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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634086/towards-building-a-more-complex-view-of-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-recent-advances-in-understanding-its-role
#1
REVIEW
Masoud Ghodrati, Seyed-Mahdi Khaligh-Razavi, Sidney R Lehky
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) has often been treated in the past as a linear filter that adds little to retinal processing of visual inputs. Here we review anatomical, neurophysiological, brain imaging, and modeling studies that have in recent years built up a much more complex view of LGN. These include effects related to nonlinear dendritic processing, cortical feedback, synchrony and oscillations across LGN populations, as well as involvement of LGN in higher level cognitive processing Although recent studies have provided valuable insights into early visual processing including the role of LGN, a unified model of LGN responses to real-world objects has not yet been developed...
June 17, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633970/unified-neural-field-theory-of-brain-dynamics-underlying-oscillations-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-generalized-epilepsies
#2
E J Müller, S J van Albada, J W Kim, P A Robinson
The mechanisms underlying pathologically synchronized neural oscillations in Parkinson's disease (PD) and generalized epilepsies are explored in parallel via a physiologically-based neural field model of the corticothalamic-basal ganglia (CTBG) system. The basal ganglia (BG) are approximated as a single effective population and their roles in the modulation of oscillatory dynamics of the corticothalamic (CT) system and vice versa are analyzed. In addition to normal EEG rhythms, enhanced activity around 4 Hz and 20 Hz exists in the model, consistent with the characteristic frequencies observed in PD...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632774/short-term-eeg-dynamics-and-neural-generators-evoked-by-navigational-images
#3
Axelle Leroy, Carlos Cevallos, Ana-Maria Cebolla, Stéphanie Caharel, Bernard Dan, Guy Cheron
The ecological environment offered by virtual reality is primarily supported by visual information. The different image contents and their rhythmic presentation imply specific bottom-up and top-down processing. Because these processes already occur during passive observation we studied the brain responses evoked by the presentation of specific 3D virtual tunnels with respect to 2D checkerboard. For this, we characterized electroencephalograhy dynamics (EEG), the evoked potentials and related neural generators involved in various visual paradigms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630252/alpha-band-brain-oscillations-shape-the-processing-of-perceptible-as-well-as-imperceptible-somatosensory-stimuli-during-selective-attention
#4
Norman Forschack, Till Nierhaus, Matthias M Müller, Arno Villringer
Attention filters and weights sensory information according to behavioral demands. Stimulus-related neural responses are increased for the attended stimulus. Does alpha-band activity mediate this effect and is it restricted to conscious sensory events (suprathreshold), or does it also extend to unconscious stimuli (subthreshold)? To address these questions, we recorded EEG in healthy male and female volunteers undergoing subthreshold and suprathreshold somatosensory electrical stimulation to the left or right index finger...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626018/dissecting-the-function-of-hippocampal-oscillations-in-a-human-anxiety-model
#5
Saurabh Khemka, Gareth Barnes, Raymond J Dolan, Dominik R Bach
Neural oscillations in hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are a hallmark of rodent anxiety models that build on conflict between approach and avoidance. Yet, the function of these oscillations, and their expression in humans, remain elusive. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate neural oscillations in a task that simulated approach-avoidance conflict, wherein 23 male and female human participants collected monetary tokens under a threat of virtual predation. Probability of threat was learned beforehand by direct experience...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624646/instantaneous-voltage-as-an-alternative-to-power-and-phase-based-interpretation-of-oscillatory-brain-activity
#6
Gerwin Schalk, Joshua Marple, Robert T Knight, William G Coon
For decades, oscillatory brain activity has been characterized primarily by measurements of power and phase. While many studies have linked those measurements to cortical excitability, their relationship to each other and to the physiological underpinnings of excitability is unclear. The recently proposed Function-through-Biased-Oscillations (FBO) hypothesis Schalk, addressed these issues by suggesting that the voltage potential at the cortical surface directly reflects the excitability of cortical populations, that this voltage is rhythmically driven away from a low resting potential (associated with depolarized cortical populations) towards positivity (associated with hyperpolarized cortical populations)...
June 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622759/catching-audiovisual-interactions-with-a-first-person-fisherman-video-game
#7
Yile Sun, Timothy J Hickey, Barbara Shinn-Cunningham, Robert Sekuler
The human brain is excellent at integrating information from different sources across multiple sensory modalities. To examine one particularly important form of multisensory interaction, we manipulated the temporal correlation between visual and auditory stimuli in a first-person fisherman video game. Subjects saw rapidly swimming fish whose size oscillated, either at 6 or 8 Hz. Subjects categorized each fish according to its rate of size oscillation, while trying to ignore a concurrent broadband sound seemingly emitted by the fish...
