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cause of death and trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160926/electro-mechanical-response-of-a-3d-nerve-bundle-model-to-mechanical-loads-leading-to-axonal-injury
#1
I Cinelli, M Destrade, M Duffy, P McHugh
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injuries and damage are major causes of death and disability. We propose a 3D fully coupled electro-mechanical model of a nerve bundle to investigate the electrophysiological impairments due to trauma at the cellular level. METHODS: The coupling is based on a thermal analogy of the neural electrical activity by using the finite element software Abaqus CAE 6.13-3. The model includes a real-time coupling, modulated threshold for spiking activation and independent alteration of the electrical properties for each 3-layer fibre within a nerve bundle as a function of strain...
November 21, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157836/elevated-neopterin-levels-predict-early-death-in-older-hip-fracture-patients
#2
Martin Larsen, Charles Bayard, Hélène Lepetitcorps, Judith Cohen-Bittan, Victor Appay, Jacques Boddaert, Delphine Sauce
Our society faces a major challenge concerning management of the health and socio-economic burden caused by acute physical stress in the older population (+75years). In particular, hip-fracture surgery (HFS) represents a major health care preoccupation, affecting 1.6 million patients worldwide, resulting in a significant drop in life quality and autonomy. The trauma is associated with 20-30% one-year mortality in the elderly. In the present study, we aim to identify factors, which influence and/or predict the outcome of elderly hip- fracture patients (HFP) post-surgery...
November 6, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154930/suicide-attempts-in-children-and-adolescents-the-place-of-clock-genes-and-early-rhythm-dysfunction
#3
Bertrand Olliac, Lisa Ouss, Annaëlle Charrier
Suicide remains one of the leading causes of death among young people, and suicidal ideation and behavior are relatively common in healthy and clinical populations. Suicide risk in childhood and adolescence is often approached from the perspective of nosographic categories to which predictive variables for suicidal acts are often linked. The cascading effects resulting from altered clock genes in a pediatric population could participate in biological rhythm abnormalities and the emergence of suicide attempts through impaired regulation of circadian rhythms and emotional states with neurodevelopmental effects...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154686/a-retrospective-summary-of-raptor-mortality-in-ontario-canada-1991-2014-including-the-effects-of-west-nile-virus
#4
Kathryn A Smith, G Douglas Campbell, David L Pearl, Claire M Jardine, Fernando Salgado-Bierman, Nicole M Nemeth
The causes of mortality of free-ranging raptors range from anthropogenic (e.g., trauma) to dynamic environmental conditions that may affect habitat suitability and prey availability. The province of Ontario, Canada, is vulnerable to anthropogenic and environmental changes because of its northern latitudes and expanding human populations, both of which may impact wildlife. We retrospectively evaluated diagnostic data from raptors submitted to the Ontario-Nunavut node of the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CWHC) from 1991 to 2014 (n=1,448)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150743/differential-response-of-neural-cells-to-trauma-induced-swelling-in-vitro
#5
A R Jayakumar, M Taherian, K S Panickar, N Shamaladevi, M E Rodriguez, B G Price, M D Norenberg
Brain edema and the associated increase in intracranial pressure are major consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that accounts for most early deaths after TBI. We recently showed that acute severe trauma to cultured astrocytes results in cell swelling. We further examined whether trauma induces cell swelling in neurons and microglia. We found that severe trauma also caused cell swelling in cultured neurons, whereas no swelling was observed in microglia. While severe trauma caused cell swelling in both astrocytes and neurons, mild trauma to astrocytes, neurons, and microglia failed to cell swelling...
November 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147634/intracranial-ischemic-infarct-due-to-blunt-force-trauma-in-a-high-school-football-player
#6
Brandon I Esianor, Ali S Haider, Margaret I Engelhardt, Tijani Osumah, Steven Vayalumkal, Richa Thakur, Dean Leonard, Jeffrey Haithcock, Kennith F Layton
Ischemic stroke is an uncommon cause of death among teenagers and young adults; however, the etiologies differ when compared to ischemic strokes in older individuals. Large-vessel atherosclerosis and small-vessel disease causing ischemic stroke are rare for the teenage population, while cervicocerebral arterial dissections account for up to 20% of ischemic strokes. Here, we present the case of a 16-year-old male who developed internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) after a head injury and subsequently developed ischemic stroke and seizures...
