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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645061/the-neurochemical-consequences-of-methamphetamine-self-administration-in-male-and-female-rats
#1
Andrew Johansen, Lisa M McFadden
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive substance that is used in both males and females. Few preclinical studies have focused on understanding sex-differences in the neurochemical consequences of contingent METH. The purpose of the current study was to investigate potential sex-differences in the neurochemical consequences of METH self-administration. METHODS: Male and female adult rats were given extended access to METH or saline self-administration for 7d...
June 6, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643927/co2-low-level-laser-therapy-has-an-early-but-not-delayed-pain-effect-during-experimental-tooth-movement
#2
T Deguchi, D G Kim, H Kamioka
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) reduces elevated pain by controlling the release of neurochemicals during orthodontic tooth movement. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Okayama University. Sixty-five Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to tooth movement and LLLT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study. Groups included day 0 controls, irradiation only controls and with or without irradiation sacrificed at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after tooth movement (n=5 each, total n=65)...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643105/differential-role-of-gabaa-receptors-and-neuroligin-2-for-perisomatic-gabaergic-synapse-formation-in-the-hippocampus
#3
Patrizia Panzanelli, Simon Früh, Jean-Marc Fritschy
Perisomatic GABAergic synapses onto hippocampal pyramidal cells arise from two populations of basket cells with different neurochemical and functional properties. The presence of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in their postsynaptic density (PSD) distinguishes perisomatic synapses from GABAergic synapses on dendrites and the axon-initial segment. Targeted deletion of neuroligin 2 (NL2), a transmembrane protein interacting with presynaptic neurexin, has been reported to disrupt postsynaptic clustering of GABAA receptors (GABAAR) and their anchoring protein, gephyrin, at perisomatic synapses...
June 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642706/toll-like-receptor-4-modulates-small-intestine-neuromuscular-function-through-nitrergic-and-purinergic-pathways
#4
Valentina Caputi, Ilaria Marsilio, Silvia Cerantola, Mona Roozfarakh, Isabella Lante, Francesca Galuppini, Massimo Rugge, Eleonora Napoli, Cecilia Giulivi, Genny Orso, Maria Cecilia Giron
Objective: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in the homeostatic microflora-host crosstalk. TLR4-mediated modulation of both motility and enteric neuronal survival has been reported mainly for colon with limited information on the role of TLR4 in tuning structural and functional integrity of enteric nervous system (ENS) and in controlling small bowel motility. Methods: Male TLR4 knockout (TLR4(-/-), 9 ± 1 weeks old) and sex- and age-matched wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice were used for the experiments...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642069/chronic-choline-supplementation-improves-cognitive-and-motor-performance-via-modulating-oxidative-and-neurochemical-status-in-rats
#5
Saiqa Tabassum, Saida Haider, Saara Ahmad, Syeda Madiha, Tahira Parveen
Choline, an essential nutrient, accounts for multiple functions in the body and brain. While its beneficial effects on healthy adults are not clear, choline supplementation is important during pregnancy for brain development, in elderly patients for support of cognitive performance and in patients with neurological disorders to reduce memory deficits. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate whether choline administration in healthy adult rats beneficially impacts cognitive and locomotor performance, and associated oxidative and neurochemical outcomes...
June 19, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641601/the-impact-of-traumatic-stress-on-pavlovian-biases
#6
O T Ousdal, Q J Huys, A M Milde, A R Craven, L Ersland, T Endestad, A Melinder, K Hugdahl, R J Dolan
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in Pavlovian valuation systems are reported to follow traumatic stress exposure. However, motivated decisions are also guided by instrumental mechanisms, but to date the effect of traumatic stress on these instrumental systems remain poorly investigated. Here, we examine whether a single episode of severe traumatic stress influences flexible instrumental decisions through an impact on a Pavlovian system. METHODS: Twenty-six survivors of the 2011 Norwegian terror attack and 30 matched control subjects performed an instrumental learning task in which Pavlovian and instrumental associations promoted congruent or conflicting responses...
