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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146768/adhesive-performance-of-tropical-arboreal-ants-varies-with-substrate-temperature
#1
Alyssa Y Stark, Katherine Arstingstall, Stephen P Yanoviak
The surface temperature of tree branches in the tropical rainforest canopy can reach up to 55°C. Ants and other small cursorial organisms must maintain adequate attachment in this extreme microenvironment to forage effectively and prevent falling. Ant adhesion depends on liquid secretions that should become less viscous at high temperatures, causing ants to slip. However, tropical arboreal ants have high thermal tolerance and actively forage on hot canopy surfaces, suggesting that these ants can maintain adhesion on hot substrates...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139186/factors-associated-with-home-hazards-findings-from-the-malaysian-elders-longitudinal-research-study
#2
Muhammad H Romli, Maw P Tan, Lynette Mackenzie, Meryl Lovarini, Shahrul B Kamaruzzaman, Lindy Clemson
AIM: Previous studies have investigated home hazards as a risk factor for falls without considering factors associated with the presence of home hazards. The present study aimed to determine patterns of home hazards among urban community-dwelling older Malaysians, and to identify factors contributing to home hazards. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the initial wave of the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research study were used. Basic demographics were obtained from the Global Questionnaire...
November 15, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134923/coefficient-of-friction-walking-speed-and-cadence-on-slippery-and-dry-surfaces-shoes-with-different-groove-depths
#3
Mansour Ziaei, Hamid Reza Mokhtarinia, Farhad Tabatabai Ghomshe, Maryam Maghsoudipour
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the coefficient of friction (COF), walking speed (WS), and cadence while walking on slippery and dry surfaces using shoes with different sole groove depths to predict how much it is likely to fall. BACKGROUND: Design of shoe sole groove is crucial to prevent slipping during walking. METHODS: 22 healthy young men (mean age: 24.5 and body mass index: 22.5) volunteered for this semi-experimental study...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132257/risk-factors-for-non-fatal-occupational-injuries-among-construction-workers-a-case-control-study
#4
E Khashaba, M El-Helaly, A H El-Gilany, S M Motawei, S Foda
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse is a serious problem, because it affects both workers and young people. Prevalence and consequences of cannabis abuse among construction workers in particular are not well studied in Egypt. OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between non-fatal occupational injuries among construction workers and their demographic and occupational factors and to assess the frequency of cannabis abuse and its relationship to injury severity and workdays lost...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114716/trends-in-fall-related-ambulance-use-and-hospitalisation-among-older-adults-in-nsw-2006-2013-a-retrospective-population-based-study
#5
Serene S Paul, Lara Harvey, Therese Carroll, Qiang Li, Soufiane Boufous, Annabel Priddis, Anne Tiedemann, Lindy Clemson, Stephen R Lord, Sandy Muecke, Jacqueline Ct Close, Serigne Lo, Catherine Sherrington
Objective and importance of study: To describe characteristics and temporal trends of fall-related ambulance service use and hospital admission in older adults in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Such information will facilitate a more targeted approach to planning and delivery of health services to prevent falls and their adverse sequelae in different groups of older adults. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective population-based descriptive study. METHODS: Fall-related ambulance use and hospital admissions for all falls and injurious falls in NSW residents aged ≥65 years between 2006 and 2013 were obtained from two discrete sources of routinely collected data...
October 11, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099234/accident-risk-associated-with-smartphone-addiction-a-study-on-university-students-in-korea
#6
Hye-Jin Kim, Jin-Young Min, Hyun-Jin Kim, Kyoung-Bok Min
Background and aims The smartphone is one of the most popular devices, with the average smartphone usage at 162 min/day and the average length of phone usage at 15.79 hr/week. Although significant concerns have been made about the health effects of smartphone addiction, the relationship between smartphone addiction and accidents has rarely been studied. We examined the association between smartphone addiction and accidents among South Korean university students. Methods A total of 608 college students completed an online survey that included their experience of accidents (total number; traffic accidents; falls/slips; bumps/collisions; being trapped in the subway, impalement, cuts, and exit wounds; and burns or electric shocks), their use of smartphone, the type of smartphone content they most frequently used, and other variables of interests...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069267/prevalence-of-household-falls-in-long-lived-adults-and-association-with-extrinsic-factors
#7
Silviane Galvan Pereira, Claudia Benedita Dos Santos, Marlene Doring, Marilene Rodrigues Portella
OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence of falls among older adults and the extrinsic factors associated with them. METHOD: population-based cross-sectional study with 350 older adults. A household survey was conducted using a questionnaire addressing socio-demographic, clinical, and environmental characteristics. Data were analyzed using Stata Software V.10. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used with stepwise criteria for selection of variables in the model, with measures of effect expressed in Prevalence Ratio...
