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Neurochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909683/fronto-striatal-glutamate-in-children-with-tourette-s-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Jilly Naaijen, Natalie J Forde, David J Lythgoe, Sophie E A Akkermans, Thaira J C Openneer, Andrea Dietrich, Marcel P Zwiers, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jan K Buitelaar
OBJECTIVE: Both Tourette's disorder (TD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been related to abnormalities in glutamatergic neurochemistry in the fronto-striatal circuitry. TD and ADHD often co-occur and the neural underpinnings of this co-occurrence have been insufficiently investigated in prior studies. METHOD: We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in children between 8 and 12 years of age (TD n = 15, ADHD n = 39, TD + ADHD n = 29, and healthy controls n = 53) as an in vivo method of evaluating glutamate concentrations in the fronto-striatal circuit...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903793/the-serotonin-5-ht2c-receptor-and-the-non-addictive-nature-of-classic-hallucinogens
#2
REVIEW
Clinton E Canal, Kevin S Murnane
Classic hallucinogens share pharmacology as serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptor agonists. Unique among most other Schedule 1 drugs, they are generally non-addictive and can be effective tools in the treatment of addiction. Mechanisms underlying these attributes are largely unknown. However, many preclinical studies show that 5-HT2C agonists counteract the addictive effects of drugs from several classes, suggesting this pharmacological property of classic hallucinogens may be significant. Drawing from a comprehensive analysis of preclinical behavior, neuroanatomy, and neurochemistry studies, this review builds rationale for this hypothesis, and also proposes a testable, neurobiological framework...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893181/synaesthesia-lost-and-found-two-cases-of-person-and-music-colour-synaesthesia
#3
Francesca R Farina, Kevin J Mitchell, Richard A P Roche
Synaesthesia is a developmental condition involving cross-communication between sensory modalities or substreams whereby an inducer (e.g. a sound) automatically evokes a concurrent percept in another modality (e.g. a colour). Whether this condition arises due to atypical structural connectivity (e.g., between normally unconnected cortical areas) or altered neurochemistry remains a central question. We report the exceptional cases of two synaesthetes - subjects AB and CD - both of whom experience coloured auras around individuals, as well as coloured perceptions in response to music...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876634/individual-and-interactive-sex-specific-effects-of-acute-restraint-and-systemic-ifn-%C3%AE-treatment-on-neurochemistry
#4
Darcy Litteljohn, Chris Rudyk, Sara Razmjou, Zach Dwyer, Shuaib Syed, Shawn Hayley
Compelling evidence supports the involvement of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IFN-α and TNF-α in depression and related stress-associated pathologies. A role has also been suggested for the Th1-type cytokine, IFN-γ, with most mechanistic accounts focusing on the cytokine's capacity to induce indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), leading to diminished tryptophan and the generation of kynurenine metabolites. Beyond these IDO-dependent routes, there is surprisingly little evidence directly linking IFN-γ to alterations of brain regional monoamine activity and HPA axis functioning...
November 19, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870445/evaluating-social-defeat-as-a-model-for-psychopathology-in-adult-female-rodents
#5
REVIEW
Matia B Solomon
Social conflict is a predominant stressor in humans and is associated with increased risk for developing psychological illnesses including depression and anxiety. Overwhelmingly, more women suffer from these disorders, which may be due to increased stress sensitivity. Like humans, rodents experience a myriad of physiological and behavioral sequelae due to prolonged stress exposure. Although the motivation for social conflict may differ between humans and rodents, female rodents may provide an opportunity to explore the underlying mechanisms by which stress confers risk for psychopathology in women...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859239/7-th-isn-special-neurochemistry-conference-synaptic-function-and-dysfunction-in-brain-diseases
#6
Carlos B Duarte, Ana Luisa Carvalho
This article is part of a mini review series: "Synaptic Function and Dysfunction in Brain Diseases".
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822666/the-top-5-neurotransmitters-from-a-clinical-neurologist-s-perspective
#7
Daniel Kondziella
Neurologists are proficient in neuroanatomy and -physiology but their understanding of neurochemistry tends to be mediocre. As a rule, we do not think in biochemical pathways and complex metabolic interactions but rather associate a few neurotransmitters with well-known brain diseases or drugs that we routinely prescribe. Most of us can hardly come up with more than a handful of relevant neurochemicals. From our point of view the most important neurotransmitters are, in alphabetical order, acetylcholine (associated with Alzheimer's disease and myasthenia gravis), dopamine (Parkinson's disease), glutamate and GABA (epilepsy and seizures), and serotonin (major depression; although this is arguably the domain of psychiatrists)...
