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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436834/active-auditory-experience-in-infancy-promotes-brain-plasticity-in-theta-and-gamma-oscillations
#1
Gabriella Musacchia, Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla, Naseem Choudhury, Teresa Realpe-Bonilla, Cynthia Roesler, April A Benasich
Language acquisition in infants is driven by on-going neural plasticity that is acutely sensitive to environmental acoustic cues. Recent studies showed that attention-based experience with non-linguistic, temporally-modulated auditory stimuli sharpens cortical responses. A previous ERP study from this laboratory showed that interactive auditory experience via behavior-based feedback (AEx), over a 6-week period from 4- to 7-months-of-age, confers a processing advantage, compared to passive auditory exposure (PEx) or maturation alone (Naïve Control, NC)...
April 15, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435883/normal-sleep-requires-the-astrocyte-brain-type-fatty-acid-binding-protein-fabp7
#2
Jason R Gerstner, Isaac J Perron, Samantha M Riedy, Takeo Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Kadotani, Yuji Owada, Hans P A Van Dongen, Raymond J Galante, Kaitlin Dickinson, Jerry C P Yin, Allan I Pack, Marcos G Frank
Sleep is found widely in the animal kingdom. Despite this, few conserved molecular pathways that govern sleep across phyla have been described. The mammalian brain-type fatty acid binding protein (Fabp7) is expressed in astrocytes, and its mRNA oscillates in tandem with the sleep-wake cycle. However, the role of FABP7 in regulating sleep remains poorly understood. We found that the missense mutation FABP7.T61M is associated with fragmented sleep in humans. This phenotype was recapitulated in mice and fruitflies bearing similar mutations: Fabp7-deficient mice and transgenic flies that express the FABP7...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434813/rhythmic-expressed-clock-regulates-the-transcription-of-proliferating-cellular-nuclear-antigen-in-teleost-retina
#3
Hang Song, Defeng Wang, Felipe De Jesus Perez, Rongrong Xie, Zhipeng Liu, Chun-Chun Chen, Meijuan Yu, Liudi Yuan, Russell D Fernald, Sheng Zhao
Teleost fish continues to grow their eyes throughout life with the body size. In Astatotilapia burtoni, the fish retina increases by adding new retinal cells at the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) and in the outer nuclear layer (ONL). Cell proliferation at both sites exhibits a daily rhythm in number of dividing cells. To understand how this diurnal rhythm of new cell production is controlled in retinal progenitor cells, we studied the transcription pattern of clock genes in retina, including clock1a, clock1b, bmal1a (brain and muscle ARNT-Like), and per1b (period1b)...
April 20, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432328/tactile-flow-overides-other-cues-to-self-motion
#4
Laurence R Harris, Kenzo Sakurai, William H A Beaudot
Vestibular-somatosensory interactions are pervasive in the brain but it remains unclear why. Here we explore the contribution of tactile flow to processing self-motion. We assessed two aspects of self-motion: timing and speed. Participants sat on an oscillating swing and either kept their hands on their laps or rested them lightly on an earth-stationary surface. They viewed a grating oscillating at the same frequency as their motion and judged its phase or, in a separate experiment, its speed relative to their perceived motion...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432303/closed-loop-deep-brain-stimulation-by-pulsatile-delayed-feedback-with-increased-gap-between-pulse-phases
#5
Oleksandr V Popovych, Borys Lysyansky, Peter A Tass
Computationally it was shown that desynchronizing delayed feedback stimulation methods are effective closed-loop techniques for the control of synchronization in ensembles of interacting oscillators. We here computationally design stimulation signals for electrical stimulation of neuronal tissue that preserve the desynchronizing delayed feedback characteristics and comply with mandatory charge deposit-related safety requirements. For this, the amplitude of the high-frequency (HF) train of biphasic charge-balanced pulses used by the standard HF deep brain stimulation (DBS) is modulated by the smooth feedback signals...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428748/resting-state-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-findings-in-opioid-use-disorder-during-abstinence-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Hada Fong-Ha Ieong, Zhen Yuan
Dependence to opiates, including illicit heroin and prescription pain killers, and treatment of the opioid use disorder (OUD) have been longstanding problems over the world. Despite intense efforts to scientific investigation and public health care, treatment outcomes have not significantly improved for the past 50 years. One reason behind the continuing use of heroin worldwide despite such efforts is its highly addictive nature. Brain imaging studies over the past two decades have made significant contribution to the understanding of the addictive properties as to be due in part to biological processes, specifically those in the brain structure and function...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426128/hippocampal-electrical-stimulation-disrupts-associative-learning-when-targeted-at-dentate-spikes
#7
Miriam S Nokia, Irina Gureviciene, Tomi Waselius, Heikki Tanila, Markku Penttonen
Hippocampal electrophysiological oscillations, namely theta and ripples, have been implicated in encoding and consolidation of new memories, respectively. According to existing literature, hippocampal dentate spikes are prominent, short-duration (<30 ms), large-amplitude (∼2-4 mV) fluctuations in hilar local-field potentials that take place during awake immobility and sleep. Interestingly, previous studies indicate that during dentate spikes dentate gyrus granule cells increase their firing while firing of CA1 pyramidal cells are suppressed, thus resulting in momentary uncoupling of the two hippocampal subregions...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425500/structure-shapes-dynamics-and-directionality-in-diverse-brain-networks-mathematical-principles-and-empirical-confirmation-in-three-species
#8
