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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729823/administration-of-tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-attenuates-early-brain-injury-via-akt-pathway-activation
#1
Dongdong Sun, Gang Gu, Jianhao Wang, Yan Chai, Yueshan Fan, Mengchen Yang, Xin Xu, Weiwei Gao, Fei Li, Dongpei Yin, Shuai Zhou, Xin Chen, Jianning Zhang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of trauma-induced mortality and disability, and emerging studies have shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of TBI. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a hydrophilic bile acid, has been reported to act as an ER stress inhibitor and chemical chaperone and to have the potential to attenuate apoptosis and inflammation. To study the effects of TUDCA on brain injury, we subjected mice to TBI with a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727608/evaluation-of-non-invasive-hemoglobin-monitoring-in-trauma-patients-with-low-hemoglobin-levels
#2
Medhat Gamal, Bassant Abdelhamid, Dina Zakaria, Omnia Abd El Dayem, Ashraf Rady, Maher Fawzy, Ahmed Hasanin
OBJECTIVE: Bleeding is a leading cause of death among trauma patients. Delayed assessment of blood hemoglobin level might result in either unnecessary blood transfusion in non-indicated patients or delayed blood transfusion in critically bleeding patients. In this study, we evaluate the precision of non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring in trauma patients with low hemoglobin levels. METHODS: We included trauma patients with low hemoglobin levels (less than 8 g/dL) scheduled for surgical intervention...
July 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712901/henry-ii-of-france-1519-1559-and-his-death-from-meningoencephalitis-following-a-cranial-trauma
#3
REVIEW
Konstantinos Markatos, Marianna Karamanou, Konstantina Arkoudi, Georgios Androutsos
The purpose of this historical review is to summarize the most significant theories on the cause of death of King Henry II of France (1519-1559) and the circumstances under which it occurred. Although the testimonies are inconclusive and vague, post mortem analysis showed that the cause of death of the King was meningoencephalitis, caused by haematoma of cerebral contusion, with effusion in the cerebral laminae, in its surrounding tissue initiated from a periorbital fracture.
July 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711170/early-selenium-treatment-for-traumatic-brain-injury-does-it-improve-survival-and-functional-outcome
#4
Hosseinali Khalili, Rebecka Ahl, Yang Cao, Shahram Paydar, Gabriel Sjölin, Amin Niakan, Gholamreza Dabiri, Shahin Mohseni
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and debility following trauma. The initial brain tissue insult is worsened by secondary reactive responses including oxidative stress reactions, inflammatory changes and subsequent permanent neurologic deficits. Effective agents to improve functional outcome and survival following TBI are scarce. Selenium is an antioxidant which has shown to reduce oxidative stress. This study examines the effect of intravenous selenium (Selenase(®)) treatment in patients with severe TBI on functional outcome and survival in a prospective study design...
July 8, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702382/epidemiology-of-pelvic-ring-fractures-and-injuries
#5
Gilberto José Cação Pereira, Erick Ribeiro Damasceno, Daniel Innocenti Dinhane, Francisco Marques Bueno, Jaqueline Bartelega Rodrigues Leite, Bruno da Costa Ancheschi
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the pelvic ring fractures and injuries in patients admitted to and treated at this ward between August, 2012 and January, 2014. METHODS: 66 patients were submitted to treatment protocols according to their age, gender, skin color, injury mechanism, location of the trauma, classification of their injuries, emergency intervention, associated injuries, injured side of the body, treatment, and mortality. The most relevant data were classified according to statistic procedures, such as Goodman's association test...
May 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700540/clinical-and-radiological-presentations-and-management-of-blunt-splenic-trauma-a-single-tertiary-hospital-experience
#6
Gaby Jabbour, Ammar Al-Hassani, Ayman El-Menyar, Husham Abdelrahman, Ruben Peralta, Mohammed Ellabib, Hisham Al-Jogol, Mohammed Asim, Hassan Al-Thani
BACKGROUND Splenic injury is the leading cause of major bleeding after blunt abdominal trauma. We examined the clinical and radiological presentations, management, and outcome of blunt splenic injuries (BSI) in our institution. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective study of BSI patients between 2011 and 2014 was conducted. We analyzed and compared management and outcome of different splenic injury grades in trauma patients. RESULTS A total of 191 BSI patients were identified with a mean (SD) age of 26.9 years (13...
July 12, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692626/a-literature-review-on-gang-violence
#7
Jolene Kittle
Gangs and gang violence are a concerning cause of preventable injuries and death in the trauma community. The number of gangs and gang members has been on an upward trend since 2003 with an estimated 30,000 gangs in the United States. This includes approximately 850,000 gang members. Trauma centers are in a unique position to participate in the prevention of gang violence. This review compiles current, relevant literature on gangs and gang violence covering the following topics: prevention/intervention, contributing influences, and experiential reflections...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692616/development-of-a-falls-registry-a-pilot-study
#8
Gina M Berg, Tara Carlson, Joanne Fairchild, Courtney Edwards, Ryan Sorell
Each year approximately 1 in 4 healthy older adults aged 65+ years and 1 in 2 aged 80+ years living in the community will fall. Fall-related injuries are the leading cause of death and disability and cost the United States approximately $31 billion annually. Currently, no repository of scene data exists that informs prevention programs regarding circumstances that contribute to older adult falls. This was a multicenter (4 sites: Kansas, Maryland, Oregon, and Texas) pilot study consisting of interviews of older (55+ years) patients who had been admitted to a trauma center with fall-related injuries...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689048/the-impact-of-hypothermia-on-serum-potassium-concentration-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Sarah Buse, Marc Blancher, Damien Viglino, Mathieu Pasquier, Maxime Maignan, Pierre Bouzat, Thorsten Annecke, Guillaume Debaty
BACKGROUND: Blood potassium is the main prognostic biomarker used for triage in hypothermic cardiac arrest. The aim of this review was to assess the impact of hypothermia on blood potassium levels and compare the underlying pathophysiological theories. METHODS: The Medline electronic database was searched via PubMed for articles published from January 1970 to December 2016. The search strategy included studies related to hypothermia and potassium levels. The relevant literature on clinical studies and experimental studies was reviewed by the authors...
