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Felicia W Sun, Michael R Stepanovic, Joseph Andreano, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Alexandra Touroutoglou, Bradford C Dickerson
UNLABELLED: Decline in cognitive skills, especially in memory, is often viewed as part of "normal" aging. Yet some individuals "age better" than others. Building on prior research showing that cortical thickness in one brain region, the anterior midcingulate cortex, is preserved in older adults with memory performance abilities equal to or better than those of people 20-30 years younger (i.e., "superagers"), we examined the structural integrity of two large-scale intrinsic brain networks in superaging: the default mode network, typically engaged during memory encoding and retrieval tasks, and the salience network, typically engaged during attention, motivation, and executive function tasks...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Atsushi Suzuki
This report focused on translational research presented in ASBMR 2015 held in Seattle, WA in October 2015. Comorbidity with chronic diseases such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease and the relationship between skeletal and extraskeltal tissues give us more complexed pathophysiological issues to be clarified in superaged society.
January 2016: Clinical Calcium
Tamar Gefen, Melanie Peterson, Steven T Papastefan, Adam Martersteck, Kristen Whitney, Alfred Rademaker, Eileen H Bigio, Sandra Weintraub, Emily Rogalski, M-Marsel Mesulam, Changiz Geula
This human study is based on an established cohort of "SuperAgers," 80+-year-old individuals with episodic memory function at a level equal to, or better than, individuals 20-30 years younger. A preliminary investigation using structural brain imaging revealed a region of anterior cingulate cortex that was thicker in SuperAgers compared with healthy 50- to 65-year-olds. Here, we investigated the in vivo structural features of cingulate cortex in a larger sample of SuperAgers and conducted a histologic analysis of this region in postmortem specimens...
January 28, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Akitada Ichinose
Factor XIII/13 (FXIII or F13) is a plasma protransglutaminase, which stabilizes fibrin clots, and thus plays an important role in hemostasis. Autoimmune hemo(rrha)philia due to anti-F13 autoantibodies (AH13) has been on the rise in Japan, which has become the leading superaging society in the 21st century. The mean age of Japanese AH13 cases has risen to 70.4 years. A total of 83 AH13 cases have been diagnosed in the world as of July 2014. To raise the awareness of AH13, the author and members of the Japanese Collaborative Research Group first proposed "Criterion and Algorithm of Laboratory Tests for anti F13" in February 2012...
September 2014: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Kazuko Yoshizawa
City environmental conditions are associated with health outcomes in people living there. World Health Organization (WHO) initiated Healthy City in 1986. To promote the networking, Alliance for Healthy Cities (AFHC) was launched in 2003 with local offices including AFHC Japan. As of 2010, 26 cities are members of AFHC Japan. A questionnaire was sent to those member cities. It includes questions on why they became an AFHC member, which section is in charge of the initiatives, what factors are important for promotion, and others...
2013: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Kevin Jiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2013: Nature Medicine
Emily J Rogalski, Tamar Gefen, Junzi Shi, Mehrnoosh Samimi, Eileen Bigio, Sandra Weintraub, Changiz Geula, M-Marsel Mesulam
The Northwestern University SuperAging Project recruits community dwellers over the age of 80 who have unusually high performance on tests of episodic memory. In a previous report, a small cohort of SuperAgers was found to have higher cortical thickness on structural MRI than a group of age-matched but cognitively average peers. SuperAgers also displayed a patch of ACC where cortical thickness was higher than in 50- to 60-year-old younger cognitively healthy adults. In additional analyses, some SuperAgers had unusually low densities of age-related Alzheimer pathology and unusually high numbers of von Economo neurons in the anterior cingulate gyrus...
January 2013: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Theresa M Harrison, Sandra Weintraub, M-Marsel Mesulam, Emily Rogalski
It is "normal" for old age to be associated with gradual decline in memory and brain mass. However, there are anecdotal reports of individuals who seem immune to age-related memory impairment, but these individuals have not been studied systematically. This study sought to establish that such cognitive SuperAgers exist and to determine if they were also resistant to age-related loss of cortical brain volume. SuperAgers were defined as individuals over age 80 with episodic memory performance at least as good as normative values for 50- to 65-year-olds...
November 2012: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
A Dechant, E Lutz, D A Kessler, E Barkai
We consider an overdamped Brownian particle moving in a confining asymptotically logarithmic potential, which supports a normalized Boltzmann equilibrium density. We derive analytical expressions for the two-time correlation function and the fluctuations of the time-averaged position of the particle for large but finite times. We characterize the occurrence of aging and nonergodic behavior as a function of the depth of the potential, and we support our predictions with extensive Langevin simulations. While the Boltzmann measure is used to obtain stationary correlation functions, we show how the non-normalizable infinite covariant density is related to the superaging behavior...
May 2012: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Etsuo Chosa
Japan became a superaging society. We have been putting a new focus on locomotive syndrome and frailty. The prevention and treatment of locomotive syndromes, such as osteoarthritis, degenerative spondylosis, lumbar canal stenosis, osteoporosis, upper extremity diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and many other disorders of the locomotive organs are important. Because, the locomotive syndrome results in deterioration of the exercise function and loss of mental and physical health. The aim of locomotive syndrome exercises are: to reduce pain, to restore and improve joint function...
