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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809834/quantifying-infra-slow-dynamics-of-spectral-power-and-heart-rate-in-sleeping-mice
#1
Laura M J Fernandez, Sandro Lecci, Romain Cardis, Gil Vantomme, Elidie Béard, Anita Lüthi
Three vigilance states dominate mammalian life: wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, and REM sleep. As more neural correlates of behavior are identified in freely moving animals, this three-fold subdivision becomes too simplistic. During wakefulness, ensembles of global and local cortical activities, together with peripheral parameters such as pupillary diameter and sympathovagal balance, define various degrees of arousal. It remains unclear the extent to which sleep also forms a continuum of brain states-within which the degree of resilience to sensory stimuli and arousability, and perhaps other sleep functions, vary gradually-and how peripheral physiological states co-vary...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809667/nonlinear-dynamic-complexity-and-sources-of-resting-state-eeg-in-abstinent-heroin-addicts
#2
Qinglin Zhao, Hua Jiang, Bin Hu, Yonghui Li, Ning Zhong, Mi Li, Wenhua Lin, Quanying Liu
It has been reported that chronic heroin intake induces both structural and functional changes in human brain; however, few studies have investigated the carry-over adverse effects on brain after heroin withdrawal. In this paper, we examined the neurophysiological differences between the abstinent heroin addicts (AHAs) and healthy controls (HCs) using nonlinear dynamic analysis and source localization analysis in resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) data; 5 min resting EEG data from 20 AHAs and twenty age-, education-, and gender-matched HCs were recorded using 64 electrodes...
July 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807148/acetylcholine-induces-intracellular-ca-2-oscillations-and-nitric-oxide-release-in-mouse-brain-endothelial-cells
#3
Estella Zuccolo, Dmitry Lim, Dlzar Ali Kheder, Angelica Perna, Paolo Catarsi, Laura Botta, Vittorio Rosti, Laura Riboni, Giulio Sancini, Franco Tanzi, Egidio D'Angelo, Germano Guerra, Francesco Moccia
Basal forebrain neurons increase cortical blood flow by releasing acetylcholine (Ach), which stimulates endothelial cells (ECs) to produce the vasodilating gasotransmitter, nitric oxide (NO). Surprisingly, the mechanism whereby Ach induces NO synthesis in brain microvascular ECs is unknown. An increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration recruits a multitude of endothelial Ca(2+)-dependent pathways, such as Ca(2+)/calmodulin endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). The present investigation sought to investigate the role of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in Ach-induced NO production in bEND5 cells, an established model of mouse brain microvascular ECs, by conventional imaging of cells loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive dye, Fura-2/AM, and the NO-sensitive fluorophore, DAF-DM diacetate...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803867/dynamics-of-eeg-functional-connectivity-during-statistical-learning
#4
Brigitta Tóth, Karolina Janacsek, Ádám Takács, Andrea Kóbor, Zsófia Zavecz, Dezso Nemeth
Statistical learning is a fundamental mechanism of the brain, which extracts and represents regularities of our environment. Statistical learning is crucial in predictive processing, and in the acquisition of perceptual, motor, cognitive, and social skills. Although previous studies have revealed competitive neurocognitive processes underlying statistical learning, the neural communication of the related brain regions (functional connectivity, FC) has not yet been investigated. The present study aimed to fill this gap by investigating FC networks that promote statistical learning in humans...
August 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801530/rhythmic-behavior-is-controlled-by-the-srm160-splicing-factor-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Esteban J Beckwith, Carlos E Hernando, Sofía Polcowñuk, Agustina P Bertolin, Estefania Mancini, M Fernanda Ceriani, Marcelo J Yanovsky
Circadian clocks organize the metabolism, physiology, and behavior of organisms throughout the day-night cycle by controlling daily rhythms in gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. While many transcription factors underlying circadian oscillations are known, the splicing factors that modulate these rhythms remain largely unexplored. A genome-wide assessment of the alterations of gene expression in a null mutant of the alternative splicing regulator SR-related matrix protein of 160 kD (SRm160) revealed the extent to which alternative splicing impacts on behavior-related genes...
August 11, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801194/medial-septum-modulates-hippocampal-gamma-activity-and-prepulse-inhibition-in-an-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antagonist-model-of-schizophrenia
#6
L Stan Leung, Jingyi Ma
We reviewed the participation of the septohippocampal system in an animal model of schizophrenia that was acutely induced by systemic injection of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist such as phencyclidine, MK-801 and ketamine. The NMDA receptor antagonist-induced model of schizophrenia is characterized by behavioral and electrophysiological disruptions, including a decrease in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI), hyperlocomotion, decrease in gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials and robust increase in hippocampal gamma (30-100Hz) oscillations...