October 19, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060720/a-new-fall-inducing-technology-platform-development-and-assessment-of-a-programmable-split-belt-treadmill
#8
Beom-Chan Lee, Bernard J Martin, Timothy A Thrasher, Charles S Layne
Typical technologies for fall reduction/prevention training incorporate mechanical obstacles or cables/pulleys to induce trip or slip perturbations. This paper proposes a technology platform that uses a split-belt treadmill equipped with one force plate underneath each belt and a real-time gait phase detection algorithm. A proof-of-concept study validates the method for inducing trip perturbations in healthy young adults (n=10) by using kinematic measures from a full body motion capture system to characterize the effects of the perturbations...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055127/shoe-floor-interactions-in-human-walking-with-slips-modeling-and-experiments
#9
Mitja Trkov, Jingang Yi, Tao Liu, Kang Li
Shoe-floor interactions play a crucial role in determining the possibility of potential slip and fall during human walking. Biomechanical and tribological parameters influence the friction characteristics between the shoe sole and the floor and the existing work mainly focus on experimental studies. In this paper, we present modeling, analysis, and experiments to understand slip and force distributions between the shoe sole and floor surface during human walking. We present results for both soft and hard sole material...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959427/raised-serum-lactate-in-a-cirrhotic-patient-presenting-after-a-trivial-fall
#10
Olusegun M Ayeko, Jonathan Barrow, Michael O Ayeko
We present the case of a pelvic fracture in a 69-year-old man with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis who presented to the Accident and Emergency department after a slip on wet grass. After initially being systemically well, he became haemodynamically unstable in the Emergency department requiring resuscitation via the massive transfusion pathway. He was admitted to intensive care unit for resuscitation following a CT angiogram which showed no arterial bleed, but significant retroperitoneal haematoma. He received a prophylactic embolization of the internal iliac artery 2 days later and his acetabular fracture was managed with skeletal traction...
September 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953071/applying-machine-learning-to-workers-compensation-data-to-identify-industry-specific-ergonomic-and-safety-prevention-priorities-ohio-2001-to-2011
#11
Alysha R Meyers, Ibraheem S Al-Tarawneh, Steven J Wurzelbacher, P Timothy Bushnell, Michael P Lampl, Jennifer L Bell, Stephen J Bertke, David C Robins, Chih-Yu Tseng, Chia Wei, Jill A Raudabaugh, Teresa M Schnorr
OBJECTIVE: This study leveraged a state workers' compensation claims database and machine learning techniques to target prevention efforts by injury causation and industry. METHODS: Injury causation auto-coding methods were developed to code more than 1.2 million Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation claims for this study. Industry groups were ranked for soft-tissue musculoskeletal claims that may have been preventable with biomechanical ergonomic (ERGO) or slip/trip/fall (STF) interventions...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934997/teatcups-with-automatic-valves-in-machine-milking-of-goats
#12
Alberto Manzur, José Ramón Díaz, Nemesio Fernández, Sebastià Balasch, Cristòfol Peris
This Research Paper addresses the hypothesis that using teatcups with automatic valves, without cutting off the vacuum prior to cluster removal, could increases the risk of mastitis and affect other milking variables on goats. A first trial used 46 intramammary infection (IMI)-free goats that had been milked with normal teatcups (without automatic valves) during a pre-experimental period of 8 ± 2 d postpartum. These animals were divided into two groups (n = 23), randomly assigning each group to teatcups with automatic valves (teatcups A) or without automatic valves (teatcups B) for a 20-week experimental period...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933975/foot-problems-in-older-women
#13
F Guidozzi
Between 20 and 45% of women aged over 65 years of age will develop one or more foot problems, which, although not specific to older women, are more common in that age group than in younger women. These include structural defects of the toes including hallux valgus, hammer, mallet or claw toes, skin disorders, fungal infection of the toes and toe nails, thickened toe nails, ulcers, fissures or cracks between the toes, corns and calluses, flat or high-arched feet. Foot pain is common and may be associated with other co-morbid diseases of the foot...
