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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734903/the-olfactory-bulbectomized-rat-model-is-not-an-appropriate-model-for-studying-depression-based-on-morphological-stereological-studies-of-the-hippocampus
#1
Canan Yurttas, Christoph Schmitz, Mehmet Turgut, Tatyana Strekalova, Harry W M Steinbusch
Bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) has been used as an animal model for major depression that results in behavioral, neurochemical, and neuroendocrinological changes were reversed by chronic treatment with antidepressants, including fluoxetine. However, both etiological and construct validities are lacking in OBX for rats. In the present study, we investigated the morphological changes in the hippocampi of rats undergoing OBX that were treated with fluoxetine (10mg/kg, p.o. once daily for 4 and 12 weeks) using stereological techniques...
July 19, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734777/inhibitor-mechanisms-in-the-s1-binding-site-of-the-dopamine-transporter-defined-by-multi-site-molecular-tethering-of-photoactive-cocaine-analogs
#2
Danielle Krout, Akula Bala Pramod, Rejwi Acharya Dahal, Michael J Tomlinson, Babita Sharma, James D Foster, Mu-Fa Zou, Comfort Boatang, Amy Hauck Newman, John R Lever, Roxanne A Vaughan, L Keith Henry
Dopamine transporter (DAT) blockers like cocaine and many other abused and therapeutic drugs bind and stabilize an inactive form of the transporter inhibiting reuptake of extracellular dopamine (DA). The resulting increases in DA lead to the ability of these drugs to induce psychomotor alterations and addiction, but paradoxical findings in animal models indicate that not all DAT antagonists induce cocaine-like behavioral outcomes. How this occurs is not known, but one possibility is that uptake inhibitors may bind at multiple locations or in different poses to stabilize distinct conformational transporter states associated with differential neurochemical endpoints...
July 19, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734208/effect-of-mutation-on-a%C3%AE-1-42-heme-complex-in-aggregation-mechanism-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Subramaniam Boopathi, Ponmalai Kolandaivel
Amyloid β (Aβ) peptide aggregation is one of the root causes for Alzheimer's disease. Recently, experimental studies show that three active binding sites (His6, His13 and His14) of Aβ peptides were bound with heme to form Aβ-Heme complex, which leads to inhibit the aggregation process. We apply molecular dynamic simulation to investigate the aggregation pathways of Aβ-Heme peptides. The above three binding sites were mutated by Glycine residue individually and generate three complex systems such as Aβ(His6Gly)-Heme, Aβ(His13Gly)-Heme and Aβ(His14Gly)-Heme...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733811/pharmacological-evidence-that-5-ht2c-receptor-blockade-selectively-improves-decision-making-when-rewards-are-paired-with-audiovisual-cues-in-a-rat-gambling-task
#4
Wendy K Adams, Chris Barkus, Jacqueline-Marie N Ferland, Trevor Sharp, Catharine A Winstanley
RATIONALE: Adding reward-concurrent cues to a rat gambling task (rGT) increases risky choice. This cued version of the task may reflect an "addiction-like" cognitive process, more similar to human gambling than the uncued task. Serotonergic drugs that target 5-HT2 receptors alter mechanisms linked to impulse control. However, relatively little is known regarding the impact of such agents on either risky decision making, or the ability of conditioned stimuli to bias the choice process, despite potential relevance to addiction development and treatment...
July 21, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731544/localized-mrs-reliability-of-in-vivo-glutamate-at-3%C3%A2-t-in-shortened-scan-times-a-feasibility-study
#5
J Eric Jensen, Randy P Auerbach, Angela Pisoni, Diego A Pizzagalli
Glutamate is the prime excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain and has been implicated in a wide range of psychiatric conditions. To improve the applicability and clinical reach of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), research is needed to develop shortened, yet reliable, MRS scanning procedures for standard 1.5-3-T clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, particularly with young or vulnerable populations unable to tolerate longer protocols. To this end, we evaluated the test-retest reliability of a shortened J-resolved MRS sequence in healthy adolescents (n = 22) aged 12-14 years...
July 21, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730152/zebrafish-get-connected-investigating-neurotransmission-targets-and-alterations-in-chemical-toxicity
#6
Katharine A Horzmann, Jennifer L Freeman
Neurotransmission is the basis of neuronal communication and is critical for normal brain development, behavior, learning, and memory. Exposure to drugs and chemicals can alter neurotransmission, often through unknown pathways and mechanisms. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) model system is increasingly being used to study the brain and chemical neurotoxicity. In this review, the major neurotransmitter systems, including glutamate, GABA, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, and glutamate are surveyed and pathways of synthesis, transport, metabolism, and action are examined...
September 2016: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729221/sensitivity-to-cocaine-in-adult-mice-is-due-to-interplay-between-genetic-makeup-early-environment-and-later-experience
#7
Matteo Di Segni, Diego Andolina, Alessandra Coassin, Alessandra Accoto, Alessandra Luchetti, Tiziana Pascucci, Carla Luzi, Anna Rita Lizzi, Francesca R D'Amato, Rossella Ventura
Although early aversive postnatal events are known to increase the risk to develop psychiatric disorders later in life, rarely they determine alone the nature and outcome of the psychopathology, indicating that interaction with genetic factors is crucial for expression of psychopathologies in adulthood. Moreover, it has been suggested that early life experiences could have negative consequences or confer adaptive value in different individuals. Here we suggest that resilience or vulnerability to adult cocaine sensitivity depends on a "triple interaction" between genetic makeup x early environment x later experience...
