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Brain oscillation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333912/the-resting-state-fmri-arterial-signal-predicts-differential-blood-transit-time-through-the-brain
#1
Yunjie Tong, Jinxia Fiona Yao, J Jean Chen, Blaise deB Frederick
Previous studies have found that aperiodic, systemic low-frequency oscillations (sLFOs) are present in blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) data. These signals are in the same low frequency band as the "resting state" signal; however, they are distinct signals which represent non-neuronal, physiological oscillations. The same sLFOs are found in the periphery (i.e. finger tips) as changes in oxy/deoxy-hemoglobin concentration using concurrent near-infrared spectroscopy. Together, this evidence points toward an extra-cerebral origin of these sLFOs...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333483/how-heart-rate-variability-affects-emotion-regulation-brain-networks
#2
Mara Mather, Julian Thayer
Individuals with high heart rate variability tend to have better emotional well-being than those with low heart rate variability, but the mechanisms of this association are not yet clear. In this paper, we propose the novel hypothesis that by inducing oscillatory activity in the brain, high amplitude oscillations in heart rate enhance functional connectivity in brain networks associated with emotion regulation. Recent studies using daily biofeedback sessions to increase the amplitude of heart rate oscillations suggest that high amplitude physiological oscillations have a causal impact on emotional well-being...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331064/controlling-the-temporal-structure-of-brain-oscillations-by-focused-attention-meditation
#3
Mona Irrmischer, Simon J Houtman, Huibert D Mansvelder, Michael Tremmel, Ulrich Ott, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen
Our focus of attention naturally fluctuates between different sources of information even when we desire to focus on a single object. Focused attention (FA) meditation is associated with greater control over this process, yet the neuronal mechanisms underlying this ability are not entirely understood. Here, we hypothesize that the capacity of attention to transiently focus and swiftly change relates to the critical dynamics emerging when neuronal systems balance at a point of instability between order and disorder...
January 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331056/exploring-the-advantages-of-multiband-fmri-with-simultaneous-eeg-to-investigate-coupling-between-gamma-frequency-neural-activity-and-the-bold-response-in-humans
#4
Makoto Uji, Ross Wilson, Susan T Francis, Karen J Mullinger, Stephen D Mayhew
We established an optimal combination of EEG recording during sparse multiband (MB) fMRI that preserves high-resolution, whole-brain fMRI coverage while enabling broad-band EEG recordings which are uncorrupted by MRI gradient artefacts (GAs). We first determined the safety of simultaneous EEG recording during MB fMRI. Application of MB factor = 4 produced <1°C peak heating of electrode/hardware during 20 min of GE-EPI data acquisition. However, higher SAR sequences require specific safety testing, with greater heating observed using PCASL with MB factor = 4...
January 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329355/when-the-brain-changes-its-mind-oscillatory-dynamics-of-conflict-processing-and-response-switching-in-a-flanker-task-during-alcohol-challenge
#5
Lauren E Beaton, Sheeva Azma, Ksenija Marinkovic
Despite the subjective experience of being in full and deliberate control of our actions, our daily routines rely on a continuous and interactive engagement of sensory evaluation and response preparation streams. They unfold automatically and unconsciously and are seamlessly integrated with cognitive control which is mobilized by stimuli that evoke ambiguity or response conflict. Methods with high spatio-temporal sensitivity are needed to provide insight into the interplay between automatic and controlled processing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323043/neural-computational-modeling-reveals-a-major-role-of-corticospinal-gating-of-central-oscillations-in-the-generation-of-essential-tremor
#6
Hong-En Qu, Chuanxin M Niu, Si Li, Man-Zhao Hao, Zi-Xiang Hu, Qing Xie, Ning Lan
Essential tremor, also referred to as familial tremor, is an autosomal dominant genetic disease and the most common movement disorder. It typically involves a postural and motor tremor of the hands, head or other part of the body. Essential tremor is driven by a central oscillation signal in the brain. However, the corticospinal mechanisms involved in the generation of essential tremor are unclear. Therefore, in this study, we used a neural computational model that includes both monosynaptic and multisynaptic corticospinal pathways interacting with a propriospinal neuronal network...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322338/the-oscillatory-flow-of-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-the-sylvian-aqueduct-and-the-prepontine-cistern-measured-with-phase-contrast-mri-in-children-with-hydrocephalus-a-preliminary-report
#7
Emilia Nowosławska, Dominika Gwizdała, Dobromiła Barańska, Piotr Grzelak, Michał Podgórski, Krzysztof Zakrzewski, Bartosz Polis, Mariusz Stasiołek, Lech Polis
INTRODUCTION: Recognizing patients with ventriculomegaly who are at risk of developing acute hydrocephalus presents a challenge for the clinician. The association between disturbed cerebrospinal fluid flow (CSF) and impaired brain compliance may play a role in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Phase contrast MRI is a noninvasive technique which can be used to assess CSF parameters. The aim of the work is to evaluate the effectiveness of phase contrast MRI in recognizing patients at risk of acute hydrocephalus, based on measuring the pulsatile CSF flow parameters in the Sylvian aqueduct and prepontine cistern in children with ventriculomegaly...
