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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091809/a-review-of-penetrating-brain-trauma-epidemiology-pathophysiology-imaging-assessment-complications-and-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Mona T Vakil, Ajay K Singh
Gunshot injuries are the most common cause of penetrating brain injury (PBI) and carry a high morbidity and mortality. The incidence of PBI has increased over the last decade with an estimated 35,000 civilian deaths annually. Patients that survive to reach the hospital require rapid triage and imaging evaluation. CT findings in conjunction with the Glasgow Coma Scale are typically used to determine which patients are surgical candidates. Radiologists should be familiar with the various injury patterns and imaging findings which are poor prognostic indicators, notably brainstem, bilateral hemispheric, multilobar, or transventricular injuries...
January 14, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088938/clinical-analysis-of-54-cases-of-large-area-soft-tissue-avulsion-in-the-lower-limb
#2
Yu Chen, Lei Liu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical curative effect of different treatment methods for large area avulsion injury in the lower limb. METHODS: Between January 2010 and December 2013, 54 patients with large area avulsion injury in the lower limb were treated in the trauma center of our hospital, including 34 males and 20 females with a mean age of 35.7 years (range, 16-65 years). The injury mechanism was traffic accident in 44 cases, hitting by heavy objects in 8 cases, and fall from height in 2 cases, involving 31 thighs, 19 legs and 4 feet involved...
December 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080988/medical-mycology-and-fungal-immunology-new-research-perspectives-addressing-a-major-world-health-challenge
#3
REVIEW
Neil A R Gow, Mihai G Netea
Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079652/long-term-survival-and-causes-of-late-death-in-children-treated-with-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#4
Viktor von Bahr, Jan Hultman, Staffan Eksborg, Roxana Gerleman, Øyvind Enstad, Björn Frenckner, Håkan Kalzén
OBJECTIVE: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been used in patients with severe circulatory or respiratory failure since the 1970s, but the knowledge on long-term survival in this group is scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the 10-year survival rates and causes of late death in children treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center for extracorporeal life support...
January 10, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078473/traumatic-atlantoaxial-rotatory-fixation-in-an-adult-patient
#5
María A García-Pallero, Cristina V Torres, Juan Delgado-Fernández, R G Sola
INTRODUCTION: Atlantoaxial rotational fixation (AARF) is a rare entity in adults, with only a few cases reported in the English literature and often associated with a traumatic mechanism. It is an underdiagnosed condition that must be taken into account in the initial assessment of all craniocervical trauma. Both diagnostic and therapeutic delay may be a potential cause of severe neurological damage or even death of the patient. The therapeutic management is controversial given the difficulty of achieving optimum stability and permanent reduction...
January 11, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074459/comparison-of-revised-trauma-score-injury-severity-score-and-trauma-and-injury-severity-score-for-mortality-prediction-in-elderly-trauma-patients
#6
Shahrokh Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Marieh Hosseinpour, Leila Kouchakinejad-Eramsadati, Fatemeh Ranjbar, Reza Malekpouri, Alireza Razzaghi, Zahra Mohtasham-Amiri
BACKGROUND: Trauma is the fifth leading cause of death in patients 65 years and older. This study is a comparison of results of Revised Trauma Score (RTS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) in prediction of mortality in cases of geriatric trauma. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of records of 352 elderly trauma patients who were admitted to Pour-Sina Hospital in Rasht between 2010 and 2011. Injury scoring systems were compared in terms of specificity, sensitivity, and cut-off points using receiver operating characteristic curve of patient prognosis...
November 2016: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072893/a-pediatric-application-of-the-strac-regional-hospital-trauma-registry-database-pediatric-trauma-deaths-in-south-central-texas-during-2004-2013
#7
Michelle Buehner, Jay Aden, Mathew Borgman, Preston Love, Brandi Wright, Mary Edwards
The purpose of this study was to define the demographics of pediatric traumatic injuries and to understand the predictive value of injury type, prehospital, and emergency department (ED) data regarding the mortality of pediatric trauma patients (<14 years of age) in South Central Texas. We report a retrospective review of pediatric trauma patients presenting to Trauma Service Area P in South Central Texas during 2004-2013. The primary outcome was mortality; secondary outcomes were ventilator days, hospital days, and intensive care unit stay...