July 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725212/neurochemical-systems-of-the-retina-involved-in-the-control-of-movement
#8
Gregory L Willis, Christopher B Freelance
Recent studies have revealed that the retina may exert control over deep brain function and may be importantly involved in the etiology, progression, and treatment of disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). While such a concept is uncharted territory and even less is known about the mechanism by which this might be achieved, this study was undertaken to determine how retinal dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and melatonin (MEL) neurotransmitter systems might be involved in the control of movement in their own right...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721695/myopes-have-significantly-higher-serum-melatonin-concentrations-than-non-myopes
#9
Stephanie Kearney, Lisa O'Donoghue, Kirsty L Pourshahidi, Diego Cobice, Kathryn J Saunders
PURPOSE: Experimental animal models of myopia demonstrate that higher melatonin (Mel) and lower dopamine (DA) concentrations actively promote axial elongation. This study explored the association between myopia and serum concentrations of DA and Mel in humans. METHODS: Morning serum concentrations of DA and Mel were measured by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from 54 participants (age 19.1 ± 0.81 years) in September/October 2014 (phase 1) and March/April 2016 (phase 2)...
July 18, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720887/olfactory-bulb-plasticity-ensures-proper-olfaction-after-severe-impairment-in-postnatal-neurogenesis
#10
D Díaz, R Muñoz-Castañeda, C Ávila-Zarza, J Carretero, J R Alonso, E Weruaga
The olfactory bulb (OB) neurons establish a complex network that ensures the correct processing of the olfactory inputs. Moreover, the OB presents a lifelong addition of new neurons into its existing circuitry. This neurogenesis is considered essential for the OB function. However, its functional impact on physiology and behavior is still unclear. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of OB plasticity that underlie bulbar physiology in relation to severe damage of neurogenesis. The neurogenesis of young mice was altered by ionizing radiation...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719733/characterizing-a-mouse-model-for-evaluation-of-countermeasures-against-hydrogen-sulfide-induced-neurotoxicity-and-neurological-sequelae
#11
Poojya Anantharam, Elizabeth M Whitley, Belinda Mahama, Dong-Suk Kim, Paula M Imerman, Dahai Shao, Monica R Langley, Arthi Kanthasamy, Wilson K Rumbeiha
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a highly neurotoxic gas. It is the second most common cause of gas-induced deaths. Beyond mortality, surviving victims of acute exposure may suffer long-term neurological sequelae. There is a need to develop countermeasures against H2 S poisoning. However, no translational animal model of H2 S-induced neurological sequelae exists. Here, we describe a novel mouse model of H2 S-induced neurotoxicity for translational research. In paradigm I, C57/BL6 mice were exposed to 765 ppm H2 S for 40 min on day 1, followed by 15-min daily exposures for periods ranging from 1 to 6 days...
July 18, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719177/classics-in-neuroimaging-imaging-the-dopaminergic-pathway-with-pet
#12
Meghna Kanthan, Paul Cumming, Jacob M Hooker, Neil Vasdev
The success of positron emission tomography (PET) for observing molecular processes underlying brain function and disease is underpinned by radiotracer chemistry. From the earliest applications of PET to measure dopamine synthesis capacity and the abundance of neuroreceptors and transporters, to the more recent topic of dynamic neurochemical imaging, interrogation of brain dopamine in conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases, schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addictions has been a driving force that challenges the ingenuity of radiopharmaceutical scientists...
July 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716706/characterization-of-a-presymptomatic-stage-in-a-drosophila-parkinson-s-disease-model-unveiling-dopaminergic-compensatory-mechanisms
#13
Daniela Molina-Mateo, Nicolás Fuenzalida-Uribe, Sergio Hidalgo, Claudia Molina-Fernández, Jorge Abarca, Rafaella V Zárate, Marcela Escandón, Reinaldo Figueroa, María Florencia Tevy, Jorge M Campusano
Parkinson disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder characterized by several motor symptoms including shaking, rigidity, slow movement and difficult walking, which has been associated to the death of nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons. >90% of PD patients also present olfactory dysfunction. Although the molecular mechanisms responsible for this disease are not clear, hereditary PD is linked to mutations in specific genes, including the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). In this work we provide for the first time a thorough temporal description of the behavioral effects induced by a mutation in the PINK1 gene in adult Drosophila, a previously described animal model for PD...
July 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716399/prelimbic-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptors-are-involved-in-the-regulation-of-depressive-like-behaviors-in-the-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#14
Zhong Heng Wu, Qiao Jun Zhang, Cheng Xue Du, Yue Xi, Wen Juan Li, Fang Yuan Guo, Shu Qi Yu, Ya Xin Yang, Jian Liu
At present, it is not clear whether α1-adrenoceptors in the prelimbic cortex (PrL) are involved in Parkinson's disease-related depression. Here we examined effects of PrL α1-adrenoceptors on depressive-like behaviors in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle. The lesion induced depressive-like responses as measured by the sucrose preference and forced swim tests compared to sham-operated rats. Intra-PrL injection of α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine induced or increased the expression of depressive-like behaviors in sham-operated and the lesioned rats...