June 23, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638888/modulation-of-key-biochemical-markers-relevant-to-stroke-by-antiaris-africana-leaf-extract-following-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#7
Omotayo B Ilesanmi, Afolabi C Akinmoladun, Olanrewaju Sam Olayeriju, Ibrahim Olabayode Saliu, M Tolulope Olaleye, Afolabi A Akindahunsi
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress plays a significant role in stroke pathogenesis. Hence, plants rich in antioxidant phytochemicals have been suggested as effective remedies for prevention and treatment of stroke and other neurological diseases. Antiaris africana Engl. (Moraceae) is traditionally used for the management of brain-related problems but there is paucity of data on its anti-stroke potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by a 30 min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion/ 2 h reperfusion (BCCAO/R) in the brain of male Wistar rats...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638722/associations-between-cognitive-impairment-and-motor-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Yi-Xuan Wang, Jue Zhao, Da-Ke Li, Fang Peng, Ying Wang, Ke Yang, Zhen-Yang Liu, Feng-Tao Liu, Jian-Jun Wu, Jian Wang
INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies have been carried out to explore the potential association between neurologic deficits and variable clinical manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of our study was to investigate the association between cognitive performance and motor dysfunction in Chinese patients with PD. METHODS: Data from 96 patients with PD were obtained from the Parkinson's disease patient cohort database of Huashan Hospital. All participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation to assess cognitive status, that included scoring on the Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), followed by more detailed cognitive assessment on five main cognitive domains (verbal memory, nonverbal memory, visuospatial function, language and attention/executive function)...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637978/mechanisms-underlying-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-agonist-induced-increases-in-extracellular-dopamine-level-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-freely-moving-rats
#9
Tadashi Saigusa, Yuri Aono, John L Waddington
The nucleus accumbens is a terminal area of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system that arises in the ventral tegmental area. Opioids are thought to enhance dopaminergic activity in the nucleus accumbens by activating δ- and μ-opioid receptors in the ventral tegmental area. However, δ- and μ-opioid receptor agonists increase extracellular levels of accumbal dopamine when infused directly into the nucleus accumbens of rats. Therefore, the roles of δ- and μ-opioid receptors in regulation of accumbal dopaminergic neural activity have been analyzed by using δ- and μ-opioid receptor ligands...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634390/increased-glutamate-in-somatosensory-cortex-in-functional-dyspepsia
#10
Arthur D P Mak, Georg Northoff, David K W Yeung, Winnie C W Chu, Steve C N Hui, Cynthia Cheung, Jessica Ching, Linda Lam, Sing Lee, Justin Wu
Functional Dyspepsia-Post-prandial Distress Syndrome (FD-PDS) was associated with mood-related increases in resting activity and lowered activation threshold in the somatosensory cortex (SSC), insula and perigenual anterior cingulate cortex(pgACC) in functional imaging studies. The underlying cortical neurochemical changes are unknown. We performed proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) on 17 consecutive tertiary clinic-recruited psychotropic-naïve Rome III FD-PDS female and 17 age-sex matched healthy controls...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631256/vulnerability-to-a-metabolic-challenge-following-perinatal-asphyxia-evaluated-by-organotypic-cultures-neonatal-nicotinamide-treatment
#11
R Perez-Lobos, C Lespay-Rebolledo, A Tapia-Bustos, E Palacios, V Vío, D Bustamante, P Morales, M Herrera-Marschitz
The hypothesis of enhanced vulnerability following perinatal asphyxia was investigated with a protocol combining in vivo and in vitro experiments. Asphyxia-exposed (AS) (by 21 min water immersion of foetuses containing uterine horns) and caesarean-delivered control (CS) rat neonates were used at P2-3 for preparing triple organotypic cultures (substantia nigra, neostriatum and neocortex). At DIV 18, cultures were exposed to different concentrations of H2O2 (0.25-45 mM), added to the culture medium for 18 h...
June 19, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629225/cortical-plasticity-in-depression
#12
Mariagiovanna Cantone, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppe Lanza, Manuela Pennisi, Placido Bramanti, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella
Neural plasticity is considered the neurophysiological correlate of learning and memory, although several studies have also noted that it plays crucial roles in a number of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Indeed, impaired brain plasticity may be one of the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlies both cognitive decline and major depression. Moreover, a degree of cognitive impairment is frequently observed throughout the clinical spectrum of mood disorders, and the relationship between depression and cognition is often bidirectional...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628424/agaricus-blazei-extract-abrogates-rotenone-induced-dopamine-depletion-and-motor-deficits-by-its-anti-oxidative-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-in-parkinsonic-mice
#13
Veerappan Venkatesh Gobi, Srinivasagam Rajasankar, Muthu Ramkumar, Chinnasamy Dhanalakshmi, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Ranganathan Chidambaram, Ameer Kalandar
Neuroinflammation and oxidative damage are the two main malfactors that play an important role in the pathogenesis of experimental and clinical Parkinson's disease (PD). The current study was aimed to study the possible anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of Agaricus blazei (A. blazei) against rotenone-induced PD in mice. Male Albino mice were randomized and divided into the following groups: control, treated with rotenone (1 mg/kg/day), co-treated with rotenone and A. blazei (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg b...
June 19, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628215/monitoring-pathogen-induced-sickness-in-mice-and-rats
#14
Daria Kolmogorova, Emma Murray, Nafissa Ismail
Sickness behavior monitoring, a technique for examining the development of sickness symptomatology following infection, is necessary in experiments studying neurochemical and physiological changes associated with pathogen-induced immune activation. However, the results of sickness behavior monitoring are difficult to reconcile due to inconsistencies in protocol methods and rater bias. The protocol described herein offers a non-invasive and unbiased approach to assess the progression of pathogen-induced sickness behaviors...
