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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922852/magnesium-sulfate-prevents-neurochemical-and-long-term-behavioral-consequences-of-neonatal-excitotoxic-lesions-comparison-between-male-and-female-mice
#1
Ismaël Daher, Bérénice Le Dieu-Lugon, Nathalie Dourmap, Matthieu Lecuyer, Lauriane Ramet, Cathy Gomila, Jérôme Ausseil, Stéphane Marret, Philippe Leroux, Vincent Roy, Salah El Mestikawy, Stéphanie Daumas, Bruno Gonzalez, Isabelle Leroux-Nicollet, Carine Cleren
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) administration to mothers at risk of preterm delivery is proposed as a neuroprotective strategy against neurological alterations such as cerebral palsy in newborns. However, long-term beneficial or adverse effects of MgSO4 and sex-specific sensitivity remain to be investigated. We conducted behavioral and neurochemical studies of MgSO4 effects in males and females, from the perinatal period to adolescence in a mouse model of cerebral neonatal lesion. The lesion was produced in 5-day-old (P5) pups by ibotenate intracortical injection...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918840/neuroprotective-effects-of-eexenatide-in-a-rotenone-induced-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Dürdane Aksoy, Volkan Solmaz, Türker Çavuşoğlu, Ayfer Meral, Utku Ateş, Oytun Erbaş
BACKROUND: Several studies suggest an association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus; these 2 diseases are both known to affect the common molecular pathways. As a synthetic agonist for the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor, exenatide has been evaluated as a neuroprotective agent in multiple animal models. Rotenone models of PD have great potential for the investigation of PD pathology and motor and nonmotor symptoms, as well as the role of gene-environment interactions in PD causation and pathogenesis...
September 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916503/altered-serotonergic-and-gabaergic-neurotransmission-in-a-mice-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#3
Christine Winter, Dana M Greene, Paraskevi Mavrogiorgou, Helge Schaper, Reinhard Sohr, Abel Bult-Ito, Georg Juckel
There is ample evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is based on reduced serotonergic function. Replicated bidirectional selection for thermoregulatory nest-building behavior in the laboratory house mouse (Mus musculus) resulted in compulsive-like, non-compulsive-like and randomly bred control mice that represent a non-induced animal model of OCD. The present study aimed at investigating the neurochemical patterns in specific brain regions of compulsive-like (HA) versus non-compulsive-like (LA) and normal (CA) mice...
September 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916270/understanding-taurine-cns-activity-using-alternative-zebrafish-models
#4
REVIEW
Nathana J Mezzomo, Barbara D Fontana, Allan V Kalueff, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Denis B Rosemberg
Taurine is a highly abundant "amino acid" in the brain. Despite the potential neuroactive role of taurine in vertebrates has long been recognized, the underlying molecular mechanisms related to its pleiotropic effects in the brain remain poorly understood. Due to the genetic tractability, rich behavioral repertoire, neurochemical conservation, and small size, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a powerful candidate for neuropsychopharmacology investigation and in vivo drug screening. Here, we summarize the main physiological roles of taurine in mammals, including neuromodulation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, and antioxidant action...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913608/efficacy-of-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-against-cadmium-toxicity-on-metal-ion-and-oxidative-imbalance-and-expression-of-metallothionein-and-antioxidant-genes-in-rabbit-brain
#5
Hamida M Saleh, Yasser S El-Sayed, Sherif M Naser, Abdelgawad S Eltahawy, Atsuto Onoda, Masakazu Umezawa