July 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714693/stochastic-simulation-of-dopamine-neuromodulation-for-implementation-of-fluorescent-neurochemical-probes-in-the-striatal-extracellular-space
#15
Abraham Beyene, Ian McFarlane, Rebecca Pinals, Markita P Landry
Imaging the dynamic behavior of neuromodulatory neurotransmitters in the extracelluar space arising from individual quantal releases would constitute a major advance in neurochemical imaging. Spatial and temporal resolution of these highly stochastic neuromodulatory events requires concurrent advances in the chemical development of optical nanosensors selective for neuromodulators in concert with advances in imaging methodologies to capture millisecond neurotransmitter release. Herein, we develop and implement a stochastic model to describe dopamine dynamics in the extracellular space (ECS) of the brain dorsal striatum to guide the design and implementation of fluorescent neurochemical probes that record neurotransmitter dynamics in the ECS...
July 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714392/natural-steroids-and-androgen-antagonists-used-as-neuroprotectives-in-common-neurological-disorders
#16
David Calderon Guzman, Hugo Juarez Olguin, Ernestina Hernandez Garcia, Monica Punzo Soto, Mayra Santillan Garcia, Gerardo Barragan Mejia
Multiple classes of natural products, such as antiandrogens or steroids have been used as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory treatments in neurodegenerative diseases. This paper aims to review current knowledge on these substances and their possible relationship with free radicals as an alternative therapy and prevention of common neurological disorders. An exhaustive review of the neurochemical mechanisms of these substances in the central nervous system of humans and animal models has yet to be undertaken in the literature, particularly regarding their importance and increasing use...
July 14, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713483/the-treadmill-exercise-protects-against-dopaminergic-neuron-loss-and-brain-oxidative-stress-in-parkinsonian-rats
#17
Roberta Oliveira da Costa, Carlos Vinicius Jataí Gadelha-Filho, Ayane Edwiges Moura da Costa, Mariana Lima Feitosa, Dayane Pessoa de Araújo, Jalles Dantas de Lucena, Pedro Everson Alexandre de Aquino, Francisco Arnaldo Viana Lima, Kelly Rose Tavares Neves, Glauce Socorro de Barros Viana
Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive neurological pathology, presents motor and nonmotor impairments. The objectives were to support data on exercise benefits to PD. Male Wistar rats were distributed into sham-operated (SO) and 6-OHDA-lesioned, both groups without and with exercise. The animals were subjected to treadmill exercises (14 days), 24 h after the stereotaxic surgery and striatal 6-OHDA injection. Those from no-exercise groups stayed on the treadmill for the same period and, afterwards, were subjected to behavioral tests and euthanized for neurochemical and immunohistochemical assays...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711395/silymarin-ameliorates-experimentally-induced-depressive-like-behavior-in-rats-involvement-of-hippocampal-bdnf-signaling-inflammatory-cytokines-and-oxidative-stress-response
#18
Vishnu N Thakare, Manoj K Aswar, Yogesh P Kulkarni, Rajesh R Patil, Bhoomika M Patel
Silymarin is a polyphenolic flavonoid of Silybum marianum, exhibited neuroprotection and antidepressant like activity in acute restraint stressed mice. The main objective of the present study is to investigate possible antidepressant like activity of silymarin in experimentally induced depressive behavior in rats. The depressive behaviors were induced in rats by olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) technique. Wistar rats were administered with silymarin at a dose of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg, by per oral in OBX and sham operated rats...
July 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710968/enduring-changes-in-brain-metabolites-and-executive-functioning-in-abstinent-cocaine-users
#19
Candice E Crocker, Scot E Purdon, Christopher C Hanstock, Bonnie Lakusta, Peter Seres, Philip G Tibbo
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data connecting the metabolic and cognitive functioning of abstinent cocaine users. This is a pressing public health concern as approximately 1% of the Canadian population and 0.4% of the global population is estimated to have used cocaine in the past year. METHODS: Our clinical study compared the in vivo neurochemical profiles in the prefrontal cortex to cognitive tests associated with the same region in 21 moderate term abstinent cocaine users (average 187days abstinent, range 15-1432days), and 30 healthy controls using 3T (1)H MRS...
June 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704714/current-status-of-biological-treatment-options-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Valsamma Eapen, Laura Nicholls, Vanessa Spagnol, Nisha E Mathew
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are characterised by deficits in social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviours. With an onset in early childhood, ASDs are thought to be heterogeneous, both genetically and clinically. This has led to the notion that "autism" is "autisms", however, there has been limited progress in understanding the different subgroups and the unique pathogenesis that would then allow targeted intervention. Although existing treatments are mainly symptom focussed, research is beginning to unravel the underlying genetic and molecular pathways, structural and functional neuronal circuitry involvement and the associated neurochemicals...
July 6, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
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