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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782941/dopamine-and-serotonin-metabolism-associated-with-morphine-reward-and-its-inhibition-with-buspirone-a-study-in-the-rat-striatum
#1
Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem, Shazia Nawaz, Tabinda Salman
Adaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate nucleus (CN) dopamine neurotransmission are involved in behavioral sensitization and enhanced incentive motivation towards drug paired stimuli which lead to drug addiction. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) can modulate dopamine neurotransmission to reduce rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. A recent study from our laboratory shows that rewarding effects of morphine are inhibited in rats co-treated with buspirone. To understand the neurochemical mechanism involved in morphine addiction and its inhibition with buspirone, present study determines the effects of buspirone, morphine and their co-administration on the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine in the NAc and CN...
May 18, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779743/neuropsychopharmacological-aesthetics-a-theoretical-consideration-of-pharmacological-approaches-to-causative-brain-study-in-aesthetics-and-art
#2
Blanca Spee, Tomohiro Ishizu, Helmut Leder, Jan Mikuni, Hideaki Kawabata, Matthew Pelowski
Recent developments in neuroaesthetics have heightened the need for causative approaches to more deeply understand the mechanism underlying perception, emotion, and aesthetic experiences. This has recently been the topic for empirical work, employing several causative methods for changing brain activity, as well as comparative assessments of individuals with brain damage or disease. However, one area of study with high potential, and indeed a long history of often nonscientific use in the area of aesthetics and art, employing psychopharmacological chemicals as means of changing brain function, has not been systematically utilized...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779216/glutamate-metabolism-in-cerebral-mitochondria-after-ischemia-and-post-ischemic-recovery-during-aging-relationships-with-brain-energy-metabolism
#3
Federica Ferrari, Antonella Gorini, Siegfried Hoyer, Roberto Federico Villa
Glutamate is involved in cerebral ischemic injury, but its role has not been completely clarified and studies are required to understand how minimize its detrimental effects, contemporarily boosting the positive ones. In fact, glutamate is not only a neurotransmitter, but primarily a key metabolite for brain bioenergetics. Thus, we investigated the relationships between glutamate and brain energy metabolism in an in vivo model of complete cerebral ischemia of 15 min and during post-ischemic recovery after 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs in 1 year- adult and 2 year-old aged rats...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778625/the-mediating-role-of-phosphodiesterase-type-4-in-the-dopaminergic-modulation-of-motor-impulsivity
#4
P R A Heckman, A Blokland, N P Van Goethem, B T J Van Hagen, J Prickaerts
The current study investigated the mediating role of phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) regulated cAMP in the dopaminergic modulation of premature responding (action restraint) in rats. Response inhibition, which includes action restraint, finds its neurobiological origin in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry and can be modulated by dopamine. Intracellularly, the effect of dopamine is largely mediated through the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade. Areas in the prefrontal cortex are very sensitive to their neurochemical environment, including catecholamine levels...
May 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775777/antidepressant-potential-of-novel-flavonoids-derivatives-from-sweet-violet-viola-odorata-l-pharmacological-biochemical-and-computational-evidences-for-possible-involvement-of-serotonergic-mechanism
#5
Nasiara Karim, Imran Khan, Abeer Abdelhalim, Ajmal Khan, Sobia Ahsan Halim
Plant-derived natural constituents are of great interest in modern drug discovery due to their natural diversity. Viola odorata L has been traditionally used for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. The present study was undertaken to isolate phytoconstituents including three flavonoids 5,7-Dihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxyflavone[1] 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'dimethoxyflavone [2] and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone [3] from the whole plant of Viola odorata L and to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of these compounds and their possible mechanism of action using antagonists of the serotonergic, dopaminergic and adrenergic system...
May 15, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775703/ultrastructural-characterization-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-neuropeptide-y-in-the-rat-locus-coeruleus-anatomical-evidence-for-putative-interactions
#6
Catherine C Theisen, Beverly A S Reyes, E L Sabban, Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele
As a neurochemical mediator of stress resilience, NPY has been shown to oppose excitatory effects of the pro-stress neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Previous studies have described the anatomical organization of NPY and CRF in the central nucleus of the amygdala, which sends CRF projections to the locus coeruleus (LC), activating LC norepinephrine release. However, the cellular substrates for interactions between NPY and CRF in the LC remain unknown. In this study, we investigated these anatomical substrates in the male rat LC, using immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy to detect NPY and CRF, as well as CRF and Y1 or Y2 receptors (Y1R or Y2R)...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772442/cognitive-and-hippocampus-biochemical-changes-following-sleep-deprivation-in-the-adult-male-rat
#7
Ebrahim Nabaee, Mahnaz Kesmati, Ali Shahriari, Lotfollah Khajehpour, Mozhgan Torabi
Sleep deprivation (SD) influences physiological processes such as cognitive function. The balance of oxidant and antioxidant markers, neurotrophic factors and magnesium are affected by sleep deprivation but there is no difference between pre and post training sleep deprivation. This study was designed to investigate memory retrieval and biochemical factors such as oxidant and antioxidant enzyme, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and magnesium levels in the hippocampus following pre and post-training sleep deprivation...
