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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214108/cyclic-seizures-in-critically-ill-patients-clinical-correlates-dc-recordings-and-outcomes
#1
Lecio F Pinto, Emily J Gilmore, Ognen A Petroff, Adithya Sivaraju, Nishi Rampal, Lawrence J Hirsch, Nicolas Gaspard
OBJECTIVE: To describe EEG and clinical correlates, DC recordings and prognostic significance of cyclic seizures (CS). METHODS: We reviewed our prospective continuous EEG database to identify patients with CS, controls with non-cyclic status epilepticus (SE) and controls without seizure matched for age and etiology. EEG was reviewed with DC settings. RESULTS: 39/260 (15%) patients with electrographic seizures presented with CS. These patients were older (62 vs...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213822/effect-of-lipopolysaccharide-on-circadian-clock-genes-per2-and-bmal1-in-mouse-ovary
#2
Takashi Shimizu, Kaya Watanabe, Nozomi Anayama, Koyomi Miyazaki
In mammals, circadian rhythms are associated with multiple physiological events. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on circadian systems in the ovary. Immature female mice were received an intra-peritoneal injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and LPS. Total RNA was collected from the ovary at 6-h intervals throughout a 48 h of experimental period. The expression of the circadian genes period 2 (Per2) and brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (Bmal1) such as circadian genes was measured by quantitative PCR...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212785/the-role-of-driver-nodes-in-managing-epileptic-seizures-application-of-kuramoto-model
#3
Ali Mohseni, Shahriar Gharibzadeh, Fatemeh Bakouie
Synchronization is an important global phenomenon which could be found in a wide range of complex systems such as brain or electronic devices. However, in some circumstances the synchronized states are not desirable for the system and should be suppressed. For example, excessively synchronized activities in the brain network could be the root of neuronal disorders like epileptic seizures. According to the controllability theory of the complex networks, a minimum set of driver nodes has the ability to control the entire system...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211999/platform-to-enable-combined-measurement-of-dopamine-and-neural-activity
#4
Kate L Parent, Daniel F Hill, Lindsey M Crown, Jean-Paul Wiegand, Kathleen F Gies, Michael A Miller, Christopher W Atcherley, Michael L Heien, Stephen L Cowen
Complex behaviors depend on the coordination of the activities of ensembles of neurons and the release of neuromodulators such as dopamine. The mechanisms underlying such coordination are not well-understood due to a lack of instrumentation for combined and real-time monitoring of neuromodulator release and the activities of large ensembles of neurons. Here we describe a measurement platform that allows for the combined monitoring of electrophysiology from a high-density electrode array and dopamine dynamics from a carbon-fiber microelectrode...
February 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197084/transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-tacs-enhances-mental-rotation-performance-during-and-after-stimulation
#5
Florian H Kasten, Christoph S Herrmann
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been repeatedly demonstrated to modulate endogenous brain oscillations in a frequency specific manner. Thus, it is a promising tool to uncover causal relationships between brain oscillations and behavior or perception. While tACS has been shown to elicit a physiological aftereffect for up to 70 min, it remains unclear whether the effect can still be elicited if subjects perform a complex task interacting with the stimulated frequency band. In addition, it has not yet been investigated whether the aftereffect is behaviorally relevant...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194485/detection-of-hydrodynamic-stimuli-by-the-postcranial-body-of-florida-manatees-trichechus-manatus-latirostris
#6
Joseph C Gaspard, Gordon B Bauer, David A Mann, Katharine Boerner, Laura Denum, Candice Frances, Roger L Reep
Manatees live in shallow, frequently turbid waters. The sensory means by which they navigate in these conditions are unknown. Poor visual acuity, lack of echolocation, and modest chemosensation suggest that other modalities play an important role. Rich innervation of sensory hairs that cover the entire body and enlarged somatosensory areas of the brain suggest that tactile senses are good candidates. Previous tests of detection of underwater vibratory stimuli indicated that they use passive movement of the hairs to detect particle displacements in the vicinity of a micron or less for frequencies from 10 to 150 Hz...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194133/current-and-emerging-potential-of-magnetoencephalography-in-the-detection-and-localization-of-high-frequency-oscillations-in-epilepsy
#7
REVIEW
Eleonora Tamilia, Joseph R Madsen, Patricia Ellen Grant, Phillip L Pearl, Christos Papadelis
Up to one-third of patients with epilepsy are medically intractable and need resective surgery. To be successful, epilepsy surgery requires a comprehensive preoperative evaluation to define the epileptogenic zone (EZ), the brain area that should be resected to achieve seizure freedom. Due to lack of tools and methods that measure the EZ directly, this area is defined indirectly based on concordant data from a multitude of presurgical non-invasive tests and intracranial recordings. However, the results of these tests are often insufficiently concordant or inconclusive...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193862/differential-modulation-of-global-and-local-neural-oscillations-in-rem-sleep-by-homeostatic-sleep-regulation
#8