September 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143074/-additional-emergency-medical-measures-in-trauma-associated-cardiac-arrest
#7
B Ondruschka, C Baier, J Dreßler, A Höch, M Bernhard, C Kleber, C Buschmann
INTRODUCTION: More than half of all traumatic deaths happen in prehospital settings. Until now, there have been no long-term studies examining the actual additive treatment during trauma-associated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (tCPR), including pleural decompression, pericardiocentesis, tourniquets and external stabilization of the pelvis. The present cohort study evaluated forensic autopsy reports of trauma deaths occurring at the scene with respect to additive actions in preclinical tCPR as well as the potentially preventable nature of the individual death cases...
November 15, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142631/mortality-and-epidemiology-in-256-cases-of-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-korean-neuro-trauma-data-bank-system-kntdbs-2010-2014
#8
Hee-Won Jeong, Seung-Won Choi, Jin-Young Youm, Jeong-Wook Lim, Hyon-Jo Kwon, Shi-Hun Song
Objective: Among pediatric injury, brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability. To improve outcomes, many developed countries built neurotrauma databank (NTDB) system but there was not established nationwide coverage NTDB until 2009 and there have been few studies on pediatric traumatic head injury (THI) patients in Korea. Therefore, we analyzed epidemiology and outcome from the big data of pediatric THI. Methods: We collected data on pediatric patients from 23 university hospitals including 9 regional trauma centers from 2010 to 2014 and analyzed their clinical factors (sex, age, initial Glasgow coma scale, cause and mechanism of head injury, presence of surgery)...
November 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140964/whole-body-computed-tomography-in-severely-injured-patients
#9
Stefan Huber-Wagner, Karl-Georg Kanz, Marc Hanschen, Martijn van Griensven, Peter Biberthaler, Rolf Lefering
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the relevant and recent studies on whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) imaging of severely injured patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The advantages of WBCT in time saving, diagnostic accuracy and even in survival have been proven in numerous studies. WBCT can also be beneficial in haemodynamically unstable major trauma patients. The CT scanner should be located close to the emergency department or even in the trauma room. The issue of radiation is still quite important, however, iterative as well as split-bolus protocols can nowadays reduce radiation significantly...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139194/advantages-of-care-for-patients-with-hip-fractures-in-the-acute-geriatric-unit-hip-study-anoia
#10
Enric Duaso, Francesc Formiga, Patrícia Marimón, Montserrat Sandiumenge, Maria Teresa Salgado, Victor Murga, Andrés Gamboa, Carlos Rodriguez, Jaume Castellà, Enrique Escalante, Célia Lumbreras, Anna Tarrida, Ramón Sellarès
AIM: Hip fracture as a result of bone fragility is characterized by poor health outcomes in the medium and long term. Our goal was to compare a new orthogeriatric model with the old trauma model and evaluate improvements in clinical management. METHODS: We carried out a comparative unicentric study, a historical sample (trauma model) collected from 1 June 2007 to 31 May 2010, versus a prospective sample (orthogeriatric model) collected from 1 June 2010 until 31 May 2013...
November 15, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138652/trauma-a-major-cause-of-death-among-surgical-inpatients-of-a-nigerian-tertiary-hospital
#11
Onyeanunam Ngozi Ekeke, Kelechi Emmanuel Okonta
Introduction: Trauma presents a significant global health burden. Death resulting from trauma remains high in low income countries despite a steady decrease in developed countries. Analysis of the pattern of death will enable intervention to reduce these deaths from trauma in developing countries. This study aims to present the pattern of trauma-related deaths in the surgical wards of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). Methods: This was a retrospective study of all patients who died from trauma during admission into the surgical wards of UPTH from 2007 to 2012...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136314/syncope-prognosis-based-on-emergency-department-diagnosis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Cristian Toarta, Muhammad Mukarram, Kirtana Arcot, Soo-Min Kim, Sarah Gaudet, Marco L A Sivilotti, Brian H Rowe, Venkatesh Thiruganasambandamoorthy
OBJECTIVE: Relatively little is known about outcomes after disposition among syncope patients assigned various diagnostic categories during emergency department (ED) evaluation. We sought to measure the outcomes among these groups within 30 days of the initial ED visit. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled adult syncope patients at six EDs and excluded patients with pre-syncope, persistent mental status changes, intoxication, seizure, and major trauma. Patient characteristics, ED management, diagnostic impression (presumed vasovagal, orthostatic, cardiac, or other/unknown) at the end of the ED visit and physicians' confidence in assigning the etiology were collected...