November 8, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802140/effects-of-acute-and-chronic-stress-on-telencephalic-neurochemistry-and-gene-expression-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#8
Maria Moltesen, Danielle Caroline Laursen, Per-Ove Thörnqvist, Madelene Åberg Andersson, Svante Winberg, Erik Höglund
By filtering relevant sensory inputs and initiating stress responses, the brain is an essential organ in stress coping and adaptation. However, exposure to chronic or repeated stress can lead to allostatic overload, where neuroendocrinal and behavioral reactions to stress become maladaptive. This work examines forebrain mechanisms involved in allostatic processes in teleost fishes. Plasma cortisol, forebrain serotonergic (5-HTergic) neurochemistry and mRNA levels of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), CRF binding protein (CRFBP), CRF receptors (CRFR1 and CRFR2), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptors (GR1 and GR2), and 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1Aα and 5-HT1Aβ) were investigated at 1 h before and 0, 1 and 4 h after acute stress, in two groups of rainbow trout held in densities of 25 and 140 kg m(-3) for 28 days...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797406/the-impact-of-fraudulent-and-irreproducible-data-to-the-translational-research-crisis-solutions-and-implementation
#9
Jörg B Schulz, Mark R Cookson, Laura Hausmann
One of the aims of basic neuroscience research is ultimately the development of therapeutics to cure diseases. Funders granting money to research institutions increasingly express interest into how their financial resources are used and look for successful translation in clinical practice. Disappointingly, many findings that started out promising in basic research projects and phase I trials did not live up to the promise of therapeutic efficacy in later phase II or III trials. An inordinately high amount of time and money is thus spent on research that does not always have the required human impact...
October 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797405/60%C3%A2-years-of-the-journal-of-neurochemistry
#10
Jörg B Schulz, Laura Hausmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783860/neural-control-of-the-upper-airway-respiratory-and-state-dependent-mechanisms
#11
Leszek Kubin
Upper airway muscles subserve many essential for survival orofacial behaviors, including their important role as accessory respiratory muscles. In the face of certain predisposition of craniofacial anatomy, both tonic and phasic inspiratory activation of upper airway muscles is necessary to protect the upper airway against collapse. This protective action is adequate during wakefulness, but fails during sleep which results in recurrent episodes of hypopneas and apneas, a condition known as the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA)...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747882/gene-regulation-and-genetics-in-neurochemistry-past-to-future
#12
Steven W Barger
Ask any neuroscientist to name the most profound discoveries in the field in the past 60 years, and at or near the top of the list will be a phenomenon or technique related to genes and their expression. Indeed, our understanding of genetics and gene regulation has ushered in whole new systems of knowledge and new empirical approaches, many of which could not have even been imagined prior to the molecular biology boon of recent decades. Neurochemistry, in the classic sense, intersects with these concepts in the manifestation of neuropeptides, obviously dependent upon the central dogma (the established rules by which DNA sequence is eventually converted into protein primary structure) not only for their conformation but also for their levels and locales of expression...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747879/invited-commentary-mapping-the-alteration-in-glutamate-with-glucest-mri-in-a-mouse-model-of-dopamine-deficiency-an-editorial-highlight-for-mapping-the-alterations-in-glutamate-with-glucest-mri-in-a-mouse-model-of-dopamine-deficiency
#13
Paul Cumming, Jürgen Gallinat
Read the highlighted article 'Mapping the alterations in glutamate with GluCEST MRI in a mouse model of dopamine deficiency' on page 432.
