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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229287/role-of-neurochemicals-in-the-interaction-between-the-microbiota-and-the-immune-and-the-nervous-system-of-the-host-organism
#1
Alexander V Oleskin, Boris A Shenderov, Vladimir S Rogovsky
This work is concerned with the role of evolutionary conserved substances, neurotransmitters, and neurohormones, within the complex framework of the microbial consortium-immune system-nervous system axis in the human or animal organism. Although the operation of each of these systems per se is relatively well understood, their combined effects on the host organism still await further research. Drawing on recent research on host-produced and microbial low-molecular-weight neurochemicals such as biogenic amines, amino acids, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), we suggest that these mediators form a part of a universal neurochemical "language...
February 22, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225481/the-dysfunction-of-inhibition-control-in-pituitary-patients-evidence-from-the-go-nogo-event-related-potential-study
#2
Chenglong Cao, Jian Song, Shun Yao, Yan Yan, Shun Li, Guibao Peng, Pan Ma, Hao Du, Cheng Huang, Huichao Ding, Yuanzhi He, Ronghui Sun, Guozheng Xu
Pituitary tumor is an intracranial tumor; because of the development of neuroimaging technology in recent years, morbidity is likely to increase. Evidence showed impaired cognitive ability of patients with pituitary adenoma. There is evidence that neurobehavioral disorders are common in pituitary adenoma patients. This disorder is because of the cognitive and emotional function of the important functional areas of the brain oppressed and hormone imbalance. Individuals' mental activity is controlled by the brain and the abnormal mental activity is caused by both the structural abnormalities of the brain and neurochemical dysfunction...
February 20, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225193/human-neural-progenitor-transplantation-rescues-behavior-and-reduces-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-a-transgenic-model-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#3
Natalie R S Goldberg, Samuel E Marsh, Joseph Ochaba, Brandon C Shelley, Hayk Davtyan, Leslie M Thompson, Joan S Steffan, Clive N Svendsen, Mathew Blurton-Jones
Synucleinopathies are a group of neurodegenerative disorders sharing the common feature of misfolding and accumulation of the presynaptic protein α-synuclein (α-syn) into insoluble aggregates. Within this diverse group, Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) is characterized by the aberrant accumulation of α-syn in cortical, hippocampal, and brainstem neurons, resulting in multiple cellular stressors that particularly impair dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission and related motor and cognitive function. Recent studies show that murine neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation can improve cognitive or motor function in transgenic models of Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease, and DLB...
February 22, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224681/modeling-human-methamphetamine-use-patterns-in-mice-chronic-and-binge-methamphetamine-exposure-reward-function-and-neurochemistry
#4
James P Kesby, Ariel Chang, Athina Markou, Svetlana Semenova
Different methamphetamine use patterns in human subjects may contribute to inconsistent findings regarding the effects of methamphetamine abuse on brain and behavior. The present study investigated whether human-derived chronic and binge methamphetamine use patterns have differential effects on reward and neurochemistry in mice. Brain reward function in mice was evaluated during acute/prolonged withdrawal, and in response to methamphetamine challenge using the intracranial self-stimulation procedure. Brain dopaminergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic neurochemistry was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography...
February 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224459/effect-of-hallucinogens-on-unconditioned-behavior
#5
Adam L Halberstadt, Mark A Geyer
Because of the ethical and regulatory hurdles associated with human studies, much of what is known about the psychopharmacology of hallucinogens has been derived from animal models. However, developing reliable animal models has proven to be a challenging task due to the complexity and variability of hallucinogen effects in humans. This chapter focuses on three animal models that are frequently used to test the effects of hallucinogens on unconditioned behavior: head twitch response (HTR), prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI), and exploratory behavior...