July 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622421/how-to-record-high-frequency-oscillations-in-epilepsy-a-practical-guideline
#8
REVIEW
Maeike Zijlmans, Gregory A Worrell, Matthias Dümpelmann, Thomas Stieglitz, Andrei Barborica, Marcel Heers, Akio Ikeda, Naotaka Usui, Michel Le Van Quyen
OBJECTIVE: Technology for localizing epileptogenic brain regions plays a central role in surgical planning. Recent improvements in acquisition and electrode technology have revealed that high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) within the 80-500 Hz frequency range provide the neurophysiologist with new information about the extent of the epileptogenic tissue in addition to ictal and interictal lower frequency events. Nevertheless, two decades after their discovery there remain questions about HFOs as biomarkers of epileptogenic brain and there use in clinical practice...
June 16, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620074/regulatory-bc1-rna-in-cognitive-control
#9
Anna Iacoangeli, Aderemi Dosunmu, Taesun Eom, Dimitre G Stefanov, Henri Tiedge
Dendritic regulatory BC1 RNA is a non-protein-coding (npc) RNA that operates in the translational control of gene expression. The absence of BC1 RNA in BC1 knockout (KO) animals causes translational dysregulation that entails neuronal phenotypic alterations including prolonged epileptiform discharges, audiogenic seizure activity in vivo, and excessive cortical oscillations in the γ frequency band. Here we asked whether BC1 RNA control is also required for higher brain functions such as learning, memory, or cognition...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619657/low-frequency-oscillations-employ-a-general-coding-of-the-spatio-temporal-similarity-of-dynamic-faces
#10
Nicholas Furl, Michael Lohse, Francesca Pizzorni-Ferrarese
Brain networks use neural oscillations as information transfer mechanisms. Although the face perception network in occipitotemporal cortex is well-studied, contributions of oscillations to face representation remain an open question. We tested for links between oscillatory responses that encode facial dimensions and the theoretical proposal that faces are encoded in similarity-based "face spaces". We quantified similarity-based encoding of dynamic faces in magnetoencephalographic sensor-level oscillatory power for identity, expression, physical and perceptual similarity of facial form and motion...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619653/on-optimal-spatial-filtering-for-the-detection-of-phase-coupling-in-multivariate-neural-recordings
#11
G Waterstraat, G Curio, V V Nikulin
INTRODUCTION: Neuronal oscillations synchronize processing in the brain over large spatiotemporal scales and thereby facilitate integration of individual functional modules. Up to now, the relation between the phases of neuronal oscillations and behavior or perception has mainly been analyzed in sensor space of multivariate EEG/MEG recordings. However, sensor-space analysis distorts the topographies of the underlying neuronal sources and suffers from low signal-to-noise ratio. Instead, we propose an optimized source reconstruction approach (Phase Coupling Optimization, PCO)...
June 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618295/phase-locked-and-non-phase-locked-eeg-responses-to-pinprick-stimulation-before-and-after-experimentally-induced-secondary-hyperalgesia
#12
Emanuel N van den Broeke, Bart de Vries, Julien Lambert, Diana M Torta, André Mouraux
OBJECTIVE: Pinprick-evoked brain potentials (PEPs) have been proposed as a technique to investigate secondary hyperalgesia and central sensitization in humans. However, the signal-to-noise (SNR) of PEPs is low. Here, using time-frequency analysis, we characterize the phase-locked and non-phase-locked EEG responses to pinprick stimulation, before and after secondary hyperalgesia. METHODS: Secondary hyperalgesia was induced using high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of the left/right forearm skin in 16 volunteers...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615472/neuronal-circadian-clock-protein-oscillations-are-similar-in-behaviourally-rhythmic-forager-honeybees-and-in-arrhythmic-nurses
#13
T Fuchikawa, K Beer, C Linke-Winnebeck, R Ben-David, A Kotowoy, V W K Tsang, G R Warman, E C Winnebeck, C Helfrich-Förster, G Bloch
Internal clocks driving rhythms of about a day (circadian) are ubiquitous in animals, allowing them to anticipate environmental changes. Genetic or environmental disturbances to circadian clocks or the rhythms they produce are commonly associated with illness, compromised performance or reduced survival. Nevertheless, some animals including Arctic mammals, open sea fish and social insects such as honeybees are active around-the-clock with no apparent ill effects. The mechanisms allowing this remarkable natural plasticity are unknown...