August 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798683/enhanced-gamma-activity-and-cross-frequency-interaction-of-resting-state-electroencephalographic-oscillations-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Jing Wang, Yuxing Fang, Xiao Wang, Huichao Yang, Xin Yu, Huali Wang
Cognitive impairment, functional decline and behavioral symptoms that characterize Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with perturbations of the neuronal network. The typical electroencephalographic (EEG) features in AD patients are increased delta or theta rhythm and decreased alpha or beta rhythm activities. However, considering the role of cross-frequency couplings in cognition, the alternation of cross-frequency couplings in AD patients is still obscure. This study aims to explore the interaction dynamics between different EEG oscillations in AD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796797/chaotic-itinerancy-within-the-coupled-dynamics-between-a-physical-body-and-neural-oscillator-networks
#8
Jihoon Park, Hiroki Mori, Yuji Okuyama, Minoru Asada
Chaotic itinerancy is a phenomenon in which the state of a nonlinear dynamical system spontaneously explores and attracts certain states in a state space. From this perspective, the diverse behavior of animals and its spontaneous transitions lead to a complex coupled dynamical system, including a physical body and a brain. Herein, a series of simulations using different types of non-linear oscillator networks (i.e., regular, small-world, scale-free, random) with a musculoskeletal model (i.e., a snake-like robot) as a physical body are conducted to understand how the chaotic itinerancy of bodily behavior emerges from the coupled dynamics between the body and the brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794978/localization-of-beta-and-high-frequency-oscillations-within-the-subthalamic-nucleus-region
#9
B C M van Wijk, A Pogosyan, M I Hariz, H Akram, T Foltynie, P Limousin, A Horn, S Ewert, P Brown, V Litvak
Parkinsonian bradykinesia and rigidity are typically associated with excessive beta band oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus. Recently another spectral peak has been identified that might be implicated in the pathophysiology of the disease: high-frequency oscillations (HFO) within the 150-400 Hz range. Beta-HFO phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) has been found to correlate with severity of motor impairment. However, the neuronal origin of HFO and its usefulness as a potential target for deep brain stimulation remain to be established...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794194/induced-oscillations-in-turtle-cortex-are-coherent-at-the-mesoscale-of-population-activity-but-not-at-the-microscale-of-the-membrane-potential-of-neurons
#10
Mahmood Sayed Hoseini, Jeff Pobst, Nathaniel Caleb Wright, Wesley Clawson, Woodrow Shew, Ralf Wessel
Bursts of oscillatory neural activity have been hypothesized to be a core mechanism by which remote brain regions can communicate. Such hypothesis raises the question to what extent oscillations are coherent across spatially distant neural populations. To address this question, we obtained local field potential (LFP) and membrane potential recordings from the visual cortex of turtle in response to visual stimulation of the retina. The time-frequency analysis of these recordings revealed pronounced bursts of oscillatory neural activity and a large trial-to-trial variability in the spectral and temporal properties of the observed oscillations...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794193/sequential-hemifield-gating-of-alpha-and-beta-behavioral-performance-oscillations-after-microsaccades
#11
Joachim Bellet, Chih-Yang Chen, Ziad M Hafed
Microsaccades are tiny saccades that occur during gaze fixation. Even though visual processing has been shown to be strongly modulated close to the time of microsaccades, both at central and peripheral eccentricities, it is not clear how these eye movements might influence longer-term fluctuations in brain activity and behavior. Here we found that visual processing is significantly affected, and in a rhythmic manner, even several hundreds of milliseconds after a microsaccade. Human visual detection efficiency, as measured by reaction time, exhibited coherent rhythmic oscillations in the α and β frequency bands for up to ~650-700 ms after a microsaccade...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792931/chaotic-dynamics-in-nanoscale-nbo2-mott-memristors-for-analogue-computing
#12
Suhas Kumar, John Paul Strachan, R Stanley Williams
At present, machine learning systems use simplified neuron models that lack the rich nonlinear phenomena observed in biological systems, which display spatio-temporal cooperative dynamics. There is evidence that neurons operate in a regime called the edge of chaos that may be central to complexity, learning efficiency, adaptability and analogue (non-Boolean) computation in brains. Neural networks have exhibited enhanced computational complexity when operated at the edge of chaos, and networks of chaotic elements have been proposed for solving combinatorial or global optimization problems...
August 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790376/global-and-local-excitation-and-inhibition-shape-the-dynamics-of-the-cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical-pathway
#13
Anca Rădulescu, Joanna Herron, Caitlin Kennedy, Annalisa Scimemi
The cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) pathway is a brain circuit that controls movement execution, habit formation and reward. Hyperactivity in the CSTC pathway is involved in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by the execution of repetitive involuntary movements. The striatum shapes the activity of the CSTC pathway through the coordinated activation of two classes of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing D1 or D2 dopamine receptors. The exact mechanisms by which balanced excitation/inhibition (E/I) of these cells controls the network dynamics of the CSTC pathway remain unclear...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783620/reducing-sensor-noise-in-meg-and-eeg-recordings-using-oversampled-temporal-projection
#14
Eric Larson, Samu Taulu
Here we review the theory of suppression of spatially uncorrelated, sensor-specific noise in electro- and magento-encephalography (EEG and MEG) arrays, and introduce a novel method for suppression. Our method requires only that the signals of interest are spatially oversampled by the sensor array, which is a reasonable assumption for many EEG and MEG systems. Our method is based on a leave-one-out procedure using overlapping temporal windows in a mathematical framework to project spatially uncorrelated noise in the temporal domain...
