, Giovanni Pennisi, Raffaele Ferri, Manuela Pennisi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed an impairment of the LTP-like plasticity to TMS in restless legs syndrome (RLS). Clinically, repetitive TMS (rTMS) was effective in alleviating the sensory-motor complaints of patients, although the effects induced by low-frequency (inhibitory) rTMS have not yet been investigated. An impaired LTD-like mechanism of cortical plasticity has been hypothesized, which we have directly assessed in this pilot study. METHODS: Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right first dorsal interosseus muscle were recorded at the stimulus intensity of 110% of the resting motor threshold (rMT) from 13 right-handed patients and ten age-matched right-handed healthy controls...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759265/sleep-wake-neurochemistry
#4
REVIEW
Sebastian C Holst, Hans-Peter Landolt
The regulated alternations between wakefulness and sleep states reflect complex behavioral processes, orchestrated by distinct neurochemical changes in brain parenchyma. No single neurotransmitter or neuromodulator controls the sleep-wake states in isolation. Rather, fine-tuned interactions within organized neuronal circuits regulate waking and sleep states and drive their transitions. Structural or functional dysregulation and medications interfering with these ensembles can lead to sleep-wake disorders and exert wanted or unwanted pharmacological actions on sleep-wake states...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758319/preface-toward-a-new-era-of-the-japanese-society-for-neurochemistry
#5
EDITORIAL
Keiji Wada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756082/altered-cortical-gaba-in-female-veterans-with-suicidal-behavior-sex-differences-and-clinical-correlates
#6
Andrew Prescot, Chandni Sheth, Margaret Legarreta, Perry F Renshaw, Erin McGlade, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
Background: Suicide is a public health concern in the civilian and veteran populations. Stressful life events are precipitating factors for suicide. The neurochemical underpinnings of the association between stress/trauma and suicide risk are unclear, especially in regards to sex differences. We hypothesized that gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter may be a neurochemical candidate that is critical in the association between stress and suicide risk in veterans...
April 6, 2018: Chronic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743584/is-psychosis-a-multisystem-disorder-a-meta-review-of-central-nervous-system-immune-cardiometabolic-and-endocrine-alterations-in-first-episode-psychosis-and-perspective-on-potential-models
#7
REVIEW
Toby Pillinger, Enrico D'Ambrosio, Robert McCutcheon, Oliver D Howes
People with psychotic disorders show abnormalities in several organ systems in addition to the central nervous system (CNS); and this contributes to excess mortality. However, it is unclear how strong the evidence is for alterations in non-CNS systems at the onset of psychosis, how the alterations in non-CNS systems compare to those in the CNS, or how they relate to symptoms. Here, we consider these questions, and suggest potential models to account for findings. We conducted a systematic meta-review to summarize effect sizes for both CNS (focusing on brain structural, neurophysiological, and neurochemical parameters) and non-CNS dysfunction (focusing on immune, cardiometabolic, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) systems) in first-episode psychosis (FEP)...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740748/the-effects-of-chronic-amitriptyline-on-zebrafish-behavior-and-monoamine-neurochemistry
#8
Darya A Meshalkina, Elana V Kysil, Kristina A Antonova, Konstantin A Demin, Tatiana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Khatsko, Raul R Gainetdinov, Polina A Alekseeva, Allan V Kalueff
Amitriptyline is a commonly used tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) inhibiting serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. The exact CNS action of TCAs remains poorly understood, necessitating new screening approaches and novel model organisms. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly emerging as a promising tool for pharmacological research of antidepressants, including amitriptyline. Here, we examine the effects of chronic 2-week exposure to 10 and 50 μg/L amitriptyline on zebrafish behavior and monoamine neurotransmitters...