December 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913974/impact-of-ladder-related-falls-on-the-emergency-department-and-recommendations-for-ladder-safety
#14
C J Cabilan, Kirsten Vallmuur, Rob Eley, Chantelle Judge, Sarah Cochrane, Connie Reed, Jessica Riordan, Kym Roberts, Ogilvie Thom, Gabriella Wood
OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of patients who presented to the ED from a ladder-related fall and their injuries, highlight the impact of ladder-related falls on the ED, identify contributing factors of ladder falls and draw recommendations to improve ladder safety. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in two EDs. Patients' demographics and ED services used were obtained from medical records. A 53-item questionnaire was used to gather information about the type of ladder used, ladder activity, circumstances of the fall, contributing factors and future recommendations...
September 14, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913434/self-determined-shapes-and-velocities-of-giant-near-zero-drag-gas-cavities
#15
Ivan U Vakarelski, Evert Klaseboer, Aditya Jetly, Mohammad M Mansoor, Andres A Aguirre-Pablo, Derek Y C Chan, Sigurdur T Thoroddsen
Minimizing the retarding force on a solid moving in liquid is the canonical problem in the quest for energy saving by friction and drag reduction. For an ideal object that cannot sustain any shear stress on its surface, theory predicts that drag force will fall to zero as its speed becomes large. However, experimental verification of this prediction has been challenging. We report the construction of a class of self-determined streamlined structures with this free-slip surface, made up of a teardrop-shaped giant gas cavity that completely encloses a metal sphere...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898967/systematic-review-lost-time-injuries-in-the-us-mining-industry
#16
B Nowrouzi-Kia, B Sharma, C Dignard, Z Kerekes, J Dumond, A Li, M Larivière
Background: The mining industry is associated with high levels of accidents, injuries and illnesses. Lost-time injuries are useful measures of health and safety in mines, and the effectiveness of its safety programmes. Aims: To identify the type of lost-time injuries in the US mining workforce and to examine predictors of these occupational injuries. Methods: Primary papers on lost-time injuries in the US mining sector were identified through a literature search in eight health, geology and mining databases, using a systematic review protocol tailored to each database...
August 1, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895802/slip-and-trip-perturbations-during-an-object-transport-task-requiring-a-lateral-change-in-support
#17
Andrew H Huntley, Keaton A Inkol, Lori Ann Vallis
The ability to counteract destabilizing external forces while simultaneously executing a complex task presents a novel way to ascertain one's ability to generate adaptive postural control responses to avoid a potential fall. In this study, participants performed an upper limb object transport task requiring a lateral change in support on a robotic platform that could remain fixed in space or translated (mimicking a slip or trip perturbation). No significant stability differences were observed at initial recovery step between slip and trip perturbations...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873860/applying-game-thinking-to-slips-trips-and-falls-prevention
#18
Paul Dewick, Emma Stanmore
Gamification is about the way in which 'game thinking' can engage participants and change behaviours in real, non-game contexts. This paper explores how game thinking can be applied to help prevent slips, trips and falls (STF), which are the largest cause of accidental death in older people across Europe. The paper contributes to the assistive technology, digital health and computer science/human behaviour communities by responding to a gap in the literature for papers detailing the innovation process of developing interventions to improve health and quality of life...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863352/the-circumstances-orientations-and-impact-locations-of-falls-in-community-dwelling-older-women
#19
Jeremy R Crenshaw, Kathie A Bernhardt, Sara J Achenbach, Elizabeth J Atkinson, Sundeep Khosla, Kenton R Kaufman, Shreyasee Amin
OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the circumstances, orientations, and impact locations of falls in community-dwelling, ambulatory, older women. METHODS: For this longitudinal, observational study, 125 community-dwelling women age≥65years were recruited. Over 12-months of follow-up, fall details were recorded using twice-monthly questionnaires. RESULTS: More than half (59%) of participants fell, with 30% of participants falling more than once (fall rate=1...
July 21, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802434/evaluation-of-postural-sway-and-impact-forces-during-ingress-and-egress-of-scissor-lifts-at-elevations
#20
Christopher S Pan, Sharon S Chiou, Tsui-Ying Kau, Bryan M Wimer, Xiaopeng Ning, Paul Keane
Workers are at risk when entering (ingress) or exiting (egress) elevated scissor lifts. In this study, we recorded ground impact forces and postural sway from 22 construction workers while they performed ingress and egress between a scissor lift and an adjacent work surface with varying conditions: lift opening designs, horizontal and vertical gaps, and sloped work surfaces. We observed higher peak ground shear forces when using a bar-and-chain opening, with larger horizontal gap, with the lift surface more than 0...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
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