Bowon Kim, Bernat Kocsis, Eunjin Hwang, Youngsoo Kim, Robert E Strecker, Robert W McCarley, Jee Hyun Choi
Homeostatic rebound in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep normally occurs after acute sleep deprivation, but REM sleep rebound settles on a persistently elevated level despite continued accumulation of REM sleep debt during chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Using high-density EEG in mice, we studied how this pattern of global regulation is implemented in cortical regions with different functions and network architectures. We found that across all areas, slow oscillations repeated the behavioral pattern of persistent enhancement during CSR, whereas high-frequency oscillations showed progressive increases...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192457/time-varying-spectral-power-of-resting-state-fmri-networks-reveal-cross-frequency-dependence-in-dynamic-connectivity
#9
Maziar Yaesoubi, Robyn L Miller, Vince D Calhoun
Brain oscillations and synchronicity among brain regions (brain connectivity) have been studied in resting-state (RS) and task-induced settings. RS-connectivity which captures brain functional integration during an unconstrained state is shown to vary with the frequency of oscillations. Indeed, high temporal resolution modalities have demonstrated both between and cross-frequency connectivity spanning across frequency bands such as theta and gamma. Despite high spatial resolution, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) suffers from low temporal resolution due to modulation with slow-varying hemodynamic response function (HRF) and also relatively low sampling rate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192429/co-emergence-of-multi-scale-cortical-activities-of-irregular-firing-oscillations-and-avalanches-achieves-cost-efficient-information-capacity
#10
Dong-Ping Yang, Hai-Jun Zhou, Changsong Zhou
The brain is highly energy consuming, therefore is under strong selective pressure to achieve cost-efficiency in both cortical connectivities and activities. However, cost-efficiency as a design principle for cortical activities has been rarely studied. Especially it is not clear how cost-efficiency is related to ubiquitously observed multi-scale properties: irregular firing, oscillations and neuronal avalanches. Here we demonstrate that these prominent properties can be simultaneously observed in a generic, biologically plausible neural circuit model that captures excitation-inhibition balance and realistic dynamics of synaptic conductance...
February 13, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192082/endocannabinoid-dependent-protection-against-kainic-acid-induced-long-term-alteration-of-brain-oscillations-in-guinea-pigs
#11
Liubov Shubina, Rubin Aliev, Valentina Kitchigina
Changes in rhythmic activity can serve as early biomarkers of pathological alterations, but it remains unclear how different types of rhythmic activity are altered during neurodegenerative processes. Glutamatergic neurotoxicity, evoked by kainic acid (KA), causes hyperexcitation and acute seizures that result in delayed brain damage. We employed wide frequency range (0.1-300 Hz) local field potential recordings in guinea pigs to study the oscillatory activity of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, medial septum, and amygdala in healthy animals for three months after KA introduction...
February 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189047/eeg-beta-power-changes-reflect-motor-involvement-in-abstract-action-language-processing
#12
Franziska Schaller, Sabine Weiss, Horst M Müller
Brain oscillations in the α- and β-range become suppressed during motor processing and motor imagery. It has recently been discussed that such power changes also occur during action language processing. In our study, we compared β2-oscillations (16-25Hz) during the observation of prototypical arm movements (revealed via motion tracking) as well as during semantic processing of concrete and abstract sentences containing arm-related action verbs. Whereas we did find a strong desynchronization in the β2-range during action observation, the processing of action sentences evoked a rather weak desynchronization...
February 8, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188217/hebbian-spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-at-the-cerebellar-input-stage
#13
M Sgritta, F Locatelli, T Soda, F Prestori, E D'Angelo
Spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is a form of long-term synaptic plasticity exploiting the time relationship between postsynaptic action potentials (AP) and EPSPs. Surprisingly enough, very little was known about STDP in the cerebellum, although it is thought to play a critical role for learning appropriate timing of actions. We speculated that low-frequency oscillations observed in the granular layer may provide a reference for repetitive EPSP/AP phase coupling. Here we show that EPSP-spike pairing at 6Hz can optimally induce STDP at the mossy fiber - granule cell synapse in rats...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187128/neural-mechanisms-of-rhythm-based-temporal-prediction-delta-phase-locking-reflects-temporal-predictability-but-not-rhythmic-entrainment
#14
Assaf Breska, Leon Y Deouell
Predicting the timing of upcoming events enables efficient resource allocation and action preparation. Rhythmic streams, such as music, speech, and biological motion, constitute a pervasive source for temporal predictions. Widely accepted entrainment theories postulate that rhythm-based predictions are mediated by synchronizing low-frequency neural oscillations to the rhythm, as indicated by increased phase concentration (PC) of low-frequency neural activity for rhythmic compared to random streams. However, we show here that PC enhancement in scalp recordings is not specific to rhythms but is observed to the same extent in less periodic streams if they enable memory-based prediction...