November 14, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132511/resuscitation-for-hypovolemic-shock
#13
REVIEW
Kyle J Kalkwarf, Bryan A Cotton
Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable deaths in trauma patients. After presenting a brief history of hemorrhagic shock resuscitation, this article discusses damage control resuscitation and its adjuncts. Massively bleeding patients in hypovolemic shock should be treated with damage control resuscitation principles including limited crystalloid, whole blood or balance blood component transfusion to permissive hypotension, preventing hypothermia, and stopping bleeding as quickly as possible.
December 2017: Surgical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128127/a-crossbow-suicide
#14
Laura Panata, Massimo Lancia, Alessandra Persichini, Sergio Scalise Pantuso, Mauro Bacci
The crossbow is an ancient ranged weapon originally conceived for war and hunting. Although nowadays its use in warfare has been surpassed by firearms, it continues to be used in hunting, sports and recreation. The authors present the case of a 40-year-old man who suffered from severe depression. When his condition further deteriorated, doctors ordered a forced hospitalization but, just a few hours before the measure became effective, the man committed suicide using a crossbow. The autopsy and police investigation showed possession of the crossbow darts which the man used to shoot himself in the head...
October 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121816/long-term-prognosis-and-causes-of-death-after-pleural-infections
#15
J A Khan, A I Lehtomäki, V J Toikkanen, M T Ukkonen, R M Nevalainen, J O Laurikka
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The development of pleural infection may imply a worse state of health and prognosis. The objective of this study was to ascertain the long-term survival and causes of death after pleural infections and to compare them to those of matched controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Altogether 191 patients treated for pleural infections at a single University Hospital between January 2000 and December 2008 and 1910 age- and gender-matched controls were included...
November 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Surgery: SJS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117923/genital-injuries-acute-evaluation-and-management
#16
REVIEW
Heather N Lopez, Mariel A Focseneanu, Diane F Merritt
Genital trauma may result in external injuries to the labia, vulva or vagina, urethra and anus and internal injuries to the bony pelvis, bladder, bowels and reproductive organs. Worldwide, the most common cause of genital trauma in reproductive age women is injury sustained during childbirth, but in this chapter we will focus on accidental genital injuries as well as those arising from sexual violence, and female genital mutilation. While genital injuries alone rarely result in death; if not properly managed, chronic discomfort, dyspareunia, infertility, or fistula formation may result...
September 28, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110810/trauma-in-pregnancy-an-underappreciated-cause-of-maternal-death
#17
EDITORIAL
Sarah J Kilpatrick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110704/endobronchial-one-way-valves-for-treatment-of-persistent-air-leaks-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Mei Ding, Ya-Dong Gao, Xian-Tao Zeng, Yi Guo, Jiong Yang
Persistent air leak (PAL) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, prolonged hospitalization and increased health-care costs. It can arise from a number of conditions, including pneumothorax, necrotizing infection, trauma, malignancies, procedural interventions and complications after thoracic surgery. Numerous therapeutic options, including noninvasive and invasive techniques, are available to treat PALs. Recently, endobronchial one-way valves have been used to treat PAL. We conducted a systematic review based on studies retrieved from PubMed, EMbase and Cochrane library...
November 6, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098965/orthopedic-injuries-in-pediatric-trauma
#19
Eman Loubani, Rodrick Lim, Debra Bartley
Trauma remains the leading cause of death in children, of which the majority of patients have orthopedic injuries. The range of injured bones is various, each requiring knowledge and expertise to appropriately manage in a timely fashion. The importance of a systematic approach to the pediatric polytrauma patient is paramount. This chapter will highlight orthopedic issues important to the pediatric polytrauma patient including the unique anatomy and properties of pediatric bone. A systematic approach to the pediatric polytrauma patient will also be discussed...
September 11, 2017: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095390/prediction-of-poor-prognosis-after-severe-head-injury-in-children-using-logistic-regression
#20
Rie Ichikawa, Yukihiro Maeda, Akiko Shibuya, Yoshimasa Umesato, Yoshiaki Kondo, Takeshi Maeda, Atsuo Yoshino, Shori Takahashi
OBJECTIVES: Head trauma is one of the main causes of death in childhood and often leaves severe disability with serious neurological damage. Appropriate treatment must be provided immediately to improve outcomes. This study was performed to identify factors associated with a poor prognosis at an early stage of severe head injury in children. METHODS: The subjects were registered in the Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank. They were 119 children (mean age, 8 years; male, 67...
October 31, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
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