May 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766458/cerebellar-stimulation-evoked-prefrontal-electrical-synchrony-is-modulated-by-gaba
#8
Xiaoming Du, Laura M Rowland, Ann Summerfelt, Fow-Sen Choa, George F Wittenberg, Krista Wisner, Andrea Wijtenburg, Joshua Chiappelli, Peter Kochunov, L Elliot Hong
Cerebellar-prefrontal connectivity has been recognized as important for behaviors ranging from motor coordination to cognition. Many of these behaviors are known to involve excitatory or inhibitory modulations from the prefrontal cortex. We used cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) to probe cerebellar-evoked electrical activity in prefrontal cortical areas and used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures of prefrontal GABA and glutamate levels to determine if they are correlated with those potentials...
May 15, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759942/tms-evoked-n100-reflects-local-gaba-and-glutamate-balance
#9
Xiaoming Du, Laura M Rowland, Ann Summerfelt, Andrea Wijtenburg, Joshua Chiappelli, Krista Wisner, Peter Kochunov, Fow-Sen Choa, L Elliot Hong
BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest that synchronized electrical activities in the brain are regulated by the primary inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, respectively. Identifying direct evidence that this same basic chemical-electrical neuroscience principle operates in the human brains is critical for translation of neuroscience to pathological research. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that the background neurochemical concentrations may affect the cortical excitability probed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
May 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759265/sleep-wake-neurochemistry
#10
REVIEW
Sebastian C Holst, Hans-Peter Landolt
The regulated alternations between wakefulness and sleep states reflect complex behavioral processes, orchestrated by distinct neurochemical changes in brain parenchyma. No single neurotransmitter or neuromodulator controls the sleep-wake states in isolation. Rather, fine-tuned interactions within organized neuronal circuits regulate waking and sleep states and drive their transitions. Structural or functional dysregulation and medications interfering with these ensembles can lead to sleep-wake disorders and exert wanted or unwanted pharmacological actions on sleep-wake states...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759045/neuropathological-developments-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#11
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard
A wide variety of neuropathological abnormalities have been investigated in infants who have died of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Issues which detracted from early studies included failure to use uniform definitions of SIDS and lack of appropriately matched control populations. Development of the triple risk model focused attention on the concept of an inherent susceptibility to unexpected death in certain infants, with research demonstrating a role for the neurotransmitter serotonin within the brainstem...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757478/varying-the-rate-of-intravenous-cocaine-infusion-influences-the-temporal-dynamics-of-both-drug-and-dopamine-concentrations-in-the-striatum
#12
Ellie-Anna Minogianis, Waqqas M Shams, Omar S Mabrouk, Jenny-Marie T Wong, Wayne G Brake, Robert T Kennedy, Patrick du Souich, Anne-Noël Samaha
The faster drugs of abuse reach the brain, the greater is the risk of addiction. Even small differences in the rate of drug delivery can influence outcome. Infusing cocaine intravenously over 5 versus 90-100 seconds promotes sensitization to the psychomotor and incentive motivational effects of the drug and preferentially recruits mesocorticolimbic regions. It remains unclear whether these effects are due to differences in how fast and/or how much drug reaches the brain. Here, we predicted that varying the rate of intravenous cocaine infusion between 5-90 seconds produces different rates of rise of brain drug concentrations, while producing similar peak concentrations...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756082/altered-cortical-gaba-in-female-veterans-with-suicidal-behavior-sex-differences-and-clinical-correlates
#13
Andrew Prescot, Chandni Sheth, Margaret Legarreta, Perry F Renshaw, Erin McGlade, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
Background: Suicide is a public health concern in the civilian and veteran populations. Stressful life events are precipitating factors for suicide. The neurochemical underpinnings of the association between stress/trauma and suicide risk are unclear, especially in regards to sex differences. We hypothesized that gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter may be a neurochemical candidate that is critical in the association between stress and suicide risk in veterans...