To explore the protective efficacy of α-lipoic acid (ALA) against Cd-prompted neurotoxicity, young male New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were divided randomly into four groups. Group 1 (control) received demineralized water. Group 2 (Cd) administered cadmium chloride (CdCl2) 3 mg/kg bwt. Group 3 (ALA) administered ALA 100 mg/kg bwt. Group 4 (Cd + ALA) administered ALA 1 h after Cd. The treatments were administered orally for 30 consecutive days. Cd-induced marked disturbances in neurochemical parameters were indicated by the reduction in micro- and macro-elements (Zn, Fe, Cu, P, and Ca), with the highest reduction in Cd-exposed rabbits, followed by Cd + ALA group and then ALA group...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912162/regional-cellular-environment-shapes-phenotypic-variations-of-hippocampal-and-neocortical-chandelier-cells
#6
Yugo Ishino, Michael J Yetman, Serena M Sossi, André Steinecke, Yasufumi Hayano, Hiroki Taniguchi
Different cortical regions processing distinct information, such as the hippocampus and the neocortex, share common cellular components and circuit motifs but form unique networks by modifying these cardinal units. Cortical circuits include diverse types of GABAergic interneurons (INs) that shape activity of excitatory principal neurons (PNs). Canonical IN types conserved across distinct cortical regions have been defined by their morphological, electrophysiological, and neurochemical properties. However, it remains largely unknown whether canonical IN types undergo specific modifications in distinct cortical regions and display "regional variants"...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912019/a-nigro-vagal-pathway-controls-gastric-motility-and-is-affected-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinsonism
#7
Laura Anselmi, Luca Toti, Cecilia Bove, Jessica Hampton, R Alberto Travagli
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In most patients with Parkinson's disease, gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunctions, such as gastroparesis and constipation, are prodromal to the cardinal motor symptoms of the disease. Sporadic Parkinson's disease has been proposed to develop following ingestion of neurotoxicants that affect the brain-gut axis via the vagus nerve, and then travel to higher centers compromising the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), and, later, the cerebral cortex. We aimed to identify the pathway that connects the brainstem vagal nuclei and the SNpc, and to determine whether this pathway is compromised in a rat model of Parkinsonism...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902172/behavioral-and-neurochemical-consequences-of-pentylenetetrazol-induced-kindling-in-young-and-middle-aged-rats
#8
Alexandre Ademar Hoeller, Cristiane Ribeiro de Carvalho, Pedro Leite Costa Franco, Douglas Affonso Formolo, Alexandre Kracker Imthon, Henrique Rodighero Dos Santos, Ingrid Eidt, Gabriel Roman Souza, Leandra Celso Constantino, Camila Leite Ferreira, Rui Daniel Prediger, Rodrigo Bainy Leal, Roger Walz
(1) Objectives: Epilepsy disorder is likely to increase with aging, leading to an increased incidence of comorbidities and mortality. In spite of that, there is a lack of information regarding this issue and little knowledge of cognitive and emotional responses in aging subjects following epileptogenesis. We investigated whether and how aging distress epilepsy-related behavioral and biochemical outcomes are associated with cognition and emotion. (2) Methods: Young and middle-aged Wistar rats (3 or 12 months old) were treated with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 35 mg/kg) and injected on alternated days for 20 (young rats) and 32 days (middle-aged rats)...
September 13, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901281/review-5-ht1-5-ht2-5-ht3-and-5-ht7-receptors-and-their-role-in-the-modulation-of-pain-response-in-the-central-nervous-system
#9
Cortes-Altamirano José Luis, Olmos-Hernández Adriana, Bonilla-Jaime Herlinda, Carrillo-Mora Paul, Bandala Cindy, S Reyes-Long, Alfaro-Rodríguez Alfonso
BACKGROUND: The aim of this review was to identify the mechanisms by which serotonin receptors involved at the central level are able to modulate the nociceptive response. Pain is a defense mechanism of the body that entails physiological, anatomical, neurochemical, and psychological changes, and is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience with potential risk of tissue damage, comprising the leading cause of appointments with Physicians worldwide. Treatment for this symptom has generated several neuropharmacological lines of research, due to the different types of pain and the various drugs employed to treat this condition...