July 31, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782869/distinguishing-stimulus-and-response-codes-in-theta-oscillations-in-prefrontal-areas-during-inhibitory-control-of-automated-responses
#15
Moritz Mückschel, Gabriel Dippel, Christian Beste
Response inhibition mechanisms are mediated via cortical and subcortical networks. At the cortical level, the superior frontal gyrus, including the supplementary motor area (SMA) and inferior frontal areas, is important. There is an ongoing debate about the functional roles of these structures during response inhibition as it is unclear whether these structures process different codes or contents of information during response inhibition. In the current study, we examined this question with a focus on theta frequency oscillations during response inhibition processes...
August 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774570/expression-of-the-glua2-subunit-of-glutamate-receptors-is-required-for-the-normal-dendritic-differentiation-of-cerebellar-purkinje-cells
#16
Masahiko Tanaka, Tomomi Senda, Naohide Hirashima
Cerebellar Purkinje cells differentiate the most elaborate dendritic trees among neurons in the brain and constitute the principal part of cerebellar neuronal circuitry. In the present study, we examined the role of the GluA2 subunit of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors in the dendritic differentiation of Purkinje cells. Since mature Purkinje cells express the GluA2 subunit, AMPA receptors on them exhibit a low Ca(2+) permeability. Does this expression of GluA2, leading to the loss of Ca(2+) permeability of AMPA receptors, have a positive significance in the dendritic differentiation of Purkinje cells? To answer this question, we introduced GluA2 siRNA into immature Purkinje cells in cerebellar cell cultures using a single-cell electroporation technique...
July 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774294/temperature-variability-in-the-day-night-cycle-is-associated-with-further-intracranial-pressure-during-therapeutic-hypothermia
#17
Adriano Barreto Nogueira, Eva Annen, Oliver Boss, Faraneh Farokhzad, Christopher Sikorski, Emanuela Keller
BACKGROUND: To assess whether circadian patterns of temperature correlate with further values of intracranial pressure (ICP) in severe brain injury treated with hypothermia. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed temperature values in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients treated with hypothermia by endovascular cooling. The circadian patterns of temperature were correlated with the mean ICP across the following day (ICP24). RESULTS: We analyzed data from 17 days of monitoring of three subarachnoid hemorrhage patients that underwent aneurysm coiling, sedation and hypothermia due to refractory intracranial hypertension and/or cerebral vasospasm...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765522/network-inference-and-maximum-entropy-estimation-on-information-diagrams
#18
Elliot A Martin, Jaroslav Hlinka, Alexander Meinke, Filip Děchtěrenko, Jaroslav Tintěra, Isaura Oliver, Jörn Davidsen
Maximum entropy estimation is of broad interest for inferring properties of systems across many disciplines. Using a recently introduced technique for estimating the maximum entropy of a set of random discrete variables when conditioning on bivariate mutual informations and univariate entropies, we show how this can be used to estimate the direct network connectivity between interacting units from observed activity. As a generic example, we consider phase oscillators and show that our approach is typically superior to simply using the mutual information...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765375/evidence-for-frequency-dependent-cortical-plasticity-in-the-human-brain
#19
Caroline A Lea-Carnall, Nelson J Trujillo-Barreto, Marcelo A Montemurro, Wael El-Deredy, Laura M Parkes
Frequency-dependent plasticity (FDP) describes adaptation at the synapse in response to stimulation at different frequencies. Its consequence on the structure and function of cortical networks is unknown. We tested whether cortical "resonance," favorable stimulation frequencies at which the sensory cortices respond maximally, influenced the impact of FDP on perception, functional topography, and connectivity of the primary somatosensory cortex using psychophysics and functional imaging (fMRI). We costimulated two digits on the hand synchronously at, above, or below the resonance frequency of the somatosensory cortex, and tested subjects' accuracy and speed on tactile localization before and after costimulation...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764392/the-pacemaker-role-of-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-in-controlling-spike-wave-discharges-and-spindles
#20
Denggui Fan, Fucheng Liao, Qingyun Wang
Absence epilepsy, characterized by 2-4 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs), can be caused by pathological interactions within the thalamocortical system. Cortical spindling oscillations are also demonstrated to involve the oscillatory thalamocortical rhythms generated by the synaptic circuitry of the thalamus and cortex. This implies that SWDs and spindling oscillations can share the common thalamocortical mechanism. Additionally, the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE) is hypothesized to regulate the onsets and propagations of both the epileptic SWDs and sleep spindles...
July 2017: Chaos
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