May 8, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720947/a-fly-s-eye-view-of-natural-and-drug-reward
#9
REVIEW
Eve G Lowenstein, Norma A Velazquez-Ulloa
Animals encounter multiple stimuli each day. Some of these stimuli are innately appetitive or aversive, while others are assigned valence based on experience. Drugs like ethanol can elicit aversion in the short term and attraction in the long term. The reward system encodes the predictive value for different stimuli, mediating anticipation for attractive or punishing stimuli and driving animal behavior to approach or avoid conditioned stimuli. The neurochemistry and neurocircuitry of the reward system is partly evolutionarily conserved...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705971/roles-of-catechol-neurochemistry-in-autonomic-function-testing
#10
REVIEW
David S Goldstein, William P Cheshire
Catechols are a class of compounds that contain adjacent hydroxyl groups on a benzene ring. Endogenous catechols in human plasma include the catecholamines norepinephrine, epinephrine (adrenaline), and dopamine; the catecholamine precursor DOPA, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), which is the main neuronal metabolite of norepinephrine; and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), which is the main neuronal metabolite of dopamine. In the diagnostic evaluation of patients with known or suspected dysautonomias, measurement of plasma catechols is rarely diagnostic but often is informative...
April 28, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705846/breaking-away-the-role-of-homeostatic-drive-in-perpetuating-depression
#11
J Tory Toole, Mark A Rice, Travis J A Craddock, Barry Nierenberg, Nancy G Klimas, Mary Ann Fletcher, Joel Zysman, Mariana Morris, Gordon Broderick
We propose that the complexity of regulatory interactions modulating brain neurochemistry and behavior is such that multiple stable responses may be supported, and that some of these alternate regulatory programs may play a role in perpetuating persistent psychological dysfunction. To explore this, we constructed a model network representing major neurotransmission and behavioral mechanisms reported in literature as discrete logic circuits. Connectivity and information flow through this biobehavioral circuitry supported two distinct and stable regulatory programs...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705711/alcohol-microbiome-and-their-effect-on-psychiatric-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Thomas Hillemacher, Oliver Bachmann, Kai G Kahl, Helge Frieling
There is accumulating evidence that alcohol consumption and especially alcohol withdrawal increase brain levels of known innate immune signaling molecules and cause neuroinflammation. It has been shown that microbiota play a pivotal role in this process and affect central neurochemistry and behavior. Disruption of or alterations in the intimate cross-talk between microbiome and brain may be a significant factor in many psychiatric disorders. Alterations in the composition of the microbiome, so called dysbiosis, may result in detrimental distortion of microbe-host homeostasis modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis...
April 26, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697896/frontiers-in-neurochemistry
#13
EDITORIAL
Andrew Ewing, Insung S Choi, William Green, Orit Shefi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690790/neuroscience-of-addiction-relevance-to-prevention-and-treatment
#14
Nora D Volkow, Maureen Boyle
Addiction, the most severe form of substance use disorder, is a chronic brain disorder molded by strong biosocial factors that has devastating consequences to individuals and to society. Our understanding of substance use disorder has advanced significantly over the last 3 decades in part due to major progress in genetics and neuroscience research and to the development of new technologies, including tools to interrogate molecular changes in specific neuronal populations in animal models of substance use disorder, as well as brain imaging devices to assess brain function and neurochemistry in humans...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685068/can-animal-models-inform-on-the-relationship-between-depression-and-alzheimer-disease
#15
Jennifer N K Nyarko, Maa O Quartey, Glen B Baker, Darrell D Mousseau
The focus on the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide in clinical Alzheimer disease (AD) as well as in animal models of AD has perhaps biased our understanding of what contributes to the heterogeneity in disease onset and progression. Part of this heterogeneity could reflect the various neuropsychiatric risk factors that present with common symptomatology and can predispose the brain to AD-like changes. One such risk factor is depression. Animal models, particularly mouse models carrying variants of AD-related gene(s), many of which lead to an accumulation of Aβ, suggest that a fundamental shift in depression-related monoaminergic systems (including serotonin and noradrenaline) is a strong indicator of the altered cellular function associated with the earlier(est) stages of AD-related pathology...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674739/spatial-reversal-learning-defect-coincides-with-hypersynchronous-telencephalic-bold-functional-connectivity-in-app-nl-f-nl-f-knock-in-mice