January 10, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321240/pigment-dispersing-factor-expressing-neurons-convey-circadian-information-in-the-honey-bee-brain
#8
Katharina Beer, Esther Kolbe, Noa B Kahana, Nadav Yayon, Ron Weiss, Pamela Menegazzi, Guy Bloch, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) is an important neuropeptide in the brain circadian network of Drosophila and other insects, but its role in bees in which the circadian clock influences complex behaviour is not well understood. We combined high-resolution neuroanatomical characterizations, quantification of PDF levels over the day and brain injections of synthetic PDF peptide to study the role of PDF in the honey bee Apis mellifera We show that PDF co-localizes with the clock protein Period (PER) in a cluster of laterally located neurons and that the widespread arborizations of these PER/PDF neurons are in close vicinity to other PER-positive cells (neurons and glia)...
January 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318972/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-reverses-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-dysfunction-in-gamma-oscillation-during-working-memory
#9
Wenwen Bai, Tiaotiao Liu, Mengmeng Dou, Mi Xia, Jun Lu, Xin Tian
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that gradually induces cognitive deficits in the elderly and working memory impairment is typically observed in AD. Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is a causative factor for the cognitive impairments in AD. Gamma oscillations have been recognized to play important roles in various cognitive functions including working memory. Previous study reported that Aβ induces gamma oscillation dysfunction in working memory. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) represents a technique for noninvasive stimulation to induce cortical activity and excitability changes and has been accepted for increasing brain excitability and regulating cognitive behavior...
January 9, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317186/perturbation-of-theta-gamma-coupling-at-the-temporal-lobe-hinders-verbal-declarative-memory
#10
Gabriel Amador de Lara, Ivan Alekseichuk, Zsolt Turi, Albert Lehr, Andrea Antal, Walter Paulus
BACKGROUND: Phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (PAC) is characterized by the modulation of the power of a fast brain oscillation (e.g., gamma) by the phase of a slow rhythm (e.g., theta). PAC in different sub- and neocortical regions is known to underlie effective neural communication and correlates with successful long-term memory formation. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The present work aims to extend earlier observational data, by probing the functional role of theta-gamma PAC in the left temporal cortex in humans during verbal long-term memory encoding...
December 25, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317073/micro-calibration-of-space-and-motion-by-photoreceptors-synchronized-in-parallel-with-cortical-oscillations-a-unified-theory-of-visual-perception
#11
Ravinder Jerath, Shannon M Cearley, Vernon A Barnes, Mike Jensen
A fundamental function of the visual system is detecting motion, yet visual perception is poorly understood. Current research has determined that the retina and ganglion cells elicit responses for motion detection; however, the underlying mechanism for this is incompletely understood. Previously we proposed that retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations and photoreceptors work in parallel to process vision. Here we propose that motion could also be processed within the retina, and not in the brain as current theory suggests...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311566/multi-day-rhythms-modulate-seizure-risk-in-epilepsy
#12
Maxime O Baud, Jonathan K Kleen, Emily A Mirro, Jason C Andrechak, David King-Stephens, Edward F Chang, Vikram R Rao
Epilepsy is defined by the seemingly random occurrence of spontaneous seizures. The ability to anticipate seizures would enable preventative treatment strategies. A central but unresolved question concerns the relationship of seizure timing to fluctuating rates of interictal epileptiform discharges (here termed interictal epileptiform activity, IEA), a marker of brain irritability observed between seizures by electroencephalography (EEG). Here, in 37 subjects with an implanted brain stimulation device that detects IEA and seizures over years, we find that IEA oscillates with circadian and subject-specific multidien (multi-day) periods...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305918/circadian-modification-network-of-a-core-clock-driver-bmal1-to-harmonize-physiology-from-brain-to-peripheral-tissues
#13
Teruya Tamaru, Ken Takamatsu
Circadian clocks dictate various physiological functions by brain SCN (a central clock) -orchestrating the temporal harmony of peripheral clocks of tissues/organs in the whole body, with adaptability to environments by resetting their timings. Dysfunction of this circadian adaptation system (CAS) occasionally causes/exacerbates diseases. CAS is based on cell-autonomous molecular clocks, which oscillate via a core transcriptional/translational feedback loop with clock genes/proteins, e.g., BMAL1: CLOCK circadian transcription driver and CRY1/2 and PER1/2 suppressors, and is modulated by various regulatory loops including clock protein modifications...