February 22, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224343/amphotericin-b-increases-transglutaminase-2-expression-associated-with-upregulation-of-endocytotic-activity-in-mouse-microglial-cell-line-bv-2
#6
Kenji Kawabe, Katsura Takano, Mitsuaki Moriyama, Yoichi Nakamura
Amphotericin B (AmB), a polyene antibiotic, is reported to cause the microglial activation to induce nitric oxide (NO) production and proinflammatory cytokines expression, and change neurotrophic factors expression in cultured microglia (Motoyoshi et al. in Neurochem Int 52:1290-1296, 2008). On the other hand, tissue-type transglutaminase (TG2) is involved in connection to phagocytes with apoptotic cells. Engulfment of neurons by activated microglia is thought to cause neurodegenerative diseases but detail is unclear, and involvement of TG2 in phagocytosis has been reported in our previous study using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 cells (Kawabe et al...
February 21, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223211/sensitizing-exposure-to-amphetamine-increases-ampa-receptor-phosphorylation-without-increasing-cell-surface-expression-in-the-rat-nucleus-accumbens
#7
Qiang Wang, Dongdong Li, Nancy Bubula, Matthew R Campioni, Daniel S McGehee, Paul Vezina
Exposure to psychostimulants like cocaine or amphetamine leads to long-lasting sensitization of their behavioral and neurochemical effects. Here we characterized changes in AMPA receptor distribution and phosphorylation state in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAcc) weeks after amphetamine exposure to assess their potential contribution to sensitization by this drug. Using protein cross-linking, biochemical, subcellular fractionation, and slice electrophysiological approaches in the NAcc, we found that, unlike cocaine, previous exposure to amphetamine did not increase cell surface levels of either GluA1 or GluA2 AMPA receptor subunits, redistribution of these subunits to the synaptic or perisynaptic cellular membrane domains, protein-protein associations required to support the accumulation and retention of AMPA receptors in the PSD, or the peak amplitude of AMPA receptor mediated mEPSCs recorded in NAcc slices...
February 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223145/rapid-induction-of-dopamine-sensitization-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-induced-by-a-single-injection-of-cocaine
#8
Bryan F Singer, Myranda A Bryan, Pavlo Popov, Terry E Robinson, Brandon J Aragona
Repeated intermittent exposure to cocaine results in the neurochemical sensitization of dopamine (DA) transmission within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Indeed, the excitability of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is enhanced within hours of initial psychostimulant exposure. However, it is not known if this is accompanied by a comparably rapid change in the ability of cocaine to increase extracellular DA concentrations in the ventral striatum. To address this question we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in awake-behaving rats to measure DA responses in the NAc shell following an initial intravenous cocaine injection, and then again 2-h later...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223107/olfactory-bulbectomy-in-mice-triggers-transient-and-long-lasting-behavioral-impairments-and-biochemical-hippocampal-disturbances
#9
Roberto Farina de Almeida, Marcelo Ganzella, Daniele Guilhermano Machado, Samanta Oliveira Loureiro, Douglas Leffa, André Quincozes-Santos, Letícia Ferreira Pettenuzzo, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Thiago Duarte, Diogo Onofre Souza
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a neuropsychiatric disease that is associated with profound disturbances in affected individuals. Elucidating the pathophysiology of MDD has been frustratingly slow, especially concerning the neurochemical events and brain regions associated with disease progression. Thus, we evaluated the time-course (up to 8weeks) behavioral and biochemical effects in mice that underwent to a bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), which is used to modeling depressive-like behavior in rodents...