Joon-Young Moon, Junhyeok Kim, Tae-Wook Ko, Minkyung Kim, Yasser Iturria-Medina, Jee-Hyun Choi, Joseph Lee, George A Mashour, UnCheol Lee
Identifying how spatially distributed information becomes integrated in the brain is essential to understanding higher cognitive functions. Previous computational and empirical studies suggest a significant influence of brain network structure on brain network function. However, there have been few analytical approaches to explain the role of network structure in shaping regional activities and directionality patterns. In this study, analytical methods are applied to a coupled oscillator model implemented in inhomogeneous networks...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424797/magnetoencephalography-as-a-tool-in-psychiatric-research-current-status-and-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Peter J Uhlhaas, Peter Liddle, David E J Linden, Anna C Nobre, Krish D Singh, Joachim Gross
The application of neuroimaging to provide mechanistic insights into circuit dysfunctions in major psychiatric conditions and the development of biomarkers are core challenges in current psychiatric research. We propose that recent technological and analytic advances in magnetoencephalography (MEG), a technique that allows measurement of neuronal events directly and noninvasively with millisecond resolution, provides novel opportunities to address these fundamental questions. Because of its potential in delineating normal and abnormal brain dynamics, we propose that MEG provides a crucial tool to advance our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of major neuropsychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and the dementias...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424606/bifurcation-analysis-on-phase-amplitude-cross-frequency-coupling-in-neural-networks-with-dynamic-synapses
#10
Takumi Sase, Yuichi Katori, Motomasa Komuro, Kazuyuki Aihara
We investigate a discrete-time network model composed of excitatory and inhibitory neurons and dynamic synapses with the aim at revealing dynamical properties behind oscillatory phenomena possibly related to brain functions. We use a stochastic neural network model to derive the corresponding macroscopic mean field dynamics, and subsequently analyze the dynamical properties of the network. In addition to slow and fast oscillations arising from excitatory and inhibitory networks, respectively, we show that the interaction between these two networks generates phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (CFC), in which multiple different frequency components coexist and the amplitude of the fast oscillation is modulated by the phase of the slow oscillation...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424599/electrophysiological-sequelae-of-hemispherotomy-in-ipsilateral-human-cortex
#11
Ammar H Hawasli, Ravi Chacko, Nicholas P Szrama, David T Bundy, Mrinal Pahwa, Chester K Yarbrough, Brian J Dlouhy, David D Limbrick, Dennis L Barbour, Matthew D Smyth, Eric C Leuthardt
Objectives: Hemispheric disconnection has been used as a treatment of medically refractory epilepsy and evolved from anatomic hemispherectomy to functional hemispherectomies to hemispherotomies. The hemispherotomy procedure involves disconnection of an entire hemisphere with limited tissue resection and is reserved for medically-refractory epilepsy due to diffuse hemispheric disease. Although it is thought to be effective by preventing seizures from spreading to the contralateral hemisphere, the electrophysiological effects of a hemispherotomy on the ipsilateral hemisphere remain poorly defined...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422667/modeling-and-analysis-of-beta-oscillations-in-the-basal-ganglia
#12
Chen Liu, Jiang Wang, Huiyan Li, Chris Fietkiewicz, Kenneth A Loparo
Enhanced beta (12-30 Hz) oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia (BG) is a prominent feature of the Parkinsonian state in animal models and in patients with Parkinson's disease. Increased beta oscillations are associated with severe dopaminergic striatal depletion. However, the mechanisms underlying these pathological beta oscillations remain elusive. Inspired by the experimental observation that only subsets of neurons within each nucleus in the BG exhibit oscillatory activities, a computational model of the BG-thalamus neuronal network is proposed, which is characterized by subdivided nuclei within the BG...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420965/dopamine-a-modulator-of-circadian-rhythms-in-the-central-nervous-system
#13
REVIEW
Kirill S Korshunov, Laura J Blakemore, Paul Q Trombley
Circadian rhythms are daily rhythms that regulate many biological processes - from gene transcription to behavior - and a disruption of these rhythms can lead to a myriad of health risks. Circadian rhythms are entrained by light, and their 24-h oscillation is maintained by a core molecular feedback loop composed of canonical circadian ("clock") genes and proteins. Different modulators help to maintain the proper rhythmicity of these genes and proteins, and one emerging modulator is dopamine. Dopamine has been shown to have circadian-like activities in the retina, olfactory bulb, striatum, midbrain, and hypothalamus, where it regulates, and is regulated by, clock genes in some of these areas...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420362/clinical-hemispheric-and-autonomic-changes-associated-with-use-of-closed-loop-allostatic-neurotechnology-by-a-case-series-of-individuals-with-self-reported-symptoms-of-post-traumatic-stress
#14
Charles H Tegeler, Jared F Cook, Catherine L Tegeler, Joshua R Hirsch, Hossam A Shaltout, Sean L Simpson, Brian C Fidali, Lee Gerdes, Sung W Lee
BACKGROUND: The objective of this pilot study was to explore the use of a closed-loop, allostatic, acoustic stimulation neurotechnology for individuals with self-reported symptoms of post-traumatic stress, as a potential means to impact symptomatology, temporal lobe high frequency asymmetry, heart rate variability (HRV), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). METHODS: From a cohort of individuals participating in a naturalistic study to evaluate use of allostatic neurotechnology for diverse clinical conditions, a subset was identified who reported high scores on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL)...