November 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744573/embelin-attenuates-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-induced-behavioral-biochemical-and-neurochemical-abnormalities-in-rats
#14
Rimpi Arora, Rahul Deshmukh
Embelin, the main active constituent of Embelia ribes, has been reported to possess various pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, and neuroprotective. The present study was designed to investigate neuroprotective mechanisms and therapeutic potential of embelin against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced experimental sporadic dementia in rats. STZ was infused bilaterally at the dose of (3 mg/kg/1 μl/1 min) ICV on day first and third. Spatial and non-spatial memory was evaluated using Morris water maze and object recognition task in rats...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734991/neurochemistry-study-of-spinal-cord-in-non-human-primate-sapajus-spp
#15
K R Torres-da-Silva, A V Da Silva, N O Barioni, G W L Tessarin, J A De Oliveira, E Ervolino, J A C Horta-Junior, C A Casatti
The spinal cord is involved in local, ascending and descending neural pathways. Few studies analyzed the distribution of neuromediators in the laminae of non-human primates along all segments. The present study described the classic neuromediators in the spinal cord of the non-human primate Sapajus spp. through histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) method showed neuronal somata in the intermediolateral column (IML), central cervical nucleus (CCN), laminae I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII and X, besides dense presence of nerve fibers in laminae II and IX...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732870/the-effects-of-reduced-dopamine-transporter-function-and-chronic-lithium-on-motivation-probabilistic-learning-and-neurochemistry-in-mice-modeling-bipolar-mania
#16
Morgane Milienne-Petiot, James P Kesby, Mary Graves, Jordy van Enkhuizen, Svetlana Semenova, Arpi Minassian, Athina Markou, Mark A Geyer, Jared W Young
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) mania patients exhibit poor cognition and reward-seeking/hypermotivation, negatively impacting a patient's quality of life. Current treatments (e.g., lithium), do not treat such deficits. Treatment development has been limited due to a poor understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying these behaviors. Here, we investigated putative mechanisms underlying cognition and reward-seeking/motivational changes relevant to BD mania patients using two validated mouse models and neurochemical analyses...
October 11, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723099/new-transgenic-als-ftd-models-on-the-rat-walk-an-editorial-highlight-for-increased-ubqln2-expression-causes-neuron-death-in-transgenic-rats
#17
Judith Stegmüller, Matthis Synofzik
This Editorial highlights a study by Huang and colleagues in the current issue of Journal of Neurochemistry. The authors introduce a novel ALS-FTD (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia) rat model to explore the role of the UBLQN2 gene that has previously been associated with familial ALS-FTD. Over-expression of ubiquilin 2 in the cortex (CTX) and hippocampus of the rat results in ubiquilin 2 aggregates and neurodegeneration together with cognitive deficits. The new rat model not only gives insight into potential molecular underpinnings of ALS-FTD, but also represents an important new tool for future research and therapeutic approaches...
October 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696337/the-psycho-neurology-of-cross-species-affective-social-neuroscience-understanding-animal-affective-states-as-a-guide-to-development-of-novel-psychiatric-treatments
#18
Jaak Panksepp
During the past half century of research with preclinical animal models, affective neuroscience has helped identify and illuminate the functional neuroanatomies and neurochemistries of seven primary process, i.e., genetically provided emotional systems of mammalian brains. All are subcortically localized, allowing animal models to guide the needed behavioral and neuroscientific analyses at levels of detail that cannot be achieved through human research, including modern brain imaging. They consist of the following neuronal processes: SEEKING/Enthusiasm, RAGE/Anger, FEAR/Anxiety, sexual LUST/Passion, maternal CARE/Nurturance, separation-distress PANIC/Grief and PLAY/Social Joy...
October 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678007/enteric-co-innervation-of-striated-muscle-in-the-esophagus-still-enigmatic
#19
Winfried L Neuhuber, Jürgen Wörl
The existence of a distinct ganglionated myenteric plexus between the two layers of the striated tunica muscularis of the mammalian esophagus has represented an enigma for quite a while. Although an enteric co-innervation of vagally innervated motor endplates in the esophagus has been suggested repeatedly, it was not possible until recently to demonstrate this dual innervation. Twenty-two years ago, we were able to demonstrate that motor endplates in the rat esophagus receive dual innervation from both vagal nerve fibers originating in the brain stem and from varicose enteric nerve fibers originating in the myenteric plexus...
September 28, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676634/dopaminergic-contributions-to-working-memory-related-brain-activation-in-postmenopausal-women
#20
Julie A Dumas, Christopher G Filippi, Paul A Newhouse, Magdalena R Naylor
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined the effects of pharmacologic dopaminergic manipulations on working memory-related brain activation in postmenopausal women to further understand the neurochemistry underlying cognition after menopause. METHODS: Eighteen healthy postmenopausal women, mean age 55.21 years, completed three study days with dopaminergic drug challenges during which they performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging visual verbal N-back test of working memory...
September 26, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
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