#16
Disha Shah, Amira Latif-Hernandez, Bart De Strooper, Takashi Saito, Takaomi Saido, Marleen Verhoye, Rudi D'Hooge, Annemie Van der Linden
Amyloid pathology occurs early in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and has therefore been the focus of numerous studies. Transgenic mouse models have been instrumental to study amyloidosis, but observations might have been confounded by APP-overexpression artifacts. The current study investigated early functional defects in an APP knock-in mouse model, which allows assessing the effects of pathological amyloid-beta (Aβ) without interference of APP-artifacts. Female APPNL/NL knock-in mice of 3 and 7 months old were compared to age-matched APPNL-F/NL-F mice with increased Aβ42/40 ratio and initial Aβ-plaque deposition around 6 months of age...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673529/neurochemistry-of-anesthetic-states
#17
Ralph Lydic, Helen A Baghdoyan, Amanda L May
Anesthetic mechanisms that eliminate consciousness and perception of pain are products of the nervous system. Chemical approaches to the study of anesthetic mechanisms have the potential to serve as an ideal interface between basic and clinical neuroscience. There are disproportionately more basic neurochemical studies than clinical studies of anesthetic mechanisms. Even within neuroscience, the study of anesthetic mechanisms is sparse. The Society for Neuroscience hosts one of the world's largest and most vibrant scientific meetings, yet the content themes of that meeting do not include anesthesia...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673146/predictors-of-response-to-ketamine-in-treatment-resistant-major-depressive-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder
#18
Carola Rong, Caroline Park, Joshua D Rosenblat, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Hannah Zuckerman, Dominika Fus, Yena L Lee, Zihang Pan, Elisa Brietzke, Rodrigo B Mansur, Danielle S Cha, Leanna M W Lui, Roger S McIntyre
OBJECTIVES: Extant evidence indicates that ketamine exerts rapid antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressive (TRD) symptoms as a part of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). The identification of depressed sub-populations that are more likely to benefit from ketamine treatment remains a priority. In keeping with this view, the present narrative review aims to identify the pretreatment predictors of response to ketamine in TRD as part of MDD and BD. METHOD: Electronic search engines PubMed/MEDLINE, ClinicalTrials...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663393/maternal-obesity-reprograms-offspring-s-executive-brain-centers-in-a-sex-specific-manner-an-editorial-for-perinatal-high-fat-diet-and-early-life-methyl-donor-supplementation-alter-one-carbon-metabolism-and-dna-methylation-in-the-brain-on-doi-10-1111-jnc-14319
#19
EDITORIAL
Kaja Plucińska, Steven W Barger
This editorial highlights an article by McKee and colleagues in the current issue of Journal of Neurochemistry, in which the authors report epigenetic changes linked to one-carbon metabolism in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of murine offspring from dams fed high-fat diet to mimic maternal obesity. The group found that high-fat diet feeding in utero increases weight gain in offspring and dynamically alters DNA methylation in the PFC of male but not female brains. These epigenetic marks were associated with a shift in brain one-carbon metabolism (folate and methionine) intermediates and were normalized by early-life methyl-donor supplementation in a sex-specific manner...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660942/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-the-metabolism-of-polyphenols-as-characterized-by-gnotobiotic-mice
#20
Giulio Maria Pasinetti, Risham Singh, Susan Westfall, Francis Herman, Jeremiah Faith, Lap Ho
A growing body of experimental data suggests that microbes in the gut influence behavior and can alter brain physiology and neurochemistry. Although promising, researchers are only starting to understand the potential of the gut microbiota for use in neurological disease. Recent evidence demonstrated that gastrointestinal activities are linked to mood disorders such as anxiety, depression, and most recently, cognitive functions in age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Studies from our group and others are uncovering new evidence suggesting that the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the metabolism and bioavailability of certain dietary compounds and synthetic drugs...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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