June 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611618/potential-mechanisms-and-functions-of-intermittent-neural-synchronization
#14
Sungwoo Ahn, Leonid L Rubchinsky
Neural synchronization is believed to play an important role in different brain functions. Synchrony in cortical and subcortical circuits is frequently variable in time and not perfect. Few long intervals of desynchronized dynamics may be functionally different from many short desynchronized intervals although the average synchrony may be the same. Recent analysis of imperfect synchrony in different neural systems reported one common feature: neural oscillations may go out of synchrony frequently, but primarily for a short time interval...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611601/lack-of-responsiveness-during-the-onset-and-offset-of-sevoflurane-anesthesia-is-associated-with-decreased-awake-alpha-oscillation-power
#15
Kara J Pavone, Lijuan Su, Lei Gao, Ersne Eromo, Rafael Vazquez, James Rhee, Lauren E Hobbs, Reine Ibala, Gizem Demircioglu, Patrick L Purdon, Emery N Brown, Oluwaseun Akeju
Anesthetic drugs are typically administered to induce altered states of arousal that range from sedation to general anesthesia (GA). Systems neuroscience studies are currently being used to investigate the neural circuit mechanisms of anesthesia-induced altered arousal states. These studies suggest that by disrupting the oscillatory dynamics that are associated with arousal states, anesthesia-induced oscillations are a putative mechanism through which anesthetic drugs produce altered states of arousal. However, an empirical clinical observation is that even at relatively stable anesthetic doses, patients are sometimes intermittently responsive to verbal commands during states of light sedation...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605386/simultaneous-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-and-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Kathleen A Williams, Yuranny Cabral-Calderin, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Christiane Anne Weinrich, Peter Dechent, Melanie Wilke
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a promising tool for noninvasive investigation of brain oscillations. TACS employs frequency-specific stimulation of the human brain through current applied to the scalp with surface electrodes. Most current knowledge of the technique is based on behavioral studies; thus, combining the method with brain imaging holds potential to better understand the mechanisms of tACS. Because of electrical and susceptibility artifacts, combining tACS with brain imaging can be challenging, however, one brain imaging technique that is well suited to be applied simultaneously with tACS is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604771/locking-of-correlated-neural-activity-to-ongoing-oscillations
#17
Tobias Kühn, Moritz Helias
Population-wide oscillations are ubiquitously observed in mesoscopic signals of cortical activity. In these network states a global oscillatory cycle modulates the propensity of neurons to fire. Synchronous activation of neurons has been hypothesized to be a separate channel of signal processing information in the brain. A salient question is therefore if and how oscillations interact with spike synchrony and in how far these channels can be considered separate. Experiments indeed showed that correlated spiking co-modulates with the static firing rate and is also tightly locked to the phase of beta-oscillations...
June 12, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603483/oscillatory-mechanisms-of-stimulus-processing-and-selection-in-the-visual-and-auditory-systems-state-of-the-art-speculations-and-suggestions
#18
REVIEW
Benedikt Zoefel, Rufin VanRullen
All sensory systems need to continuously prioritize and select incoming stimuli in order to avoid overflow or interference, and provide a structure to the brain's input. However, the characteristics of this input differ across sensory systems; therefore, and as a direct consequence, each sensory system might have developed specialized strategies to cope with the continuous stream of incoming information. Neural oscillations are intimately connected with this selection process, as they can be used by the brain to rhythmically amplify or attenuate input and therefore represent an optimal tool for stimulus selection...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600679/resting-state-bold-oscillation-frequency-predicts-vigilance-task-performance-at-both-normal-and-high-environmental-temperatures
#19
Xiaopeng Song, Shaowen Qian, Kai Liu, Shuqin Zhou, Huaiqiu Zhu, Qihong Zou, Yijun Liu, Gang Sun, Jia-Hong Gao
Hyperthermia may impair vigilance functions and lead to slower reaction times (RTs) in the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and possibly disturbing cerebral hemodynamic rhythms. To test these hypotheses, we acquired the resting-state BOLD and cerebral blood flow (CBF) data, as well as PVTRTs from 15 participants in two simulated environmental thermal conditions (50 °C/25 °C). We adopted a data-driven method, frequency component analysis, to quantify the mean frequency of the BOLD series of each voxel. Across-subject correlation analysis was employed to detect the brain areas whose BOLD oscillation frequency was correlated with the RTs...
June 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596116/mechanisms-of-neurofeedback-a-computation-theoretic-approach
#20
Eddy J Davelaar
Neurofeedback training is a form of brain training in which information about a neural measure is fed back to the trainee who is instructed to increase or decrease the value of that particular measure. This paper focuses on electroencephalography (EEG) neurofeedback in which the neural measures of interest are the brain oscillations. To date, the neural mechanisms that underlie successful neurofeedback training are still unexplained. Such an understanding would benefit researchers, funding agencies, clinicians, regulatory bodies, and insurance firms...
June 9, 2017: Neuroscience
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