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Steven W Barger
Ask any neuroscientist to name the most profound discoveries in the field in the past 60 years, and at or near the top of the list will be a phenomenon or technique related to genes and their expression. Indeed, our understanding of genetics and gene regulation has ushered in whole new systems of knowledge and new empirical approaches, many of which could not have even been imagined prior to the molecular biology boon of recent decades. Neurochemistry, in the classic sense, intersects with these concepts in the manifestation of neuropeptides, obviously dependent upon the central dogma (the established rules by which DNA sequence is eventually converted into protein primary structure) not only for their conformation but also for their levels and locales of expression...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Paul Cumming, Jürgen Gallinat
This Editorial highlights a study by Bagga and coworkers (2016) in the current issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry entitled "Mapping the alteration in brain glutamate with glutamate chemical exchange saturation transfer (GluCEST) magnetic resonance imaging in mice with MPTP-induced parkinsonism, a model of dopamine deficiency." Using their spectroscopic procedure, Bagga et al. discern unexpected relative increases in the cortical glutamate content of parkinsonian mice. Their results suggest the occurrence of a simple relationship between striatal astrogliosis and tissue glutamate content, presumably in relation to enhanced glutamate/glutamine cycling...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Rimpi Arora, Rahul Deshmukh
Embelin, the main active constituent of Embelia ribes, has been reported to possess various pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, and neuroprotective. The present study was designed to investigate neuroprotective mechanisms and therapeutic potential of embelin against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced experimental sporadic dementia in rats. STZ was infused bilaterally at the dose of (3 mg/kg/1 μl/1 min) ICV on day first and third. Spatial and non-spatial memory was evaluated using Morris water maze and object recognition task in rats...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
K R Torres-da-Silva, A V Da Silva, N O Barioni, G W L Tessarin, J A De Oliveira, E Ervolino, J A C Horta-Junior, C A Casatti
The spinal cord is involved in local, ascending and descending neural pathways. Few studies analyzed the distribution of neuromediators in the laminae of non-human primates along all segments. The present study described the classic neuromediators in the spinal cord of the non-human primate Sapajus spp. through histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) method showed neuronal somata in the intermediolateral column (IML), central cervical nucleus (CCN), laminae I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII and X, besides dense presence of nerve fibers in laminae II and IX...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Morgane Milienne-Petiot, James P Kesby, Mary Graves, Jordy van Enkhuizen, Svetlana Semenova, Arpi Minassian, Athina Markou, Mark A Geyer, Jared W Young
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) mania patients exhibit poor cognition and reward-seeking/hypermotivation, negatively impacting a patient's quality of life. Current treatments (e.g., lithium), do not treat such deficits. Treatment development has been limited due to a poor understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying these behaviors. Here, we investigated putative mechanisms underlying cognition and reward-seeking/motivational changes relevant to BD mania patients using two validated mouse models and neurochemical analyses...
October 9, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Judith Stegmüller, Matthis Synofzik
This Editorial highlights a study by Huang and colleagues in the current issue of Journal of Neurochemistry. The authors introduce a novel ALS-FTD (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia) rat model to explore the role of the UBLQN2 gene that has previously been associated with familial ALS-FTD. Over-expression of ubiquilin 2 in the cortex (CTX) and hippocampus of the rat results in ubiquilin 2 aggregates and neurodegeneration together with cognitive deficits. The new rat model not only gives insight into potential molecular underpinnings of ALS-FTD, but also represents an important new tool for future research and therapeutic approaches...
October 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Jaak Panksepp
During the past half century of research with preclinical animal models, affective neuroscience has helped identify and illuminate the functional neuroanatomies and neurochemistries of seven primary process, i.e., genetically provided emotional systems of mammalian brains. All are subcortically localized, allowing animal models to guide the needed behavioral and neuroscientific analyses at levels of detail that cannot be achieved through human research, including modern brain imaging. They consist of the following neuronal processes: SEEKING/Enthusiasm, RAGE/Anger, FEAR/Anxiety, sexual LUST/Passion, maternal CARE/Nurturance, separation-distress PANIC/Grief and PLAY/Social Joy...
October 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Winfried L Neuhuber, Jürgen Wörl
The existence of a distinct ganglionated myenteric plexus between the two layers of the striated tunica muscularis of the mammalian esophagus has represented an enigma for quite a while. Although an enteric co-innervation of vagally innervated motor endplates in the esophagus has been suggested repeatedly, it was not possible until recently to demonstrate this dual innervation. Twenty-two years ago, we were able to demonstrate that motor endplates in the rat esophagus receive dual innervation from both vagal nerve fibers originating in the brain stem and from varicose enteric nerve fibers originating in the myenteric plexus...
September 28, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Julie A Dumas, Christopher G Filippi, Paul A Newhouse, Magdalena R Naylor
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined the effects of pharmacologic dopaminergic manipulations on working memory-related brain activation in postmenopausal women to further understand the neurochemistry underlying cognition after menopause. METHODS: Eighteen healthy postmenopausal women, mean age 55.21 years, completed three study days with dopaminergic drug challenges during which they performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging visual verbal N-back test of working memory...
September 26, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Thomas Müller, Paul Foley
The symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) reflect disruptions of a number of brain neurotransmitter systems of varying type and degree. Pharmacological agents with multiple neurochemical mechanisms of action are therefore promising candidates for countering these problems and providing comprehensive symptomatic relief for patients. The pharmacological profile of safinamide includes reversible monoamine oxidase B inhibition, blockage of voltage-dependent Na(+) channels, modulation of Ca(2+) channels, and inhibition of glutamate release...