September 11, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894915/chronobiological-theories-of-mood-disorder
#10
Nevin F W Zaki, David Warren Spence, Ahmed S BaHammam, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal, Daniel P Cardinali, Gregory M Brown
Major depressive disorder (MDD) remains the most prevalent mental disorder and a leading cause of disability, affecting approximately 100 million adults worldwide. The disorder is characterized by a constellation of symptoms affecting mood, anxiety, neurochemical balance, sleep patterns, and circadian and/or seasonal rhythm entrainment. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between chronobiological parameters and depression remain unknown. A PubMed search was conducted to review articles from 1979 to the present, using the following search terms: "chronobiology," "mood," "sleep," and "circadian rhythms...
September 11, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891592/decreased-gaba-levels-in-the-brainstem-in-patients-with-possible-sleep-bruxism-a-pilot-study
#11
Xiao Fan, Fang Qu, Ji-Jun Wang, Xue Du, Wei-Cai Liu
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies have indicated that the central and autonomic nervous systems play roles in the genesis of sleep bruxism (SB). The role of specific neurochemicals in SB has been a subject of interest. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we use proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) to determine whether the levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu) are different in the brainstem and bilateral cortical masticatory area (CMA) between possible sleep bruxism (SB) patients and controls, and discuss whether the brainstem or cortical networks which may affect the central masticatory pathways are under the genesis of SB...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890156/the-microbiota-influences-cell-death-and-microglial-colonization-in-the-perinatal-mouse-brain
#12
Alexandra Castillo-Ruiz, Morgan Mosley, Arlene J George, Lamiyah F Mussaji, Evan F Fullerton, Elara M Ruszkowski, Andrew J Jacobs, Andrew T Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing, Nancy G Forger
The mammalian fetus develops in a largely sterile environment, and direct exposure to a complex microbiota does not occur until birth. We took advantage of this to examine the effect of the microbiota on brain development during the first few days of life. The expression of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines, developmental cell death, and microglial colonization in the brain were compared between newborn conventionally colonized mice and mice born in sterile, germ-free (GF) conditions. Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α was markedly suppressed in GF newborns...
September 7, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885007/stereoselective-differences-between-the-reinforcing-and-motivational-effects-of-cathinone-derived-4-methylmethcathinone-mephedrone-in-self-administering-rats
#13
Helene L Philogene-Khalid, Steven J Simmons, Sunil Nayak, Rose M Martorana, Shu H Su, Yohanka Caro, Brona Ranieri, Kathryn DiFurio, Lili Mo, Taylor A Gentile, Ali Murad, Allen B Reitz, John W Muschamp, Scott M Rawls
Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC)) (MEPH) is a new psychoactive substance (NPS) of the synthetic cathinone class. MEPH has a chiral center and exists as two enantiomers (R-,S-MEPH), yet stereospecific effects of MEPH have not been extensively investigated in preclinical assays. Because significant behavioral and neurochemical differences can exist between enantiomers, probing effects of stereochemistry on biological activity enables separation of adverse and therapeutic effects. Our prior work showed that R-MEPH, relative to S-MEPH, produced greater locomotor activation, place preference and facilitation of brain reward thresholds in rodents...
September 8, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884728/-psychiatry-of-the-future-multidimensionality-of-the-problems-of-modern-psychiatry-and-development-of-classification-systems
#14
E V Makushkin, S N Oskolkova, G A Fastovtsov
The success and achievements in the area of neurosciences due to the development of neuroimaging, neurochemical and genome studies provide tasks for psychiatry determined by the necessity to develop new classifications of mental diseases, primarily ICD-11, specify clinical diagnostic criteria and rethink the essence of some mental disorders. In spite of the multiple direction of scientific opinions on the discussed issues, the development of modern psychiatry is characterized by intensive search of biological background of psychiatric disorders and elaboration of effective approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of mental diseases, including medical rehabilitation of patients...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884572/nanobody-based-apolipoprotein-e-immunosensor-for-point-of-care-testing
#15
Xiang Ren, Junrong Yan, Dan Wu, Qin Wei, Yakun Wan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers can reflect the neurochemical indicators used to estimate the risk in clinical nephrology. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is an early biomarker for AD in clinical diagnosis. In this research, through bactrian camel immunization, lymphocyte isolation, RNA extraction, and library construction, ApoE-specific Nbs with high affinity were successfully separated from an immune phage display nanobody library. Herein, a colorimetric immunosensor was developed for the point-of-care testing of ApoE by layer-by-layer nanoassembly techniques and novel nanobodies (Nbs)...