February 18, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221365/glial-glt-1-blockade-in-infralimbic-cortex-as-a-new-strategy-to-evoke-rapid-antidepressant-like-effects-in-rats
#10
J Gasull-Camós, M Tarrés-Gatius, F Artigas, A Castañé
Ketamine and deep brain stimulation produce rapid antidepressant effects in humans and rodents. An increased AMPA receptor (AMPA-R) signaling in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been suggested to mediate these responses. However, little research has addressed the direct effects of enhancing glutamate tone or AMPA-R stimulation in mPFC subdivisions. The current study investigates the behavioral and neurochemical consequences of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) blockade or s-AMPA microinfusion in the infralimbic (IL) and prelimbic (PrL) cortex...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220062/anatomical-and-molecular-properties-of-long-descending-propriospinal-neurons-in-mice
#11
Jamie R Flynn, Victoria L Conn, Kieran A Boyle, David I Hughes, Masahiko Watanabe, Tomoko Velasquez, Martyn D Goulding, Robert J Callister, Brett A Graham
Long descending propriospinal neurons (LDPNs) are interneurons that form direct connections between cervical and lumbar spinal circuits. LDPNs are involved in interlimb coordination and are important mediators of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Much of what we know about LDPNs comes from a range of species, however, the increased use of transgenic mouse lines to better define neuronal populations calls for a more complete characterisation of LDPNs in mice. In this study, we examined the cell body location, inhibitory neurotransmitter phenotype, developmental provenance, morphology and synaptic inputs of mouse LDPNs throughout the cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219749/behavioral-phenotypes-associated-with-mptp-induction-of-partial-lesions-in-common-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#12
Kimberley A Phillips, Corinna N Ross, Jennifer Spross, Catherine J Cheng, Alyssa Izquierdo, K C Biju, Cang Chen, Senlin Li, Suzette D Tardif
Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with the core motor features of resting tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. Non-motor symptoms also occur, and include cognitive dysfunction, mood disorders, anosmia (loss of smell), and REM sleep disturbances. As the development of medications and other therapies for treatment of non-motor symptoms is ongoing, it is essential to have animal models that aid in understanding the neural changes underlying non-motor PD symptoms and serve as a testing ground for potential therapeutics...
February 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219675/tcf7l2-plays-crucial-roles-in-forebrain-development-through-regulation-of-thalamic-and-habenular-neuron-identity-and-connectivity
#13
Myungsin Lee, Jiyeon Yoon, Hobeom Song, Bumwhee Lee, Lam Tri Duc, Jaeseung Yoon, Kwanghee Baek, Hans Clevers, Yongsu Jeong
The thalamus acts as a central integrator for processing and relaying sensory and motor information to and from the cerebral cortex, and the habenula plays pivotal roles in emotive decision making by modulating dopaminergic and serotonergic circuits. These neural compartments are derived from a common developmental progenitor domain, called prosomere 2, in the caudal forebrain. Thalamic and habenular neurons exhibit distinct molecular profile, neurochemical identity, and axonal circuitry. However, the mechanisms of how their progenitors in prosomere 2 give rise to these two populations of neurons and contribute to the forebrain circuitry remains unclear...
February 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215987/accelerated-retinal-aging-in-pacap-knock-out-mice
#14
Andrea Kovács-Valasek, Krisztina Szabadfi, Viktória Dénes, Bálint Szalontai, Andrea Tamás, Péter Kiss, Aliz Szabó, Gyorgy Setalo, Dóra Reglődi, Robert Gábriel
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophic and neuroprotective peptide. PACAP and its receptors are widely distributed in the retina. A number of reports provided evidence that PACAP is neuroprotective in retinal degenerations. The current study compared retina cell type-specific differences in young (3-4months) and aged adults (14-16months), of wild-type (WT) mice and knock-out (KO) mice lacking endogenous PACAP production during the course of aging. Histological, immunocytochemical and Western blot examinations were performed...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214875/a-developmental-study-of-the-cerebellar-nucleus-in-the-catshark-a-basal-gnathostome
#15
Sol Pose-Méndez, Isabel Rodríguez-Moldes, Eva Candal, Sylvie Mazan, Ramón Anadón
The output of the cerebellar cortex is mainly released via cerebellar nuclei which vary in number and complexity among gnathostomes, extant vertebrates with a cerebellum. Cartilaginous fishes, a basal gnathostome lineage, show a conspicuous, well-organized cerebellar nucleus, unlike ray-finned fishes. To gain insight into the evolution and development of the cerebellar nucleus, we analyzed in the shark Scyliorhinus canicula (a chondrichthyan model species) the developmental expression of several genes coding for transcription factors (ScLhx5,ScLhx9,ScTbr1, and ScEn2) and the distribution of the protein calbindin, since all appear to be involved in cerebellar nuclei patterning in other gnathostomes...
