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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645199/do-neurobiological-understandings-of-smoking-influence-quitting-self-efficacy-or-treatment-intentions
#1
Kylie Morphett, Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall, Jayne Lucke, Brad Partridge, Coral Gartner
Introduction: Addiction is increasingly defined as a "brain disease" caused by changes to neurochemistry. While nicotine addiction has historically been excluded in the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA), it is beginning to be labelled a chronic brain disease. We investigated whether Australian smokers endorse brain-based explanations of smoking, and whether these beliefs are associated with quitting self-efficacy or treatment intentions. Method: Cross-sectional study of Australian smokers (N=1,538) who completed a survey measuring their agreement with statements on the brain's role in smoking...
June 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642689/integrating-neural-circuits-controlling-female-sexual-behavior
#2
REVIEW
Paul E Micevych, Robert L Meisel
The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641520/try-to-remember-interplay-between-memory-and-substance-use-disorder
#3
Rashidi Mohamed Pakri Mohamed, Jaya Kumar, Ernie Yap, Isa Naina Mohamed, Hatta Sidi, Raja Lope Adam, Srijit Das
Memories associated with substance use disorders, or substance-associated cues increase the likelihood of craving and relapse during abstinence. There is growing consensus that manipulation of synaptic plasticity may reduce the strength of substance abuse-related memories. On the biological front, there are new insights that suggest memories associated with substance use disorder may follow unique neurobiological pathways that render them more accessible to pharmacological intervention. In parallel to this, research in neurochemistry has identified several potential candidate molecules that could influence the formation and maintenance of long-term memory...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632905/the-malleable-brain-plasticity-of-neural-circuits-and-behavior-a-review-from-students-to-students
#4
REVIEW
Natascha Schaefer, Carola Rotermund, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Mychael V Lourenco, Pooja Joshi, Regina U Hegemann, Sumit Jamwal, Nilufar Ali, Ezra Michelet García Romero, Sorabh Sharma, Shampa Ghosh, Jitendra K Sinha, Hannah Loke, Vishal Jain, Katarzyna Lepeta, Ahmad Salamian, Mahima Sharma, Mojtaba Golpich, Katarzyna Nawrotek, Ramesh K Paidi, Sheila M Shahidzadeh, Tetsade Piermartiri, Elham Amini, Veronica Pastor, Yvette Wilson, Philip A Adeniyi, Ashok K Datusalia, Benham Vafadari, Vedangana Saini, Edna Suárez-Pozos, Neetu Kushwah, Paula Fontanet, Anthony J Turner
One of the most intriguing features of the brain is its ability to be malleable, allowing it to adapt continually to changes in the environment. Specific neuronal activity patterns drive long-lasting increases or decreases in the strength of synaptic connections, referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) respectively. Such phenomena have been described in a variety of model organisms, which are used to study molecular, structural, and functional aspects of synaptic plasticity...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626392/sensing-the-worst-neurophenomenological-perspectives-on-neutral-stimuli-misperception-in-schizophrenia-spectrum
#5
Mariateresa Sestito, Josef Parnas, Carlo Maggini, Vittorio Gallese
While investigating social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, prominent evidence has been found that patients with schizophrenia show a tendency to misclassify neutral stimuli as negatively valenced. Within this population, patients presenting delusions are more prone to this phenomenon. In a previous study, Schizophrenia spectrum (SzSp) patients rated positive, negative and neutral stimuli that were multimodally presented, while assessed with a checklist exploring anomalous subjective experiences and evaluated for positive and negative symptomatology...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625179/dietary-l-tryptophan-leaves-a-lasting-impression-on-the-brain-and-the-stress-response
#6
Erik Höglund, Øyvind Øverli, Madelene Å Andersson, Patricia Silva, Danielle Caroline Laursen, Maria M Moltesen, Åshild Krogdahl, Joachim Schjolden, Svante Winberg, Marco A Vindas, Ian Mayer, Marie Hillestad
Comparative models suggest that effects of dietary tryptophan (Trp) on brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) neurochemistry and stress responsiveness are present throughout the vertebrate lineage. Moreover, hypothalamic 5-HT seems to play a central role in control of the neuroendocrine stress axis in all vertebrates. Still, recent fish studies suggest long-term effects of dietary Trp on stress responsiveness, which are independent of hypothalamic 5-HT. Here, we investigated if dietary Trp treatment may result in long-lasting effects on stress responsiveness, including changes in plasma cortisol levels and 5-HT neurochemistry in the telencephalon and hypothalamus of Atlantic salmon...