April 6, 2018: Chronic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755854/neuroanatomical-autonomic-substrates-of-brainstem-gut-circuitry-identified-using-transsynaptic-tract-tracing-with-pseudorabies-virus-recombinants
#14
Zhi-Gang He, Quan Wang, Run-Shan Xie, Yong-Sheng Li, Qing-Xiong Hong, Hong-Bing Xiang
To investigate autonomic substrates of brainstem-gut circuitry identified using trans-synaptic tracing with pseudorabies virus (PRV)-152, a strain that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein, and PRV-614, a strain that expresses enhanced red fluorescent protein, injecting into the rat rectum wall. 3-7 days after PRV-152 injection, spinal cord and brainstem were removed and sectioned, and processed for PRV-152 visualization using immunofluorescence labeling against PRV-152. 6 days after PRV-614 injection, brainstem was sectioned and the neurochemical phenotype of PRV-614-positive neurons was identified using double immunocytochemical labeling against PRV-614 and TPH...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755370/effects-of-ethanol-on-sensory-inputs-to-the-medial-giant-interneurons-of-crayfish
#15
Matthew E Swierzbinski, Jens Herberholz
Crayfish are capable of two rapid, escape reflexes that are mediated by two pairs of giant interneurons, the lateral giants (LG) and the medial giants (MG), which respond to threats presented to the abdomen or head and thorax, respectively. The LG has been the focus of study for many decades and the role of GABAergic inhibition on the escape circuit is well-described. More recently, we demonstrated that the LG circuit is sensitive to the acute effects of ethanol and this sensitivity is likely mediated by interactions between ethanol and the GABAergic system...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753860/the-modular-architecture-and-neurochemical-patterns-in-the-cerebellar-cortex
#16
REVIEW
Sergei G Kalinichenko, Igor I Pushchin
The review deals with topical issues of the neuronal arrangement underlying basic cerebellar functions. The cerebellum and its auxiliary structures contain several hundreds of modules (so called "microzones"). Each module receives the corticopetal input specific for the lobule it belongs to and forms the topographic projection. The precision of the major input-output signal flow in the cerebellar cortex is provided by a pronounced stratification of its synaptic zones of a various origin and regular topography of its afferent connections, interneurons, and efferent neurons...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752870/morphological-and-cellular-characterization-of-the-fetal-canine-canis-lupus-familiaris-subventricular-zone-rostral-migratory-stream-and-olfactory-bulb
#17
Dailiany Orechio, Bruna Andrade Aguiar, Giovanne Baroni Diniz, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Carlos A Haemmerle, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Maria Angelica Miglino, Patricia Castelucci
The existence of neurogenesis in the adult brain is a widely recognized phenomenon, occurring in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in several vertebrate species. Neural precursors originated in the SVZ migrate to the main olfactory bulb (MOB), originating the rostral migratory stream (RMS) in the process. To better understand the formation of the adult neurogenic niches in dogs, we investigated the cellular composition and morphological organization of these areas in 57 days-old dog fetuses...
May 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752725/identification-of-neun-immunopositive-cells-in-the-adult-mouse-subventricular-zone
#18
Kengo Saito, Taro Koike, Fumiaki Kawashima, Hirofumi Kurata, Taku Shibuya, Takemasa Satoh, Yoshio Hata, Hisao Yamada, Tetsuji Mori
In the adult rodent subventricular zone (SVZ), there are neural stem cells (NSCs) and the specialized neurogenic niche is critical to maintain their stemness. . To date, many cellular and non-cellular factors that compose the neurogenic niche and markers to identify subpopulations of Type A cells have been confirmed. In particular, neurotransmitters regulate adult neurogenesis and mature neurons in the SVZ have been only partially analyzed. Moreover, Type A cells, descendants of NSCs, are highly heterogeneous and more molecular markers are still needed to identify them...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748917/taurine-protects-from-pentylenetetrazole-induced-behavioral-and-neurochemical-changes-in-zebrafish
#19
Barbara D Fontana, Paola R Ziani, Julia Canzian, Nathana J Mezzomo, Talise E Müller, Matheus M Dos Santos, Vania L Loro, Nilda V Barbosa, Carlos F Mello, Denis B Rosemberg
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures, which culminate in various neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes. Taurine (TAU) is an amino sulfonic acid which acts an endogenous inhibitory neuromodulator. Moreover, TAU displays intrinsic antioxidant activity, contributing to its beneficial actions in the CNS. Here, we evaluated whether TAU pretreatment protects from pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative stress-related parameters in zebrafish brain tissue...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747866/understanding-taurine-cns-activity-using-alternative-zebrafish-models
#20
Nathana J Mezzomo, Barbara D Fontana, Allan V Kalueff, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Denis B Rosemberg
Taurine is a highly abundant "amino acid" in the brain. Although the potential neuroactive role of taurine in vertebrates has long been recognized, the underlying molecular mechanisms related to its pleiotropic effects in the brain remain poorly understood. Due to the genetic tractability, rich behavioral repertoire, neurochemical conservation, and small size, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a powerful candidate for neuropsychopharmacology investigation and in vivo drug screening. Here, we summarize the main physiological roles of taurine in mammals, including neuromodulation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, and antioxidant action...
May 7, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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