February 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213154/density-and-neurochemical-profiles-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-expressing-interneuron-in-the-mouse-basolateral-amygdala
#16
Xiaona Wang, Chunhua Liu, Xiaochen Wang, Fei Gao, Ren-Zhi Zhan
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-expressing interneurons reside in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) of rodents. In the present study, we immunohistochemically analyzed nNOS-positive cells in the mouse BLA by focusing on their density, γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergicity, and co-localization with calcium-binding proteins and neuropeptides. The density of nNOS-containing neurons was analyzed with unbiased stereology. Experiments were conducted in both adult wild-type C57BL/6 and glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescence protein (GAD67-GFP) knock-in mice, in which GFP is expressed in GABAergic neurons under the control of the endogenous GAD67 gene promoter...
February 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212939/cannabis-exacerbates-depressive-symptoms-in-rat-model-induced-by-reserpine
#17
Yasser A Khadrawy, Hussein G Sawie, Omar M E Abdel-Salam, Eman N Hosny
Cannabis sativa is one of the most widely recreational drugs and its use is more prevalent among depressed patients. Some studies reported that Cannabis has antidepressant effects while others showed increased depressive symptoms in Cannabis users. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of Cannabis extract on the depressive-like rats. Twenty four rats were divided into: control, rat model of depression induced by reserpine and depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis sativa extract (10mg/kg expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol)...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212704/neurochemical-differences-in-learning-and-memory-paradigms-among-rats-supplemented-with-anthocyanin-rich-blueberry-diets-and-exposed-to-acute-doses-of-56-fe-particles
#18
Shibu M Poulose, Bernard M Rabin, Donna F Bielinski, Megan E Kelly, Marshall G Miller, Nopporn Thanthaeng, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries (BB) on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress, which can lead to "accelerated aging." One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, consisting of high-energy and -charge particles (HZE), which are known to cause cognitive dysfunction and deleterious neurochemical alterations. We recently tested the behavioral and neurochemical effects of acute exposure to HZE particles such as (56)Fe, within 24-48h after exposure, and found that radiation primarily affects memory and not learning...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212520/adp-ribosyl-cyclases-cd38-cd157-social-skills-and-friendship
#19
Anne Chong, Fabio Malavasi, Salomon Israel, Chiea Chuen Khor, Von Bing Yap, Mikhail Monakhov, Soo Hong Chew, Poh San Lai, Richard P Ebstein
Why some individuals seek social engagement while others shy away has profound implications for normal and pathological human behavior. Evidence suggests that oxytocin (OT), the paramount human social hormone, and CD38 that governs OT release, contribute to individual differences in social skills from intense social involvement to extreme avoidance that characterize autism. To explore the neurochemical underpinnings of sociality, CD38 expression of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) was measured in Han Chinese undergraduates...
January 16, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211669/3-aminomethyl-derivatives-of-2-phenylimidazo-1-2-a-pyridine-as-positive-allosteric-modulators-of-gabaa-receptor-with-potential-antipsychotic-activity
#20
Monika Marcinkowska, Marcin Kolaczkowski, Krzysztof Kamiński, Adam Bucki, Maciej Henryk Pawlowski, Agata Siwek, Tadeusz Karcz, Gabriela Starowicz, Karolina Sloczynska, Elżbieta Pękala, Anna Wesołowska, Jerzy Samochowiec, Paweł Mierzejewski, Przemyslaw Bienkowski
Schizophrenia is a mental illness characterized by behavioral changes as well as anatomical and neurochemical abnormalities. There has been a remarkable progress in the drug discovery for schizophrenia; however, antipsychotics that act through molecular targets, other than monoaminergic receptors, have not been developed. One of the hypotheses of schizophrenia states that GABAergic dysfunction might be implemented in the pathophysiology of this disease. Our recent findings and previous clinical observations have suggested that modulation of GABAergic system through α1-GABAA receptors would represent an original approach for the treatment of schizophrenia...
February 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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