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Charlotte E Teunissen, Markus Otto, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Sylvain Lehmann, Piotr Lewczuk, Alberto Lleó, Armand Perret-Liaudet, Hayrettin Tumani, Martin R Turner, Marcel M Verbeek, Jens Wiltfang, Henrik Zetterberg, Lucilla Parnetti, Kaj Blennow
Body fluid biomarkers have great potential for different clinical purposes, including diagnosis, prognosis, patient stratification and treatment effect monitoring. This is exemplified by current use of several excellent biomarkers, such as the Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, anti-neuromyelitis optica antibodies and blood neurofilament light. We still, however, have a strong need for additional biomarkers and several gaps in their development and implementation should be filled. Examples of such gaps are i) limited knowledge of the causes of neurological diseases, and thus hypotheses about the best biomarkers to detect subclinical stages of these diseases; ii) the limited success translating discoveries obtained by e...
March 15, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Kathy Y Liu, Aisling E Stringer, Suzanne J Reeves, Robert J Howard
OBJECTIVE: To provide an up-to-date systematic review of the characteristics, methodology and findings of studies that have investigated the neurochemistry of agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for published peer-reviewed articles which provided data on any neurotransmitter system in relation to agitation in AD. Screening of titles and abstracts and data extraction from full texts were conducted in duplicate. RESULTS: Forty-five studies were included...
March 7, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Kurt A Jellinger, Amos D Korczyn
BACKGROUND: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), which share many clinical, neurochemical, and morphological features, have been incorporated into DSM-5 as two separate entities of major neurocognitive disorders with Lewy bodies. Despite clinical overlap, their diagnosis is based on an arbitrary distinction concerning the time of onset of motor and cognitive symptoms, namely as early cognitive impairment in DLB and later onset following that of motor symptoms in PDD...
March 6, 2018: BMC Medicine
Sunaina Sharma, Puneet Kumar, Rahul Deshmukh
Parkinson's disease is a leading hypokinetic disorder characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) region of mid-brain. Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons is considered to be due to oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, disturbed calcium homeostasis and glutamate excitotoxicity etc. Spermidine is a polyamine which counteracts age associated cell death by scavenging free radical formation, activates authophagic machinery by enhancing formation of autophagosome, and antagonizes NMDA receptor...
February 28, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Amresh Shrivastava, Megan Johnston, Robbie Campbell, Avinash De Sousa, Nilesh Shah
Background: Low levels of cholesterol have been described in suicide behavior including among those individuals who have an increased tendency for impulsivity. Violent suicide attempters show significantly lower cholesterol levels than nonviolent suicide attempters. The suicide rate is particularly high in the prodromal and early phase of schizophrenia. It is unclear if there is a psychopathological relationship between early psychosis, suicide, and cholesterol levels. The present study examines levels of cholesterol and suicide behavior in a cohort of early psychosis...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Ross D Markello, R Nathan Spreng, Wen-Ming Luh, Adam K Anderson, Eve De Rosa
The basal forebrain (BF) is poised to play an important neuromodulatory role in brain regions important to cognition due to its broad projections and complex neurochemistry. While significant in vivo work has been done to elaborate BF function in nonhuman rodents and primates, comparatively limited work has examined the in vivo function of the human BF. In the current study we used multi-echo resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) from 100 young adults (18-34 years) to assess the potential segregation of human BF nuclei as well as their associated projections...
February 26, 2018: NeuroImage
I Trofimova, T W Robbins, W H Sulis, J Uher
This Editorial highlights a unique focus of this theme issue on the biological perspectives in deriving psychological taxonomies coming from neurochemistry, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, genetics, psychiatry, developmental and comparative psychology-as contrasted to more common discussions of socio-cultural concepts (personality) and methods (lexical approach). It points out the importance of the distinction between temperament and personality for studies in human and animal differential psychophysiology, psychiatry and psycho-pharmacology, sport and animal practices during the past century...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Susanna Waters, Joakim Tedroff, Henrik Ponten, Daniel Klamer, Clas Sonesson, Nicholas Waters
Despite advances in understanding the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD), there are currently no effective pharmacological agents available to treat core symptoms or to stop or prevent the progression of this hereditary neurodegenerative disorder. Pridopidine, a novel small molecule compound, has demonstrated potential for both symptomatic treatment and disease modifying effects in HD. While pridopidine failed to achieve its primary efficacy outcomes (Modified motor score) in two trials (MermaiHD and HART) there were consistent effects on secondary outcomes (TMS)...
2018: Journal of Huntington's Disease
Hannah Weinberg-Wolf, Nicholas A Fagan, George M Anderson, Marios Tringides, Olga Dal Monte, Steve W C Chang
Psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, are often associated with impaired serotonergic function. However, serotonergic interventions yield inconsistent effects on behavioral impairments. To better understand serotonin's role in these pathologies, we investigated the role of serotonin in a behavior frequently impaired in depression and anxiety, attention. In this study, we used a quantitative, repeated, within-subject, design to test how L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate serotonin precursor, modulates central serotoninergic function and attention in macaques...
January 30, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
David E Nichols
LSD is one of the most potent psychoactive agents known, producing dramatic alterations of consciousness after submilligram (≥20 g) oral doses. Following the accidental discovery of its potent psychoactive effects in 1943, it was supplied by Sandoz Laboratories as an experimental drug that might be useful as an adjunct for psychotherapy, or to give psychiatrists insight into the mental processes in their patients. The finding of serotonin in the mammalian brain in 1953, and its structural resemblance to LSD, quickly led to ideas that serotonin in the brain might be involved in mental illness, initiating rapid research interest in the neurochemistry of serotonin...