September 24, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Debbie L Morton, Javin S Sandhu, Anthony Kp Jones
Pain is a complex sensory and emotional experience that is heavily influenced by prior experience and expectations of pain. Before the development of noninvasive human brain imaging, our grasp of the brain's role in pain processing was limited to data from postmortem studies, direct recording of brain activity, patient experience and stimulation during neurosurgical procedures, and animal models of pain. Advances made in neuroimaging have bridged the gap between brain activity and the subjective experience of pain and allowed us to better understand the changes in the brain that are associated with both acute and chronic pain...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
A P N de Lima, T M Sandini, T M Reis-Silva, C O Massoco
Adolescence is one of the critical periods of development and has great importance to health for an individual as an adult. Stressors or traumatic events during this period are associated with several psychiatric disorders as related to anxiety or depression and cognitive impairments, but whether negative experiences continue to hinder individuals as they age is not as well understood. We determined how stress during adolescence affects behavior and neurochemistry in adulthood. Using an unpredictable paradigm (2 stressors per day for 10days) in Balb/c mice, behavioral, hormonal, and neurochemical changes were identified 20days after the cessation of treatment...
September 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Meysam Pirbaglou, Joel Katz, Russell J de Souza, Jennifer C Stearns, Mehras Motamed, Paul Ritvo
Gastrointestinal microbiota, consisting of microbial communities in the gastrointestinal tract, play an important role in digestive, metabolic, and immune functioning. Preclinical studies on rodents have linked behavioral and neurochemical changes in the central nervous system with deficits or alterations in these bacterial communities. Moreover, probiotic supplementation in rodents has been shown to markedly change behavior, with correlated changes in central neurochemistry. While such studies have documented behavioral and mood-related supplementation effects, the significance of these effects in humans, especially in relation to anxiety and depression symptoms, are relatively unknown...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Dinesh Pal, Brian H Silverstein, Heonsoo Lee, George A Mashour
BACKGROUND: Significant advances have been made in our understanding of subcortical processes related to anesthetic- and sleep-induced unconsciousness, but the associated changes in cortical connectivity and cortical neurochemistry have yet to be fully clarified. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented for simultaneous measurement of cortical acetylcholine and electroencephalographic indices of corticocortical connectivity-coherence and symbolic transfer entropy-before, during, and after general anesthesia (propofol, n = 11; sevoflurane, n = 13)...
November 2016: Anesthesiology
Irina Esterlis, Ansel T Hillmer, Frederic Bois, Brian Pittman, Erin McGovern, Stephanie S O'Malley, Marina R Picciotto, Bao-Zhu Yang, Joel Gelernter, Kelly P Cosgrove
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco smoking leads to increased numbers of β2*-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (β2*-nAChRs) throughout the brain, which return to nonsmoker levels over extended abstinence. The goal of the current study was to determine whether the degree of tobacco smoking-induced changes in β2*-nAChR availability is genetically influenced. METHODS: In this study, 113 European Americans participated in one or two [(123)I]5-IA-85380 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain scans...
September 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Jörg B Schulz, Laura Hausmann
One of the major endeavors of the International Society for Neurochemistry (ISN) is the promotion and support of young researchers, for instance at 'schools' that offer young students an opportunity to closely interact with renowned researchers as well as with each other. As a result of the 13th International Society for Neurochemistry Advanced School on 'Synapses' held in Mission Beach, Australia, prior to the Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Neurochemistry in August 2016 in Cairns, we are pleased to publish this comprehensive Review article, written from students for students...
September 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Manoj K Sarma, Paul M Macey, Rajakumar Nagarajan, Ravi Aysola, Ronald M Harper, M Albert Thomas
UNLABELLED: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) leads to neurocognitive and autonomic deficits that are partially mediated by thalamic and putamen pathology. We examined the underlying neurochemistry of those structures using compressed sensing-based 4D echo-planar J-resolved spectroscopic imaging (JRESI), and quantified values with prior knowledge fitting. Bilaterally increased thalamic mI/Cr, putamen Glx/Cr, and Glu/Cr, and bilaterally decreased thalamic and putamen tCho/Cr and GABA/Cr occurred in OSAS vs healthy subjects (p < 0...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kanokwan Limnuson, Raj K Narayan, Amrit Chiluwal, Eugene V Golanov, Chad E Bouton, Chunyan Li
Multimodal monitoring of brain activity, physiology, and neurochemistry is an important approach to gain insight into brain function, modulation, and pathology. With recent progress in micro- and nanotechnology, micro-nano-implants have become important catalysts in advancing brain research. However, to date, only a limited number of brain parameters have been measured simultaneously in awake animals in spite of significant recent progress in sensor technology. Here we have provided a cost and time effective approach to designing a headstage to conduct a multimodality brain monitoring in freely moving animals...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jörg B Schulz, Laura Hausmann, John Hardy
In 1817, 199 years ago, James Parkinson described for the first time in 'An Essay on the Shaking Palsy' the symptoms of the disease that was later named Parkinson Disease. The current special issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry is dedicated to the discoveries and advances that have been made since, leading to a better understanding of this neurodegenerative disease and of potential treatment options. Reputed researchers cover various aspects from neuroanatomical basics; genetic and molecular risk factors such as LRRK2; the available cell and animal models that mimic crucial features of the pathophysiology; to clinical aspects and treatments, including deep brain stimulation...
October 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Witold Żakowski
This paper reviews the distribution of several bioactive substances and their possible physiological roles in the anterior thalamic nuclei of various species, with a special emphasis on the rat. The anterior thalamus is a part of extended hippocampal system and its significance for learning and memory processes is well known. Although our knowledge about a specific role of this brain structure has increased in recent years considerably, this is the first attempt to summarize neurochemical diversity of the anterior thalamus...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
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