April 2012: Clinical Calcium
A Dechant, E Lutz, D A Kessler, E Barkai
We derive a simple formula for the fluctuations of the time average x(t) around the thermal mean <x>(eq) for overdamped brownian motion in a binding potential U(x). Using a backward Fokker-Planck equation, introduced by Szabo, Schulten, and Schulten in the context of reaction kinetics, we show that for ergodic processes these finite measurement time fluctuations are determined by the Boltzmann measure. For the widely applicable logarithmic potential, ergodicity is broken. We quantify the large nonergodic fluctuations and show how they are related to a superaging correlation function...
December 9, 2011: Physical Review Letters
Arezky H Rodríguez, Y Moreno
The use of dyadic interaction between agents, in combination with homophily (the principle that "likes attract") in the Axelrod model for the study of cultural dissemination, has two important problems: the prediction of monoculture in large societies and an extremely narrow window of noise levels in which diversity with local convergence is obtained. Recently, the inclusion of social influence has proven to overcome them [A. Flache and M. W. Macy, e-print arXiv:0808.2710]. Here, we extend the Axelrod model with social influence interaction for the study of mass media effects through the inclusion of a superagent which acts over the whole system and has non-null overlap with each agent of the society...
July 2010: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Ajay Singh Negi, Chinedum O Osuji
We monitor the relaxation of internal stresses in a fractal colloidal gel on cessation of flow and find a weak power-law decay, sigmai approximately t(-alpha) over five decades of time where alpha approximately 0.07. The system exhibits physical aging of the elastic modulus, G' approximately tbeta, with beta approximately alpha . Imposition of zero stress after waiting time tw results in strain recovery as the system relaxes without constraint. Remarkably, recoveries at different tw can be shifted to construct a master curve where data are scaled vertically by 1/sigmai(tw) and plotted horizontally as (t-tw)/twmu, where mu is approximately 1...
July 2009: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
R Morris
The model outlined above is an advance over other proposals in the following respects. 1) The objectives of the public social services are related to the realities of at-risk target populations, but in a moderate and attainable fashion, borrowing from the approach already advanced by HEW. 2) It has proposed a composite target population, which permits the dimensions of the public social service program to be outlined and then reorganized by central function, rather than by coordination among conceptually unrelated units...
August 10, 1973: Science
Raja Paul, Grégory Schehr, Heiko Rieger
We study the aging properties, in particular the two-time autocorrelations, of the two-dimensional randomly diluted Ising ferromagnet below the critical temperature via Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the autocorrelation function displays additive aging C(t,t{w})=C{st}(t)+C{ag}(t,t{w}), where the stationary part Cst} decays algebraically. The aging part shows anomalous scaling C{ag}(t,t{w})=C[h(t)h(t{w})], where h(u) is a nonhomogeneous function excluding a t/t{w} scaling.
March 2007: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Philippe Gosset, Muriel Pichavant, Christelle Faveeuw, Fabrice Bureau, André-Bernard Tonnel, François Trottein
The local environment in which dendritic cells (DC) differentiate is important for the acquisition of their immunostimulatory properties. Since prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), a major prostanoid produced during inflammatory reactions, is involved in the control of immune responses, its effect on the differentiation and functions of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) was studied. We show that DC differentiated in the presence of PGD(2) (PG/DC) have an unusual phenotype, with modifications in the expression of molecules involved in antigen (Ag) capture and presentation, leading to higher endocytic and Ag-processing activities...
May 2005: European Journal of Immunology
D Normile
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2001: Science
T L Milne
This paper reviews the recent experience in Washington State which resulted in creation of a separate state Department of Health. Until the 1989 legislation was passed, Washington was one of 19 states in which public health was organizationally housed in a superagency. The Institute of Medicine, in its 1988 report on The Future of Public Health, recommended that states organize core functions under a separate department of health. The effort in Washington State was led by local public health officials. Success followed four years of hard work during which mistakes were made, coalitions were built, and legislative process was learned...
1990: Journal of Public Health Policy
L E Vanier, G J Prud'homme
Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a well-known immunosuppressive agent that modulates immune tolerance in many ways. CsA can give rise to a state of long-term nonimmunosuppressed transplantation tolerance, but it can also aggravate autoimmune diseases, and provoke specific forms of autoimmunity. These effects, which are often paradoxical, remain largely unexplained. In this study, we investigated the effects of CsA on superantigen (superAg)-reactive peripheral T cells. The intravenous injection of either staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), or Mls-1a cells into Mls-1b recipients, causes long-term in vitro nonresponsiveness (anergy) and partial elimination of the peripheral T cell receptor (TCR) V beta 8+/CD4+ and -V beta 6+/CD4+ T cell subsets, respectively...
July 1, 1992: Journal of Experimental Medicine
P P Firpo, I Axberg, M Scheibel, E A Clark
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infects a small number of CD4+ T cells including "memory" T cells. The following describes the cell surface markers which may delineate subsets of CD4+ memory T cells and reviews how memory CD4+ T cells are activated and regulated through the T-cell receptor and such accessory receptors as CD28. The factors which may influence initial expression and infection of T cells by CD4 are discussed. Unlike activated and infected T cells, unstimulated CD4+ T cells have little or no SIV DNA detectable in the genomic fraction, but key activation signals may promote integration of viral DNA in memory T cells...
March 1992: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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