June 19, 2017: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627408/developmental-exposure-to-glyphosate-based-herbicide-and-depressive-like-behavior-in-adult-offspring-implication-of-glutamate-excitotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress
#15
Daiane Cattani, Patrícia Acordi Cesconetto, Mauren Kruger Tavares, Eduardo Benedetti Parisotto, Paulo Alexandre De Oliveira, Carla Elise Heinz Rieg, Marina Concli Leite, Rui Daniel Schröder Prediger, Nestor Cubas Wendt, Guilherme Razzera, Danilo Wilhelm Filho, Ariane Zamoner
We have previously demonstrated that maternal exposure to glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) leads to glutamate excitotoxicity in 15-day-old rat hippocampus. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure to GBH on some neurochemical and behavioral parameters in immature and adult offspring. Rats were exposed to 1% GBH in drinking water (corresponding to 0.36% of glyphosate) from gestational day 5 until postnatal day (PND)-15 or PND60. Results showed that GBH exposure during both prenatal and postnatal periods causes oxidative stress, affects cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in offspring hippocampus from immature and adult rats...
June 13, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625548/effect-of-a-change-in-housing-conditions-on-body-weight-behavior-and-brain-neurotransmitters-in-male-c57bl-6j-mice
#16
Noemi Pasquarelli, Patrizia Voehringer, Julia Henke, Boris Ferger
The development of modern housing regimes such as individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems has become very popular and attractive in order to reduce spreading of pathogenic organisms and to lower the risk to develop a laboratory animal allergy for staff members. Additionally, optimal housing of laboratory animals contributes to improve animal health status and ensures high and comparable experimental and animal welfare standards. However, it has not been clearly elucidated whether 1) a change to IVC systems have an impact on various physiological phenotypic parameters of mice when compared to conventional, standard cages and 2) if this is further affected by changing from social to single housing...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624433/the-highs-and-lows-of-the-human-brain-on-dopaminergics-evidence-from-neuropharmacology
#17
REVIEW
Daniel Martins, Mitul A Mehta, Diana Prata
Rewards are appetitive events that elicit approach. Ground-breaking findings from neurophysiological experiments in animals, alongside neuropharmacology and neuroimaging research in human samples have identified dopamine as the main neurochemical messenger of global reward processing in the brain. However, dopamine's contribution to the different components of reward processing remains to be precisely defined. To facilitate the informed design and interpretation of reward studies in humans, we have systematically reviewed all existing human pharmacological studies investigating how drug manipulation of the dopamine system affects reward-related behaviour and its neural correlates...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620379/neuroimmune-interactions-in-schizophrenia-focus-on-vagus-nerve-stimulation-and-activation-of-the-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#18
REVIEW
Fabiana Maria das Graças Corsi-Zuelli, Fernanda Brognara, Gustavo Fernando da Silva Quirino, Carlos Hiroji Hiroki, Rafael Sobrano Fais, Cristina Marta Del-Ben, Luis Ulloa, Helio Cesar Salgado, Alexandre Kanashiro, Camila Marcelino Loureiro
Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders and is aggravated by the lack of efficacious treatment. Although its etiology is unclear, epidemiological studies indicate that infection and inflammation during development induces behavioral, morphological, neurochemical, and cognitive impairments, increasing the risk of developing schizophrenia. The inflammatory hypothesis of schizophrenia is also supported by clinical studies demonstrating systemic inflammation and microglia activation in schizophrenic patients...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620296/testosterone-propionate-exacerbates-the-deficits-of-nigrostriatal-dopaminergic-system-and-downregulates-nrf2-expression-in-reserpine-treated-aged-male-rats
#19
Rui Cui, Yunxiao Kang, Li Wang, Shuangcheng Li, Xiaoming Ji, Wensheng Yan, Guoliang Zhang, Huixian Cui, Geming Shi
There is a controversy over the effects of testosterone supplements on dopaminergic function. Both neuroprotective and toxic effects of testosterone supplements are reported. The status of oxidative stress seems to explain the neuroprotective or toxic properties of testosterone. To determine the efficacy of testosterone supplements in different status of oxidative stress, the present studies analyzed the dopamine (DA)-related behaviors and neurochemical indices, as well as markers of nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) system in reserpine-treated aged male rats followed by testosterone propionate (TP) supplements...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618758/investigation-of-the-behavioral-and-neurochemical-effects-of-monosodium-glutamate-on-neonatal-rats
#20
Ayşen Çetin Kardeşler, Eyüp Başkale
BACKGROUND/AIM: The objective of this study was to investigate and analyze the behavioral and neurochemical effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) injections at various and subsequent dosages on male Wistar rats during the neonatal period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to determine the behavioral and neurochemical effects of MSG, the experiment was implemented on neonatal male Wistar rats and the test was repeated for various MSG dosages. After completing the experiment, additionally, levels of dopamine, GABA, catecholamine (dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline) and glutamate in the brain cells of the decapitated rats were also measured using the ELISA method...
June 12, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
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