February 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185873/neurofeedback-as-supplementary-training-for-optimizing-athletes-performance-a-systematic-review-with-implications-for-future-research
#15
REVIEW
Arash Mirifar, Jürgen Beckmann, Felix Ehrlenspiel
Self-regulation plays an important role in enhancing human performance. Neurofeedback is a promising noninvasive approach for modifying human brain oscillation and can be utilized in developing skills for self-regulation of brain activity. So far, the effectiveness of neurofeedback has been evaluated with regard to not only its application in clinical populations but also the enhancement of performance in general. However, reviews of the application of neurofeedback training in the sports domain are absent, although this application goes back to 1991, when it was first applied in archery...
February 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182648/rna-seq-analysis-of-drosophila-clock-and-non-clock-neurons-reveals-neuron-specific-cycling-and-novel-candidate-neuropeptides
#16
Katharine C Abruzzi, Abigail Zadina, Weifei Luo, Evelyn Wiyanto, Reazur Rahman, Fang Guo, Orie Shafer, Michael Rosbash
Locomotor activity rhythms are controlled by a network of ~150 circadian neurons within the adult Drosophila brain. They are subdivided based on their anatomical locations and properties. We profiled transcripts "around the clock" from three key groups of circadian neurons with different functions. We also profiled a non-circadian outgroup, dopaminergic (TH) neurons. They have cycling transcripts but fewer than clock neurons as well as low expression and poor cycling of clock gene transcripts. This suggests that TH neurons do not have a canonical circadian clock and that their gene expression cycling is driven by brain systemic cues...
February 9, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179556/distinct-oscillatory-frequencies-underlie-excitability-of-human-occipital-and-parietal-cortex
#17
Jason Samaha, Olivia Gosseries, Bradley R Postle
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of human occipital and posterior parietal cortex can give rise to visual sensations called phosphenes. We used near-threshold TMS with concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to measure how oscillatory brain dynamics covary, on single trials, with the perception of phosphenes following occipital and parietal TMS. Prestimulus power and phase, predominantly in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), predicted occipital TMS phosphenes, whereas higher frequency beta-band (13-20 Hz) power (but not phase) predicted parietal TMS phosphenes...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178327/characterization-of-ghrelin-o-acyltransferase-goat-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#18
Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Miguel Gómez-Boronat, Ángel Luis Alonso-Gómez, Roman Yufa, Suraj Unniappan, María Jesús Delgado, Ana Isabel Valenciano
Ghrelin is the only known hormone posttranslationally modified with an acylation. This modification is crucial for most of ghrelin's physiological effects and is catalyzed by the polytopic enzyme ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT). The aim of this study was to characterize GOAT in a teleost model, goldfish (Carassius auratus). First, the full-length cDNA sequence was obtained by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Two highly homologous cDNAs of 1491 and 1413 bp, respectively, named goat-V1 and goat-V2 were identified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176262/modifications-in-resting-state-functional-anticorrelation-between-default-mode-network-and-dorsal-attention-network-comparison-among-young-adults-healthy-elders-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients
#19
Roberto Esposito, Filippo Cieri, Piero Chiacchiaretta, Nicoletta Cera, Mariella Lauriola, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Armando Tartaro, Antonio Ferretti
Resting state brain activity incorporates different components, including the Default Mode Network and the Dorsal Attention Network, also known as task-negative network and task-positive network respectively. These two networks typically show an anticorrelated activity during both spontaneous oscillations and task execution. However modifications of this anticorrelated activity pattern with age and pathology are still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate differences in resting state Default Mode Network-Dorsal Attention Network functional anticorrelation among young adults, healthy elders and Mild Cognitive Impairment patients...
February 7, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174610/frequency-shift-in-topography-of-spontaneous-brain-rhythms-from-childhood-to-adulthood
#20
E I Rodríguez-Martínez, F J Ruiz-Martínez, C I Barriga Paulino, Carlos M Gómez
It has been described that the frequency ranges at which theta, mu and alpha rhythms oscillate is increasing with age. The present report, by analyzing the spontaneous EEG, tries to demonstrate whether there is an increase with age in the frequency at which the cortical structures oscillate. A topographical approach was followed. The spontaneous EEG of one hundredand seventy subjects was recorded. The spectral power (from 0.5 to 45.5 Hz) was obtained by means of the Fast Fourier Transform. Correlations of spatial topographies among the different age groups showed that older groups presented the same topographical maps as younger groups, but oscillating at higher frequencies...
February 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
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