January 1, 2017: Texas Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071952/the-decline-of-elective-operating-at-major-trauma-centres
#8
A Memarzadeh, H Taki, E K Tissingh, P Hull
INTRODUCTION Major trauma is a leading cause of death in those aged under 40 years. In order to improve the care for multiply injured patients, the major trauma network was activated in April 2012 in England. Its goal was to link all district hospitals to major trauma centres (MTCs) and allow for rapid transfer of patients. Anecdotally, this has affected elective orthopaedic operating at MTCs. The aim of this study was to compare the number of lower limb arthroplasty procedures performed before and after the establishment of the trauma network...
January 10, 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068945/why-women-bleed-and-how-they-are-saved-a-cross-sectional-study-of-caesarean-section-near-miss-morbidity
#9
S Maswime, E J Buchmann
BACKGROUND: Maternal deaths from 'bleeding during and after caesarean section' (BDACS) have increased in South Africa, and have now become the largest sub-cause of deaths from obstetric haemorrhage. The aim of this study was to describe risk factors and causes of near-miss related to BDACS and interventions used to arrest haemorrhage and treat its effects. METHODS: Cross-sectional prospective study in 13 urban public hospitals in South Africa, from July to December 2014...
January 9, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059970/artesunate-protects-against-the-organ-injury-and-dysfunction-induced-by-severe-hemorrhage-and-resuscitation
#10
Regina Sordi, Kiran K Nandra, Fausto Chiazza, Florence L Johnson, Claudia P Cabrera, Hew D Torrance, Noriaki Yamada, Nimesh S A Patel, Michael R Barnes, Karim Brohi, Massimo Collino, Christoph Thiemermann
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of artesunate on organ injury and dysfunction associated with hemorrhagic shock (HS) in the rat. BACKGROUND: HS is still a common cause of death in severely injured patients and is characterized by impairment of organ perfusion, systemic inflammatory response, and multiple organ failure. There is no specific therapy that reduces organ injury/dysfunction. Artesunate exhibits pharmacological actions beyond its antimalarial activity, such as anticancer, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory effects...
February 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054124/-severe-blunt-thoracic-trauma-caused-by-ski-collision
#11
S J Lochner, M Scherr, M Perl, C Grove
An approximately 25-year-old skier collided in a ski-run intersection. At high speed, he first hit another skier and then smashed into a snow cannon. He died from his injuries a short time later in hospital. A whole-body CT scan was conducted under resuscitation conditions, which was followed by an autopsy. The investigation revealed a severe blunt thoracic trauma as cause of death. The detailed analysis was the result of the combination of the two methods of investigation, CT scan and autopsy. The methods complemented each other effectively and allowed for a detailed presentation of the injury pattern...
January 4, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041551/-haemostatic-resuscitation-in-bleeding-trauma-patients
#12
Jakob Stensballe, Pär I Johansson, Jacob Steinmetz
Trauma haemorrhage is a common reversible cause of death. Haemostatic resuscitation focuses on replacing the lost blood with transfusions equivalent to whole blood as early as possible. In Denmark, the optimal ratio for transfusions in massive bleeding is four packs of red blood cells, four packs of plasma and one pool of platelets (equal to ratio 1:1:1 in USA). Haemostatic resuscitation also includes a restricted use of crystalloids, early tranexamic acid, and a goal-directed transfusion therapy by using viscoelastic haemostatic assays to detect coagulopathy and the need for additional transfusions or pro-haemostatics...
December 26, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040202/homemade-zipline-and-playground-track-ride-injuries-in-children
#13
Christine M Leeper, Christine McKenna, Barbara A Gaines
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Playground track ride and homemade zipline-related injuries are increasingly common in the emergency department, with serious injuries and even deaths reported. METHODS: Retrospective review of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database (2009-2015), followed by review of our academic pediatric trauma center's prospectively-maintained database (2005-2013). We included children ages 0-17years of age with zipline-related injuries...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033143/probiotics-for-trauma-patients-should-we-be-taking-a-precautionary-approach
#14
Heather A Vitko, L Kathleen Sekula, Martin A Schreiber
The use of probiotics in the hospital setting is largely understudied and highly controversial. Probiotics are living organisms that, when taken internally, can produce an immunomodulating effect and improve the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal barrier. Although used for centuries by healthy individuals for GI health, their use in the hospital setting is now gaining wide attention for the prevention of infectious complications such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile infections, multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome, and ventilator-associated pneumonia...