September 11, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883784/neuroscience-of-compulsive-eating-behavior
#16
REVIEW
Catherine F Moore, Valentina Sabino, George F Koob, Pietro Cottone
A systematic characterization of compulsivity in pathological forms of eating has been proposed in the context of three functional domains: (1) habitual overeating; (2) overeating to relieve a negative emotional state; and (3) overeating despite aversive consequences. In this review, we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis and we differentiate the nascent field of neurocircuits and neurochemical mediators of compulsive eating through their underlying neuropsychobiological processes. A better understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms that lead to compulsive eating behavior can improve behavioral and pharmacological intervention for disorders of pathological eating...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882631/neurochemical-dynamics-of-acute-orofacial-pain-in-the-human-trigeminal-brainstem-nuclear-complex
#17
Nuno M P de Matos, Andreas Hock, Michael Wyss, Dominik A Ettlin, Mike Brügger
The trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex is the first central relay structure mediating orofacial somatosensory and nociceptive perception. Animal studies suggest a substantial involvement of neurochemical alterations at such basal CNS levels in acute and chronic pain processing. Translating this animal based knowledge to humans is challenging. Human related examining of brainstem functions are challenged by MR related peculiarities as well as applicability aspects of experimentally standardized paradigms...
September 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881851/the-involvement-of-darpp-32-in-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia
#18
REVIEW
Haitao Wang, Mohd Farhan, Jiangping Xu, Philip Lazarovici, Wenhua Zheng
Schizophrenia is one of the most devastating heterogeneous psychiatric disorders. The dopamine hypothesis is the longest standing pathoetiologic theory of schizophrenia based on neurochemical evidences of elevated brain striatal dopamine synthesis capacity and increased dopamine release in response to stress. Dopamine and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein of relative molecular mass 32,000 (DARPP-32) is a cytosolic protein highly enriched in the medium spiny neurons of the neostriatum, considered as the most important integrator between the cortical input and the basal ganglia, and associated with motor control...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880105/integrative-pathways-linking-close-family-ties-to-health-a-neurochemical-perspective
#19
Bert N Uchino, Baldwin M Way
The quality of one's familial life, for better or worse, has been linked to physical health. Such associations are evident across a number of acute and chronic conditions and highlight the widespread impact that close relationships have on physical health. However, the field currently lacks a complete understanding of the integrative biological pathways underlying the association between close relationships and disease risk. This article reviews the main peripheral biological and central nervous system pathways linking positive and negative familial relationship processes to physical health outcomes...
September 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879460/vitamin-b6-reduces-neurochemical-and-long-term-cognitive-alterations-after-polymicrobial-sepsis-involvement-of-the-kynurenine-pathway-modulation
#20
Lucinéia Gainski Danielski, Amanda Della Giustina, Mariana Pereira Goldim, Drielly Florentino, Khiany Mathias, Leandro Garbossa, Rosiane de Bona Schraiber, Ana Olívia Martins Laurentino, Marina Goulart, Monique Michels, Karina Barbosa de Queiroz, Markus Kohlhof, Gislaine Tezza Rezin, Jucélia Jeremias Fortunato, Joao Quevedo, Tatiana Barichello, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, Roney S Coimbra, Fabricia Petronilho
Neurological dysfunction as a result of neuroinflammation has been reported in sepsis and cause high mortality. High levels of cytokines stimulate the formation of neurotoxic metabolites by kynurenine (KYN) pathway. Vitamin B6 (vit B6) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and also acts as a cofactor for enzymes of the KYN pathway. Thus, by using a relevant animal model of polymicrobial sepsis, we studied the effect of vit B6 on the KYN pathway, acute neurochemical and neuroinflammatory parameters, and cognitive dysfunction in rats...
September 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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