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Slip and fall

Francis K W Wong, Albert P C Chan, Andy K D Wong, Carol K H Hon, Tracy N Y Choi
A study on electrical and mechanical (E&M) works-related accidents for public sector projects provided the opportunity to gain a better understanding of the causes of accidents by analyzing the circumstances of all E&M works accidents. The research aims to examine accidents of E&M works which happened in public sector projects. A total of 421 E&M works-related accidents in the "Public Works Programme Construction Site Safety and Environmental Statistics" (PCSES) system were extracted for analysis...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sunwook Kim, Maury A Nussbaum, Mohammad Iman Mokhlespour Esfahani, Mohammad Mehdi Alemi, Bochen Jia, Ehsan Rashedi
Adopting a new technology (exoskeletal vest designed to support overhead work) in the workplace can be challenging since the technology may pose unexpected safety and health consequences. A prototype exoskeletal vest was evaluated for potential unexpected consequences with a set of evaluation tests for: usability (especially, donning & doffing), shoulder range of motion (ROM), postural control, slip & trip risks, and spine loading during overhead work simulations. Donning/doffing the vest was easily done by a wearer alone...
March 7, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
J S Barajas, D S Peterson
BACKGROUND: Protective steps are critical for fall prevention and are altered in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous work suggests that perturbation training, in which patients are exposed to repeated slips, may improve protective postural responses. However, these studies typically take the average performance of several postural responses before and after training. To reduce falls in the community, training must improve protective stepping after the first perturbation exposure...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Ingrid Svensson, Chuansi Gao, Amitava Halder, Gunvor Gard, Måns Magnusson
Working and walking environments often involve standing positions on different surfaces with inclination and different friction. In this study, standing balance of thirteen participants during sudden and irregular external perturbation to calf muscles while standing was investigated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of surface inclination and friction on standing balance. The main findings when eyes closed revealed that the standing utilised coefficient of friction (μSUCOF ) increased when the surface was inclined for both high and low friction materials...
March 3, 2018: Industrial Health
Feng Yang, Fabricio Saucedo, Mu Qiao
The purpose of this pilot study was to establish the efficacy and feasibility of a single-session treadmill-based stance-slip perturbation program on preventing slip-related falls while walking over the ground among young adults. Two groups (training vs. control) of healthy young participants were respectively exposed to a treadmill-based stance-slip perturbation training protocol and a placebo training protocol. Post training, both groups experienced an unexpected overground gait-slip. Our results indicated that 28...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Richard M Kesler, Grace S Deetjen, Faith F Bradley, Michael J Angelini, Matthew N Petrucci, Karl S Rosengren, Gavin P Horn, Elizabeth T Hsiao-Wecksler
Slips, trips and falls are leading causes of fireground injuries. A functional balance test (FBT) was used to investigate the effects of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) size and design, plus firefighting work cycle. During the FBT, subjects walked along a narrow platform and turned in defined spaces, with and without an overhead obstacle. Thirty firefighters wore three varying-sized standard SCBAs and a low-profile prototype SCBA during three simulated firefighting work/rest cycles. Firefighters were tested pre- and post-firefighting activity (one bout, two bouts with a 5-min break, or back-to-back bouts with no break)...
May 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Anna Lee, Tanvi Bhatt, Xuan Liu, Yiru Wang, Yi-Chung Pai
BACKGROUND: Perturbation training is an emerging paradigm to reduce idiopathic falls (without clinical signs or symptoms) in older adults. While a higher threat dosage (intensity) in motor learning often directly relates to greater adaptation, retention, and generalization, little is known whether increasing the practice dosage (repetition) of slip-perturbation training would necessarily improve its outcomes. RESEARCH QUESTION: Can higher practice dosage of treadmill slip-perturbation training lead to greater generalization to an overground slip immediately after the training? METHODS: Forty-five community-dwelling older adults (73...
February 13, 2018: Gait & Posture
Dwayne Van Eerd, Era Mae Ferron, Teresa D'Elia, Derek Morgan, Frances Ziesmann, Benjamin C Amick
BACKGROUND: Long-term care (LTC) workers are at significant risk for occupational-related injuries. Our objective was to evaluate the implementation process of a participatory change program to reduce risk. METHODS: A process evaluation was conducted in three LTC sites using a qualitative approach employing structured interviews, consultant logs and a focus group. RESULTS: Findings revealed recruitment/reach themes of being "voluntold", using established methods, and challenges related to work schedules...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Ivan Pang, Yoshiro Okubo, Daina Sturnieks, Stephen R Lord, Matthew A Brodie
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Falls among older people are a serious health issue. Remote detection of near falls may provide a new way to identify older people at high risk of falling. This could enable exercise and fall prevention programs to target the types of near falls experienced and the situations that cause near falls before fall-related injuries occur. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize and critically examine the evidence regarding the detection of near falls (slips, trips, stumbles, missteps, incorrect weight transfer, or temporary loss of balance) using wearable devices...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
Paul S Sung, Pamela Danial
Postural responses following slip perturbations are critical to fall prevention strategies. It is unclear how postural reactions with a handheld task can validly be transferred to treadmill-induced slip perturbations in subjects with recurrent low back pain (LBP). The purpose of this study was to investigate trunk reaction times and trunk flexion angle as well as velocity following the slips between subjects with and without LBP. There were 29 subjects with LBP and 40 control subjects who participated in the study...