April 19, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416595/nonsinusoidal-beta-oscillations-reflect-cortical-pathophysiology-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Scott R Cole, Roemer van der Meij, Erik J Peterson, Coralie de Hemptinne, Philip A Starr, Bradley Voytek
Oscillations in neural activity play a critical role in neural computation and communication. There is intriguing new evidence that the nonsinusoidal features of the oscillatory waveforms may inform underlying physiological and pathophysiological characteristics. Time-domain waveform analysis approaches stand in contrast to traditional Fourier-based methods, which alter or destroy subtle waveform features. Recently it has been shown that the waveform features of oscillatory beta (13-30 Hz) events-a prominent motor cortical oscillation-may reflect near-synchronous excitatory synaptic inputs onto cortical pyramidal neurons...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415286/dissociation-between-two-subgroups-of-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-affected-by-the-number-of-damped-oscillated-neurons
#16
Changgui Gu, Huijie Yang, Jos Ht Rohling
In mammals, the main clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain synchronizes the body rhythms to the environmental light-dark cycle. The SCN is composed of about 2×10^{4} neurons which can be classified into three oscillatory phenotypes: self-sustained oscillators, damped oscillators, and arrhythmic neurons. Exposed to an artificial external light-dark cycle with a period of 22h instead of 24h, two subgroups of the SCN can become desynchronized (dissociated). The ventrolateral (VL) subgroup receives photic input and is entrained to the external cycle and a dorsomedial (DM) subgroup oscillates with its endogenous (i...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415192/multiple-node-basin-stability-in-complex-dynamical-networks
#17
Chiranjit Mitra, Anshul Choudhary, Sudeshna Sinha, Jürgen Kurths, Reik V Donner
Dynamical entities interacting with each other on complex networks often exhibit multistability. The stability of a desired steady regime (e.g., a synchronized state) to large perturbations is critical in the operation of many real-world networked dynamical systems such as ecosystems, power grids, the human brain, etc. This necessitates the development of appropriate quantifiers of stability of multiple stable states of such systems. Motivated by the concept of basin stability (BS) [P. J. Menck et al., Nat...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412499/parkinsonism-and-dystonia-are-differentially-induced-by-modulation-of-different-territories-in-the-basal-ganglia
#18
Deepak Kumbhare, Kathryn L Holloway, Mark S Baron
Numerous clinical and experimental observations suggest that deficient neuronal signaling in the globus pallidus externa (GPe) is integral to both Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonia. In our previous studies in jaundiced dystonic rats, widespread silencing of neurons in GP (rodent equivalent to GPe) preceded and persisted during dystonic motor activity. We therefore hypothesized that on a background of slow and highly irregular and bursty neuronal activity in GP, cortical motor drive produces profound inhibition of GP as the basis for action induced dystonia in Gunn rats...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412440/transient-networks-of-spatio-temporal-connectivity-map-communication-pathways-in-brain-functional-systems
#19
Alessandra Griffa, Benjamin Ricaud, Kirell Benzi, Xavier Bresson, Alessandro Daducci, Pierre Vandergheynst, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Patric Hagmann
The study of brain dynamics enables us to characterize the time-varying functional connectivity among distinct neural groups. However, current methods suffer from the absence of structural connectivity information. We propose to integrate infra-slow neural oscillations and anatomical-connectivity maps, as derived from functional and diffusion MRI, in a multilayer-graph framework that captures transient networks of spatio-temporal connectivity. These networks group anatomically wired and temporary synchronized brain regions and encode the propagation of functional activity on the structural connectome...
April 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411273/low-frequency-cortical-oscillations-entrain-to-sub-threshold-rhythmic-auditory-stimuli
#20
Sanne Ten Oever, Charles E Schroeder, David Poeppel, Nienke van Atteveldt, Ashesh D Mehta, Pierre Mégevand, David M Groppe, Elana Zion-Golumbic
Many environmental stimuli contain temporal regularities, a feature which can help predict forthcoming input. Phase-locking (entrainment) of ongoing low-frequency neuronal oscillations to rhythmic stimuli is proposed as a potential mechanism for enhancing neuronal responses and perceptual sensitivity, by aligning high-excitability phases to events within a stimulus stream. Previous experiments show that rhythmic structure has a behavioral benefit even when the rhythm itself is below perceptual detection thresholds (Ten Oever et al...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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