January 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033139/air-medical-administration-of-tranexamic-acid
#15
Brian Cornelius
Traumatic injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Massive hemorrhage is responsible for the vast majority of deaths. Evolution in trauma treatment has resulted in major improvements to emergency care. Tranexamic acid (TXA), an antifibrinolytic agent, is synthetically derived from amino acids. The CRASH-2 study demonstrated that the early administration of TXA results in significant decreases in morbidity and mortality. Experiences by coalition forces in Southwest Asia found a substantial increase in survival of trauma patients with early TXA administration...
January 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032058/epidemiology-of-geriatric-trauma-in-an-urban-kazakhstani-setting
#16
Aidos S Tlemissov, Marzhan A Dauletyarova, Tolkyn A Bulegenov, Tolebay K Rakhypbekov, Andrej M Grjibovski
BACKGROUND: External causes of death are still among the main causes of death in the countries of the former Soviet Union. We studied epidemiology of injuries among elderly in a typical Kazakhstani city. METHODS: Data on all injuries among individuals aged 60 yr or older in the city of Semey (former Semipalatinsk) from 2010 to 2012 was collected from medical files. We present absolute numbers and incidence rates for the main ICD-codes in Chapters XIX and XX of ICD-10 by gender, ethnic background and place where the injury occurred...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030710/association-of-radiologic-indicators-of-frailty-with-1-year-mortality-in-older-trauma-patients-opportunistic-screening-for-sarcopenia-and-osteopenia
#17
Stephen J Kaplan, Tam N Pham, Saman Arbabi, Joel A Gross, Mamatha Damodarasamy, Itay Bentov, Lisa A Taitsman, Steven H Mitchell, May J Reed
Importance: Assessment of physical frailty in older trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit is often not feasible using traditional frailty assessment instruments. The use of opportunistic computed tomography (CT) scans to assess sarcopenia and osteopenia as indicators of underlying frailty may provide complementary prognostic information on long-term outcomes. Objective: To determine whether sarcopenia and/or osteopenia are associated with 1-year mortality in an older trauma patient population...
December 28, 2016: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030507/defining-multiple-organ-failure-after-major-trauma-a-comparison-of-the-denver-sequential-organ-failure-assessment-and-marshall-scoring-systems
#18
Lynn Hutchings, Peter Watkinson, J Duncan Young, Keith Willett
BACKGROUND: Postinjury multiple organ failure (MOF) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. A large number of scoring systems have been proposed to define MOF, with no gold-standard. The purpose of this study was to compare three commonly used scores - the Denver PostInjury Multiple Organ Failure Score, the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and the Marshall Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score - by descriptive analysis of the populations described by each score, and their predictive ability for mortality...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011072/mortality-prediction-models-in-the-general-trauma-population-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Leonie de Munter, Suzanne Polinder, Koen W W Lansink, Maryse C Cnossen, Ewout W Steyerberg, Mariska A C de Jongh
BACKGROUND: Trauma is the leading cause of death in individuals younger than 40 years. There are many different models for predicting patient outcome following trauma. To our knowledge, no comprehensive review has been performed on prognostic models for the general trauma population. Therefore, this review aimed to describe (1) existing mortality prediction models for the general trauma population, (2) the methodological quality and (3) which variables are most relevant for the model prediction of mortality in the general trauma population...
December 15, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998635/predictors-of-intrathoracic-injury-after-blunt-torso-trauma-in-children-presenting-to-an-emergency-department-as-trauma-activations
#20
Caitlin McNamara, Irina Mironova, Erik Lehman, Robert P Olympia
BACKGROUND: Thoracic injuries are a major cause of death associated with blunt trauma in children. Screening for injury with chest x-ray study, compared with chest computed tomography (CT) scan, has been controversial, weighing the benefits of specificity with the detriment of radiation exposure. OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of thoracic injury in children presenting as trauma activations to a Level I trauma center after blunt torso trauma, and to compare these predictors with those previously reported in the literature...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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