June 19, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623605/cathepsin-c-aggravates-neuroinflammation-involved-in-disturbances-of-behaviour-and-neurochemistry-in-acute-and-chronic-stress-induced-murine-model-of-depression
#7
Yanli Zhang, Kai Fan, Yanna Liu, Gang Liu, Xiaohan Yang, Jianmei Ma
Major depression has been interpreted as an inflammatory disease characterized by cell-mediated immune activation, which is generally triggered by various stresses. Microglia has been thought to be the cellular link between inflammation and depression-like behavioural alterations. The expression of cathepsin C (Cat C), a lysosomal proteinase, is predominantly induced in microglia in neuroinflammation. However, little is known about the role of Cat C in pathophysiology of depression. In the present study, Cat C transgenic mice and wild type mice were subjected to an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (0...
June 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615804/the-neurochemistry-of-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#8
Andreea Benga, Fatih Zor, Ahmet Korkmaz, Bogdan Marinescu, Vijay Gorantla
Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) can be most disabling, resulting in the loss of sensitivity, motor function and autonomic control in the involved anatomical segment. Although injured peripheral nerves are capable of regeneration, sub-optimal recovery of function is seen even with the best reconstruction. Distal axonal degeneration is an unavoidable consequence of PNI. There are currently few strategies aimed to maintain the distal pathway and/or target fidelity during regeneration across the zone of injury...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600997/genistein-alleviates-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-model-through-enhancing-serotonergic-transmission-in-the-amygdala
#9
Zhong-Min Wu, Gui-Lian Ni, Ai-Min Shao, Rong Cui
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder, characterized by intense fear, and increased arousal and avoidance of traumatic events. The current available treatments for PTSD have limited therapeutic value. Genistein, a natural isoflavone, modulates a variety of cell functions. In this study, we tested anti-anxiety activity and underlying mechanisms of genistein in a PTSD rat model. The rats were trained to associate a tone with foot shock delivery on day 0, then fear conditioning was performed on day 7, 14 and 21...
June 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584928/effects-of-the-serotonin-2c-receptor-agonist-way163909-on-the-abuse-related-effects-and-mesolimbic-dopamine-neurochemistry-induced-by-abused-stimulants-in-rhesus-monkeys
#10
Laís F Berro, Maylen Perez Diaz, Eric Maltbie, Leonard L Howell
RATIONALE: Accumulating evidence shows that the serotonergic system plays a major role in psychostimulant abuse through its interactions with the dopaminergic system. Studies indicate that serotonin 5-HT2C receptors are one of the main classes of receptors involved in mediating the influence of serotonin in drug abuse. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the selective serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist WAY163909 on the behavioral neuropharmacology of cocaine and methamphetamine in adult rhesus macaques...
June 5, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570965/neurochemical-evidence-based-suggested-therapy-for-safe-management-of-epileptogenesis
#11
Navjot Kaur, Tanveer Singh, Sandeep Kumar, Rajesh Kumar Goel
Most of the clinically available antiepileptic drugs have only antiseizure effects and are reported unable to prevent epileptogenesis. In the past decade, several drugs underwent clinical trials for management of epileptogenesis, but none of the drugs tested was found effective. One of the major lacunas is availability of appropriate preclinical approaches to delineate mechanisms of epileptogenesis. Thus, the present study attempts to suggest a neurochemistry based approach for safe management of epileptogenesis...
May 29, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560261/brain-structure-function-and-neurochemistry-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-the-magnetic-resonance-neuroimaging-literature
#12
Badari Birur, Nina Vanessa Kraguljac, Richard C Shelton, Adrienne Carol Lahti
Since Emil Kraepelin's conceptualization of endogenous psychoses as dementia praecox and manic depression, the separation between primary psychotic disorders and primary affective disorders has been much debated. We conducted a systematic review of case-control studies contrasting magnetic resonance imaging studies in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A literature search in PubMed of studies published between January 2005 and December 2016 was conducted, and 50 structural, 29 functional, 7 magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and 8 combined imaging and genetic studies were deemed eligible for systematic review...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552355/a-mechanistic-link-from-gaba-to-cortical-architecture-and-perception
#13
James Kolasinski, John P Logan, Emily L Hinson, Daniel Manners, Amir P Divanbeighi Zand, Tamar R Makin, Uzay E Emir, Charlotte J Stagg
Understanding both the organization of the human cortex and its relation to the performance of distinct functions is fundamental in neuroscience. The primary sensory cortices display topographic organization, whereby receptive fields follow a characteristic pattern, from tonotopy to retinotopy to somatotopy [1]. GABAergic signaling is vital to the maintenance of cortical receptive fields [2]; however, it is unclear how this fine-grain inhibition relates to measurable patterns of perception [3, 4]. Based on perceptual changes following perturbation of the GABAergic system, it is conceivable that the resting level of cortical GABAergic tone directly relates to the spatial specificity of activation in response to a given input [5-7]...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541285/endogenous-opioids-regulate-social-threat-learning-in-humans
#14
Jan Haaker, Jonathan Yi, Predrag Petrovic, Andreas Olsson
Many fearful expectations are shaped by observation of aversive outcomes to others. Yet, the neurochemistry regulating social learning is unknown. Previous research has shown that during direct (Pavlovian) threat learning, information about personally experienced outcomes is regulated by the release of endogenous opioids, and activity within the amygdala and periaqueductal gray (PAG). Here we report that blockade of this opioidergic circuit enhances social threat learning through observation in humans involving activity within the amygdala, midline thalamus and the PAG...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526515/prenatal-lipopolysaccharide-induces-hypothalamic-dopaminergic-hypoactivity-and-autistic-like-behaviors-repetitive-self-grooming-and-stereotypies
#15
Thiago B Kirsten, Maria M Bernardi
Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, induces social, cognitive, and communication deficits. For a complete screening of autistic-like behaviors, the objective of this study was to evaluate if our rat model also induces restricted and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. Thus, we studied the self-grooming microstructure. We also studied the neurochemistry of hypothalamus and frontal cortex, which are brain areas related to autism to better understand central mechanisms involved in our model...