January 25, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Mitchel A Magrini, Ryan M Thiele, Ryan J Colquhoun, Alejandra Barrera Curiel, Taryn S Blackstock, Jason M DeFreitas
There is need for a functional ability test that appropriately assesses the rapid integration of the sensory and motor systems required for older adults to recover from a slip. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and reliability of a novel test, the reactive leg drop, for assessing sensory-motor function in older adults. Fourteen young (YW; mean age = 20yrs) and 11 older women (OW; mean age = 76yrs) participated in this study. For each drop, the leg was passively moved to full extension and then released...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Marc O'Donnell, William F Lavelle, Mike H Sun
Spondylolysis is frequently seen in adolescents, typically at the L5 vertebral level. While there may be a congenital predisposition for spondylolysis, it has long been suggested that the defect results from a fatigue or stress fracture of the pars interarticularis. Spondylolisthesis may result from a bilateral spondylolytic defect and is frequently asymptomatic. There is a paucity of literature on infant and toddler spondylolysis, as the focus is primarily on school-aged children, typically those over ten years of age...
December 2017: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
Prakruti J Patel, Tanvi Bhatt
Studies examining recovery from SLIPS and TRIPS indicate higher incidence of falls during SLIPS than TRIPS however, differences in the recovery mechanisms during these opposing perturbations have not been examined. We therefore aimed to compare the reactive balance responses contributing to fall risk during SLIPS and TRIPS at comparable perturbation intensity among community-dwelling healthy adults and chronic stroke survivors. Younger adults (N = 11), age-matched adults (N = 11) and chronic stroke survivors (N = 12) were exposed to a single SLIP and TRIP through a motorized treadmill (16 m/s2, 0...
December 26, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Leigh J Allin, Maury A Nussbaum, Michael L Madigan
This study investigated the relationship between feet kinematics upon slipping while walking and the outcome of the slip. Seventy-one slips (induced by walking over an unexpectedly slippery surface) were analysed, which included 37 recoveries, 16 feet-split falls, 11 feet-forward falls and seven lateral falls. Feet kinematics differed between recoveries and three types of slip-induced falls, and a discriminant model including six measures of feet kinematics correctly predicted 87% of slip outcomes. Two potentially modifiable characteristics of the feet kinematics upon slipping that can improve the likelihood of successfully averting a fall were identified: (1) quickly arresting the motion of the slipping foot and (2) a recovery step that places the trailing toe approximately 0-10% body height anterior to the sacrum...
January 3, 2018: Ergonomics
Hamid Reza Morteza Bagi, Sajjad Ahmadi, Maryam Hosseini
Introduction: Falling is reported to be the most common cause of mortality due to trauma in individuals over the age of 75 years. The present study is designed with the aim of determining the demographics of fall-related trauma among the elderly presenting to emergency department (ED). Methods: The present prospective cross-sectional study was carried out on all elderly patients ≥ 60 years old presenting to ED of a major referral trauma center in North West of Iran during 1 year...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
Jae-Min Ahn, Kyeong-Seok Lee, Jae-Hyun Shim, Jae-Sang Oh, Jai-Joon Shim, Seok-Mann Yoon
Objective: Interhemispheric subdural hematoma (IHSDH) is uncommon, because of their unusual location. However, it is a distinct lesion with its unique characteristics. We investigated clinical features and outcomes of consecutive 42 patients with IHSDH, retrospectively. Methods: From 2006 to 2015, we treated 105 patients with IHSDH. All patients were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging. We selected 42 patients with thick (3 mm or more) IHSDH...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
Elizabeth M Goldberg, Ellen M McCreedy, Cameron J Gettel, Roland C Merchant
Falls are the leading cause of emergency department (ED) visits for fatal and non-fatal injuries among adults 65 years old and older. We aimed to better understand the fall history, risk for further falls, and actions taken to prevent further falls among this higher fall risk population. This cross-sectional study included older adults without cognitive impairment presenting to the Rhode Island Hospital ED from February to May 2017. Of the 76 participants, 35 self-reported no prior falls, and 41 self-reported at least one prior fall, of whom 20 fell on the day of ED presentation...
December 1, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
Seyed Reza M Moghaddam, Arjun Acharya, Mark S Redfern, Kurt E Beschorner
Understanding the frictional interactions between the shoe and floor during walking is critical to prevention of slips and falls, particularly when contaminants are present. A multiscale finite element model of shoe-floor-contaminant friction was developed that takes into account the surface and material characteristics of the shoe and flooring in microscopic and macroscopic scales. The model calculates shoe-floor coefficient of friction (COF) in boundary lubrication regime where effects of adhesion friction and hydrodynamic pressures are negligible...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Mohammad Moein Nazifi, Kurt E Beschorner, Pilwon Hur
Falls impose significant negative impacts to the US population and economy. A significant number of falls may be prevented via appropriate slip-responses since a strong relation exists between slips and falls. More importantly, as severe slips are more prone to result in a fall, identifying severe slippers along with the responsible factors for their adverse motor control and severe slipping should be the highest priority in fall prevention process. Previous studies have suggested that muscle synergies may be building blocks of the central nervous system in controlling motor tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Alyssa Y Stark, Katherine Arstingstall, Stephen P Yanoviak
The surface temperature of tree branches in the tropical rainforest canopy can reach up to 55°C. Ants and other small cursorial organisms must maintain adequate attachment in this extreme microenvironment to forage effectively and prevent falling. Ant adhesion depends on liquid secretions that should become less viscous at high temperatures, causing ants to slip. However, tropical arboreal ants have high thermal tolerance and actively forage on hot canopy surfaces, suggesting that these ants can maintain adhesion on hot substrates...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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