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cause of death and trauma

Pauline K Park, Jeremy W Cannon, Wen Ye, Lorne H Blackbourne, John B Holcomb, William Beninati, Lena M Napolitano
BACKGROUND: The overall incidence and mortality of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in civilian trauma settings have decreased over the past four decades; however, the epidemiology and impact of ARDS on modern combat casualty care are unknown. We sought to determine the incidence, risk factors, resource utilization, and mortality associated with ARDS in current combat casualty care. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of mechanically ventilated US combat casualties within the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (formerly the Joint Theater Trauma Registry) during Operation Iraqi Freedom/Enduring Freedom (October 2001 to August 2008) for ARDS development, resource utilization, and mortality...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Barbara U Daufanamae, Richard C Franklin, Jackie Eagers
INTRODUCTION: Unintentional injuries (injuries for which there is no evidence of a predetermined intent) are one of the leading causes of death worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although evidence demonstrates unintentional injuries are preventable it is a public health challenge for many LMICs such as the Solomon Islands. Occupational therapists are well placed to contribute to injury prevention, as they have specialised skills to analyse the accessibility and safety of the environments within which people conduct their daily occupations...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
Cheryl K Zogg, Fernando Payró Chew, John W Scott, Lindsey L Wolf, Thomas C Tsai, Peter Najjar, Olubode A Olufajo, Eric B Schneider, Elliott R Haut, Adil H Haider, Joseph K Canner
Importance: Trauma is the leading cause of death and disability among young adults, who are also among the most likely to be uninsured. Efforts to increase insurance coverage, including passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), were intended to improve access to care and promote improvements in outcomes. However, despite reported gains in coverage, the ACA's success in promoting use of high-quality care and enacting changes in clinical end points remains unclear...
October 19, 2016: JAMA Surgery
Henna Wong, Nicola Curry, Simon J Stanworth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Death from uncontrolled haemorrhage is one of the leading causes of trauma-related mortality and is potentially preventable. Advances in understanding the mechanisms of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) have focused attention on the role of blood products and procoagulants in mitigating the sequelae of TIC and how these therapies can be improved. RECENT FINDINGS: A host of preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated blood product availability and efficacy in trauma...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Sungbae Moon, Suk Hee Lee, Hyun Wook Ryoo, Jong Kun Kim, Jae Yun Ahn, Sung Jin Kim, Jae Cheon Jeon, Kyung Woo Lee, Ae Jin Sung, Yun Jeong Kim, Dae Ro Lee, Byung Soo Do, Sin Ryul Park, Jin-Seok Lee
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the preventable death rate in Daegu, South Korea, and assessed affecting factors and preventable factors in order to improve the treatment of regional trauma patients. METHODS: All traumatic deaths between January 2012 and December 2012 in 5 hospitals in Daegu were analyzed by panel review, which were classified into preventable and non-preventable deaths. We determined the factors affecting trauma deaths and the preventable factors during trauma care...
December 2015: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Priti Bandi, Diana Silver, Tod Mijanovich, James Macinko
BACKGROUND: In the past 40 years, a variety of factors might have impacted motor vehicle (MV) fatality trends in the US, including public health policies, engineering innovations, trauma care improvements, etc. These factors varied in their timing across states/localities, and many were targeted at particular population subgroups. In order to identify and quantify differential rates of change over time and differences in trend patterns between population subgroups, this study employed a novel analytic method to assess temporal trends in MV fatalities between 1968 and 2010, by age group and sex...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Ashley Blanchard, Keven I Cabrera, Nathan Kuppermann, Peter S Dayan
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the prevalence of and adverse outcomes caused by pneumocephali in children with minor blunt head trauma who had no other intracranial injuries (ie, isolated pneumocephali). METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a public use dataset from a multicenter prospective study of pediatric minor head trauma. We included children younger than 18 years with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 14 or 15 and non-trivial mechanisms of injury who had cranial computed tomographies obtained...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Stefan Candefjord, Johan Winges, Ahzaz Ahmad Malik, Yinan Yu, Thomas Rylander, Tomas McKelvey, Andreas Fhager, Mikael Elam, Mikael Persson
Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of death and severe disability for young people and a major public health problem for elderly. Many patients with intracranial bleeding are treated too late, because they initially show no symptoms of severe injury and are not transported to a trauma center. There is a need for a method to detect intracranial bleedings in the prehospital setting. In this study, we investigate whether broadband microwave technology (MWT) in conjunction with a diagnostic algorithm can detect subdural hematoma (SDH)...
October 13, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Lauren Elizabeth Thomson, Nicola Fry, Richard Jackson
Trauma is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, with road traffic accidents being the leading cause of death in the age group of 15-29 years However, with modern advances in management and the introduction of specialised trauma centres, more and more are surviving severe and life-threatening trauma. The ideal timing of fracture fixation has been the subject of debate for a number of decades. There is evidence to suggest that fracture fixation in the patient with polytrauma is best achieved early on to reduce the incidence of morbidity and mortality, with damage control surgery in the more appropriate option in those patients who are haemodynamically unstable...
October 11, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Yo Shinoda, Yui Nakajima, Hirotoshi Iguchi, Satoshi Tatsumi, Motomitsu Kitaoka, Masahiro Nakajima, Tsutomu Takahashi, Yasuyuki Fujiwara, Teiichi Furuichi
Galacto-N-biose (GNB: Galβ1-3GalNAc) is an O-glycan disaccharide core moiety that is a core component of mucin in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the physiological properties of GNB are not well understood. Glutamate excitotoxicity causes neuronal death in acute neurological disorders including stroke, trauma, and neurodegenerative disease. Therefore the discovery of drugs to treat glutamate excitotoxicity is an important goal. Here, we report that GNB is neuroprotective against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Sharon Edwards, Jason Smith
Trauma is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, in civilian environments and on the battlefield. Trauma-induced haemorrhage is the principal cause of potentially preventable death, which is generally attributable to a combination of vascular injury and coagulopathy. Survival rates following severe traumatic injury have increased due to advanced trauma management initiatives and treatment protocols, influenced by lessons learned from recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The use of tourniquets and intraosseous needles, early blood and blood product transfusion, administration of tranexamic acid in pre-hospital settings, and consultant-led damage control resuscitation incorporating damage control surgery have all played their part...