May 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494346/glutamatergic-and-neural-dysfunction-in-postpartum-depression-using-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#16
Carlos E Rosa, Jair C Soares, Felipe P Figueiredo, Ricardo C Cavalli, Marco A Barbieri, Maristela S Schaufelberger, Carlos E G Salmon, Cristina M Del-Ben, Antonio C Santos
Although postpartum depression (PPD) is a prevalent subtype of major depressive disorder, neuroimaging studies on PPD are rare, particularly those identifying neurochemical abnormalities obtained by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS). The dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPF) and the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) are part of the neural pathways involved in executive functions and emotional processing, and both structures have been implicated in the neurobiology of depressive disorders. This study aimed to evaluate brain metabolites abnormalities in women with PPD compared with healthy postpartum (HP) women...
April 26, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472856/multiple-cell-types-form-the-vip-amacrine-cell-population
#17
Luis Pérez de Sevilla Müller, Alexander Solomon, Kristopher Sheets, Hinekura Hapukino, Allen Rodriguez, Nicholas C Brecha
Amacrine cells are a heterogeneous group of interneurons that form microcircuits with bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells to process visual information in the inner retina. This study has characterized the morphology, neurochemistry and major cell types of a VIP-ires-Cre amacrine cell population. VIP-tdTomato and -Confetti (Brainbow2.1) mouse lines were generated by crossing a VIP-ires-Cre line with either a Cre-dependent tdTomato or Brainbow2.1 reporter line. Retinal sections and whole-mounts were evaluated by quantitative, immunohistochemical and intracellular labeling approaches...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466069/early-social-isolation-stress-and-perinatal-nmda-receptor-antagonist-treatment-induce-changes-in-the-structure-and-neurochemistry-of-inhibitory-neurons-of-the-adult-amygdala-and-prefrontal-cortex
#18
Esther Castillo-Gómez, Marta Pérez-Rando, María Bellés, Javier Gilabert-Juan, José Vicente Llorens, Héctor Carceller, Clara Bueno-Fernández, Clara García-Mompó, Beatriz Ripoll-Martínez, Yasmina Curto, Noelia Sebastiá-Ortega, María Dolores Moltó, Julio Sanjuan, Juan Nacher
The exposure to aversive experiences during early life influences brain development and leads to altered behavior. Moreover, the combination of these experiences with subtle alterations in neurodevelopment may contribute to the emergence of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Recent hypotheses suggest that imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission, especially in the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, may underlie their etiopathology. In order to understand better the neurobiological bases of these alterations, we studied the impact of altered neurodevelopment and chronic early-life stress on these two brain regions...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461088/brain-cortisol-receptor-expression-differs-in-arctic-charr-displaying-opposite-coping-styles
#19
Marco A Vindas, Carin Magnhagen, Eva Brännäs, Øyvind Øverli, Svante Winberg, Jan Nilsson, Tobias Backström
Individually consistent behavioral and physiological responses to stressful situations (often referred to as coping styles) has been reported in many animal species. Differences in hypothalamic-pituitary axis reactivity characterize individuals, and it has been proposed that the glucocorticoid (gr) and mineralocorticoid (mr) receptors are fundamental in regulating coping styles. We sorted individuals into reactive and proactive coping styles by collapsing behavioral outputs from net restraint and confinement stress tests in a principal component analysis...
April 28, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460588/neuromelanin-in-parkinsonian-disorders-an-update
#20
Antonio Martin-Bastida, Sara Pietracupa, Paola Piccini
Neuromelanin (NM) is a dark pigment that accumulates linearly with aging in substantia nigra (SN) and locus coeruleus (LC). The dual protective and toxic role of NM has been hypothesized according to its intraneuronal or extraneuronal deposition. The melanized dopaminergic neurons in SN and LC seem to have special vulnerability to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). The paramagnetic properties of NM due to its association to metals like iron induce T1 prolongation; hence the measurement of SN-sensitive contrast could be a useful diagnostic biomarker in neurodegenerative disease like PD and other atypical parkinsonisms...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
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