January 3, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301134/suprachiasmatic-nucleus-and-subordinate-brain-oscillators-clock-gene-desynchronization-by-neuroinflammation
#14
Leila Maria Guissoni Campos, Rogerio Leone Buchaim, Nathani Cristina da Silva, Caio Sergio Galina Spilla, Alessandre Hataka, Luciana Pinato
OBJECTIVE: The clock genes Period (per) 1 and 2 are essential components in the generation and adjustment of biological circadian rhythms by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Both genes are also rhythmically present in extrahypothalamic areas such as the hippocampus and cerebellum, considered subordinate oscillators. Several pathological conditions alter rhythmic biological phenomena, but the mechanisms behind these changes involving the clock genes are not well defined. The current study investigated changes in PER1 and PER2 immunoreactivity in the SCN, hippocampus, and cerebellum in a neuroinflammation model...
January 5, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300837/pv-cells-enhance-temporal-population-codes-but-not-stimulus-related-timing-in-auditory-cortex
#15
Bryan M Krause, Caitlin A Murphy, Daniel J Uhlrich, Matthew I Banks
Spatio-temporal cortical activity patterns relative to both peripheral input and local network activity carry information about stimulus identity and context. GABAergic interneurons are reported to regulate spiking at millisecond precision in response to sensory stimulation and during gamma oscillations; their role in regulating spike timing during induced network bursts is unclear. We investigated this issue in murine auditory thalamo-cortical (TC) brain slices, in which TC afferents induced network bursts similar to previous reports in vivo...
December 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291031/increased-local-connectivity-of-brain-functional-networks-during-facial-processing-in-schizophrenia-evidence-from-eeg-data
#16
Tianyi Yan, Wenhui Wang, Tiantian Liu, Duanduan Chen, Changming Wang, Yulong Li, Xudong Ma, Xiaoying Tang, Jinglong Wu, Yiming Deng, Lun Zhao
Schizophrenia is often considered to be a disconnection syndrome. The abnormal interactions between large-scale functional brain networks result in cognitive and perceptual deficits. The present study investigated event-related functional connectivity networks to compare facial processing in individuals with and without schizophrenia. Faces and tables were presented to participants, and event-related phase synchrony, represented by the phase lag index (PLI), was calculated. In addition, cortical oscillatory dynamics may be useful for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the disparate cognitive and functional impairments in schizophrenic patients...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290549/cholinergic-sensorimotor-integration-regulates-olfactory-steering
#17
He Liu, Wenxing Yang, Taihong Wu, Fengyun Duan, Edward Soucy, Xin Jin, Yun Zhang
Sensorimotor integration regulates goal-directed movements. We study the signaling mechanisms underlying sensorimotor integration in C. elegans during olfactory steering, when the sinusoidal movements of the worm generate an in-phase oscillation in the concentration of the sampled odorant. We show that cholinergic neurotransmission encodes the oscillatory sensory response and the motor state of head undulations by acting through an acetylcholine-gated channel and a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, respectively...
December 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289423/interpretation-of-seeg-recordings
#18
REVIEW
Fabrice Bartolomei, Anca Nica, Maria Paola Valenti-Hirsch, Claude Adam, Marie Denuelle
The interpretation of SEEG recordings is a crucial step. It must be carried out by an epileptologist/neurophysiologist with sufficient training and qualification in this field. The objectives of the interpretation are to define the brain topography of interictal activities (irritative zone) and the epileptogenic zone, defined as the site of primary organization of ictal discharges. Several patterns of seizure onset are possible, the most typical including fast discharges. The interpretation of the SEEG is based on the recording of spontaneous activity but also on the results of intracerebral electrical stimulation...
December 27, 2017: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288993/chronic-deep-brain-stimulation-normalizes-scalp-eeg-activity-in-isolated-dystonia
#19
Svjetlana Miocinovic, Andrew Miller, Nicole C Swann, Jill L Ostrem, Philip A Starr
OBJECTIVE: To investigate cortical activity using scalp EEG in patients with isolated dystonia treated with chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS), on and off stimulation. METHODS: We analyzed 64-channel scalp EEG in 12 isolated dystonia patients treated with chronic DBS (7 generalized, 5 cervical/segmental; 7 globus pallidus (GP), 5 subthalamic nucleus (STN)), and 20 healthy age-matched controls. Recordings during rest and movement task, and clinical motor scores, were collected with DBS-on and during a 90-min DBS washout...
November 26, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288874/modeling-spike-wave-discharges-by-a-complex-network-of-neuronal-oscillators
#20
Tatiana M Medvedeva, Marina V Sysoeva, Gilles van Luijtelaar, Ilya V Sysoev
PURPOSE: The organization of neural networks and the mechanisms, which generate the highly stereotypical for absence epilepsy spike-wave discharges (SWDs) is heavily debated. Here we describe such a model which can both reproduce the characteristics of SWDs and dynamics of coupling between brain regions, relying mainly on properties of hierarchically organized networks of a large number of neuronal oscillators. MODEL: We used a two level mesoscale model. The first level consists of three structures: the nervus trigeminus serving as an input, the thalamus and the somatosensory cortex; the second level of a group of nearby situated neurons belonging to one of three modeled structures...
December 13, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
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