October 6, 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Roger W Byard, Matthew Cox, Peter Stockham
The body of a 19-year-old male was found apparently concealed underneath bushes with recent head and facial trauma, and multiple superficial abrasions. Subsequently, it was discovered that the decedent had been running into objects and buildings following the ingestion the evening before of what was thought to be lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Blood staining of a nearby wall close to where the body was lying was in keeping with the described behavior. Toxicology revealed 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy), in addition to two only recently available drugs 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine, (25B-NBOMe), and 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-butanone, (MDPBP)...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Manoj Kumar, Sanjeev Bhoi, Sujata Mohanty, Vineet Kumar Kamal, D N Rao, Pravas Mishra, Sagar Galwankar
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is the major leading cause of death after trauma. Up to 50% of early deaths are due to massive hemorrhage. Excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokine and hypercatecholamine induces hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) apoptosis, leading to multiorgan failure and death. However, still, result remains elusive for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) behavior in trauma HS (T/HS). OBJECTIVES: Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the in vitro HSCs behavior with or without recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), recombinant human granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF), recombinant human interleukin-3 (rhIL-3) alone, and combination with rhEPO + rhGM-CSF + rhIL-3 (EG3) in T/HS patients...
July 2016: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
Naranpurev Mendsaikhan, Tsolmon Begzjav, Ganbold Lundeg, Martin W Dünser
CONTEXT: The epidemiology and outcome of critical illness in Mongolia remain undefined. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology and outcome of critical illness in Mongolia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This is a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study including 19 Mongolian centers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and outcome data of patients >15 years admitted to the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) were collected during a 6-month period...
July 2016: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
T Glaus, N Sigrist, N Hofer-Inteeworn, C Kuemmerle-Fraune, C Mueller, K Geissweid, K Beckmann, M Wenger, J Novo Matos
Unexplained bleeding was the primary clinical complaint in 15 dogs diagnosed with A. vasorum and was observed in the mouth, as external bleeding, as large subcutaneous hematoma, as hemoptysis, in the brain, post ovariectomy, as epistaxis, in the anterior ocular chamber and on a tracheal intubation tube. In 8 dogs the cause of bleeding initially was suspected to be a minor trauma or a surgical complication, and various surgical approaches had been undertaken to eliminate the problem. In only 3 dogs respiratory signs were observed before the bleeding prompted referral...
October 2016: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
(no author information available yet)
Haemorrhage is a major cause of death in the trauma patient. In this study, the researchers aimed to investigate how accurate visual assessment of blood loss is at the scene of accident. Five case scenarios were set up using manikins and time expired whole human blood. The manikins were all dressed identically in jogging suit bottoms and a woollen jumper and were all laid supine on a concrete surface. Ten paramedics and ten emergency ambulance technicians were asked to estimate how much blood there was in each case...
February 1, 1999: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Li Lian Foo, Sook Hui Chaw, Lucy Chan, Dharmendra Ganesan, Ravindran Karuppiah
Tension pneumocephalus is rare but has been well documented following trauma and neurosurgical procedures. It is a surgical emergency as it can lead to neurological deterioration, brainstem herniation and death. Unlike previous cases where tension pneumocephalus developed postoperatively, we describe a case of intraoperative tension pneumocephalus leading to sudden, massive open brain herniation out of the craniotomy site. The possible causative factors are outlined. It is imperative to rapidly identify possible causes of acute intraoperative brain herniation, including tension pneumocephalus, and institute appropriate measures to minimize neurological damage...
September 27, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
M Garetier, L Deloire, F Dédouit, E Dumousset, C Saccardy, D Ben Salem
Suicide is the eighth cause of mortality in France and the leading cause in people aged between 25 and 34 years. The most common methods of suicide are hanging, self-poisoning with medicines and firearms. Postmortem computed tomography (CT) is a useful adjunct to autopsy to confirm suicide and exclude other causes of death. At autopsy, fractures of the hyoid bone or thyroid cartilage, or both, are found in more than 50% of suicidal hangings. Cervical vertebra fractures are rare and only seen in suicide victims jumping from a great height...
September 26, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
Mathilde Chevignard, Leila Francillette, Hanna Toure, Dominique Brugel, Philippe Meyer, Anne Laurent Vannier, Marion Opatowski, Laurence Watier
OBJECTIVE: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the first cause of death and acquired disability and it represents a major public health issue. Childhood severe TBI can lead to motor, cognitive, behavioural and social cognition deficits, which have consequences on academic achievement, social integration, participation and quality of life. Consequences may only appear after a delay, when the skills are supposed to be fully developed. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess academic outcome, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), amount of ongoing care and participation, following childhood severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) over 7-8years post-injury, in comparison with a matched uninjured control group...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Mathilde Chevignard, Leila Francillette, Hanna Toure, Dominique Brugel, Philippe Meyer, Anne Laurent Vannier, Marion Opatowski, Laurence Watier
OBJECTIVE: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and lifelong acquired disability. The aim of this study was to prospectively study intellectual ability following childhood severe TBI over 7-8years post-injury, and factors influencing outcome and change over time. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Children (0-15years) consecutively admitted in a single trauma center for severe non-inflicted TBI over a 3-year period were included in a prospective longitudinal study...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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