February 20, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Terry McMorris, Martin Barwood, Beverley J Hale, Matt Dicks, Jo Corbett
Recent research has examined the effect that undertaking a cognitively fatiguing task for ≤90 min has on subsequent physical performance. Cognitive fatigue is claimed to affect subsequent physical performance by inducing energy depletion in the brain, depletion of brain catecholamine neurotransmitters or changes in motivation. Observation of the psychophysiology and neurochemistry literature questions the ability of 90 min' cognitive activity to deplete energy or catecholamine resources. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine the evidence for cognitive fatigue having an effect on subsequent physical performance...
February 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Daniel F Hermens, Jim Lagopoulos
Binge drinking has significant effects on memory, particularly with regards to the transfer of information to long-term storage. Partial or complete blocking of memory formation is known as blackout. Youth represents a critical period in brain development that is particularly vulnerable to alcohol misuse. Animal models show that the adolescent brain is more vulnerable to the acute and chronic effects of alcohol compared with the adult brain. This mini-review addresses the neurobiological underpinnings of binge drinking and associated memory loss (blackout) in the adolescent and young adult period...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Adrian Raine
Although antisocial personality disorder (APD) is one of the most researched personality disorders, it is still surprisingly resistant to treatment. This lack of clinical progress may be partly due to the failure to view APD as a neurodevelopmental disorder and to consider early interventions. After first defining what constitutes a neurodevelopmental disorder, this review evaluates the extent to which APD meets neurodevelopmental criteria, covering structural and functional brain imaging, neurocognition, genetics and epigenetics, neurochemistry, and early health risk factors...
January 25, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Kobra Akhoundzadeh, Abedin Vakili, Mahdi Shadnoush, Jafar Sadeghzadeh
Background: Probiotics are microorganisms that may influence brain function via altering brain neurochemistry. New research evidence suggests that probiotic bacteria might protect tissue damage through diminishing the production of free radicals and/or inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of probiotic bacteria on the prevention or reduction of brain damage in an experimental model of stroke in mice. Methods: In this study, 30 male BLC57 mice were randomly divided into 6 equal groups...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Stefano Delli Pizzi, Rosa Grazia Bellomo, Simona Maria Carmignano, Emilio Ancona, Raffaella Franciotti, Marco Supplizi, Giovanni Barassi, Marco Onofrj, Laura Bonanni, Raoul Saggini
Rehabilitation interventions represent an alternative strategy to pharmacological treatment in order to slow or reverse some functional aspects of disability in Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying rehabilitation-mediated improvement in PD patients are still poorly understood. Interestingly, growing evidence has highlighted a key role of the glutamate in neurogenesis and brain plasticity. The brain levels of glutamate, and of its precursor glutamine, can be detected in vivo and noninvasively as "Glx" by means of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS)...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rajiv Saini, Kalpana Srivastava, Sunil Agrawal, R C Das
Background: It is well known that environmental factors play an important role in human performance. High temperature and humidity particularly impair mental performance by altering brain neurochemistry and electrolyte disturbance which in turn affect one's overall efficiency. While the physiological responses to environmental heat have been well established, it is less clear about its impact on cognition. Study aims to investigate the impact of thermal strain on cognition. Methods: One hundred (100) healthy soldiers aged between 20 and 30 years who had spent minimum of one year in desert conditions prior to their induction in the study formed sample of the study...
October 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Laura Hausmann, Barbara Schweitzer, Frank A Middleton, Jörg B Schulz
Many journals, including the Journal of Neurochemistry, enable authors to list peer reviewers as "preferred" or "opposed" suggestions to the editor. At the Journal of Neurochemistry, the handling editor (HE) may follow recommendations or select non-author-suggested reviewers (non-ASRs). We investigated whether selection of author-suggested reviewers (ASRs) influenced decisions on a paper, and whether differences might be related to a reviewers', editor's or manuscript's geographical location. In this retrospective analysis, we compared original research articles submitted to the Journal of Neurochemistry from 2013 through 2016, that were either reviewed exclusively by non-ASRs, by at least one ASR, by at least one reviewer marked by the author as "opposed", or none...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Stephanie L Gage, Catherine Kramer, Samantha Calle, Mark Carroll, Michael Heien, Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman
Nosema sp. is an internal parasite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, and one of the leading contributors to colony losses worldwide. This parasite is found in the honey bee midgut, and has profound consequences on the host's physiology. Nosema sp. impairs foraging performance in honey bees, yet, it is unclear whether this parasite affects the bee's neurobiology. In this study, we examine whether Nosema sp. affects odor learning and memory and whether the brains of parasitized bees show differences in amino acids and biogenic amines...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Paul G Mullins
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful tool to investigate neurochemistry and physiology in vivo. Recently researchers have started to use MRS to measure neurotransmitter changes related to neural activity, so called functional MRS (fMRS). Particular interest has been placed on measuring glutamate changes associated with neural function, but differences are reported in the size of changes seen. This review discusses fMRS, and includes meta-analyses of the relative size of glutamate changes seen in fMRS, and the impact experimental design and stimulus paradigm may have...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Juho-Matti Renko, Susanne Bäck, Merja H Voutilainen, T Petteri Piepponen, Ilkka Reenilä, Mart Saarma, Raimo K Tuominen
Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) hold potential as disease-modifying therapies for neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF), and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) have shown neuroprotective and restorative effects on nigral dopaminergic neurons in various animal models of Parkinson's disease. To date, however, their effects on brain neurochemistry have not been compared using in vivo microdialysis...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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