July 5, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688639/identifying-preventable-trauma-death-does-autopsy-serve-a-role-in-the-peer-review-process
#10
Dane Scantling, Amanda Teichman, Robert Kucejko, Brendan McCracken, James Eakins, Richard Burns
BACKGROUND: Missing life-threatening injuries is a persistent concern in any trauma program. Autopsy is a tool routinely utilized to determine an otherwise occult cause of death in many fields of medicine. It has been adopted as a required component of the trauma peer review (PR) process by both the American College of Surgeons and the Pennsylvania Trauma Foundation. We hypothesized that autopsy would not identify preventable deaths for augmentation of the PR process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review using our institutional trauma registry of all trauma deaths between January 2012 and December 2015 was performed...
July 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683912/blunt-trauma-of-the-aorta-current-guidelines
#11
REVIEW
Marc D Trust, Pedro G R Teixeira
Blunt thoracic aortic injury remains a major cause of prehospital deaths. For patients who reach the hospital alive, diagnosis and management have undergone dramatic changes over the last 50 years. Computed tomography scanning is the imaging modality of choice for injury diagnosis and repair planning. Medical management with antihypertensives dramatically decreases the risk of rupture, allowing for delayed repair, while abnormal physiology and more immediately life-threatening injuries can be addressed. Endovascular techniques and endograft technology have reduced significantly the risks associated with repair...
August 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670770/are-drowned-donors-marginal-donors-a-single-pediatric-center-experience
#12
Kayla R Kumm, N Thao N Galván, Sarah Koohmaraie, Abbas Rana, Michael Kueht, Katherine Baugh, Liu Hao, Dor Yoeli, Ronald Cotton, Christine A O'Mahony, John A Goss
Drowning, a common cause of death in the pediatric population, is a potentially large donor pool for OLT. Anecdotally, transplant centers have deemed these organs high risk over concerns for infection and graft dysfunction. We theorized drowned donor liver allografts do not portend worse outcomes and therefore should not be excluded from the donation pool. We reviewed our single-center experience of pediatric OLTs between 1988 and 2015 and identified 33 drowned donor recipients. These OLTs were matched 1:2 to head trauma donor OLTs from our center...
July 3, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666147/sudden-unexpected-death-in-early-parkinson-s-disease-neurogenic-or-cardiac-death
#13
Naoki Nishida, Koji Yoshida, Yukiko Hata
We present two cases of sudden unexpected death (SUD) in elderly individuals in whom autopsy unexpectedly showed Lewy pathology, a hallmark of Parkinson's disease. Both individuals were 68-year-old men who were found dead in their homes without lethal trauma or poisoning. Inquests into their deaths suggested that nonmotor cardiovascular signs of Parkinson's disease might have appeared just before their deaths, although few typical motor signs were present. Autopsy showed Lewy pathology in the heart and peripheral autonomic nervous system in addition to lesser involvement of the brainstem that was consistent with Braak stage 3...
June 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665528/trauma-hazards-in-children-an-update-for-the-busy-clinician
#14
REVIEW
Andrew Ja Holland, Soundappan Sv Soundappan
Trauma and injury continue to be common in children and remain an important cause of mortality and morbidity. Legislation mandating the use of helmets for all cyclists appears to have been effective in reducing the incidence and severity of head and facial injuries, with no clear evidence of a reduction in cycling usage or activity. Straddle injuries, whilst uncommon and generally minor, require careful clinical assessment as they may be associated with urethral trauma. Quad bikes remain highly dangerous with continuing reports of deaths in child riders due to their inherent lack of stability: a ban on their use by children would seem the most effective solution...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663054/early-detection-of-cerebral-microbleeds-following-traumatic-brain-injury-using-mri-in-the-hyper-acute-phase
#15
Tim P Lawrence, Pieter M Pretorius, Martyn Ezra, Tom Cadoux-Hudson, Natalie L Voets
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in people under 45. Advanced imaging techniques to identify injury and classify severity in the first few hours and days following trauma could improve patient stratification and aid clinical decision making. Traumatic cerebral microbleeds (TCMBs), detectable on magnetic resonance susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), can be used as markers of long-term clinical outcome. However, the relationship between TCMBs and injury severity in the first few hours after injury, and their natural evolution, is unknown...
June 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660196/endovascular-repair-of-traumatic-isthmic-ruptures-special-concerns
#16
REVIEW
Nikolaos Patelis, Athanasios Katsargyris, Chris Klonaris
Injury of the aortic isthmus is the second most frequent cause of death in cases of blunt traumatic injury. Conventional open repair is related to significant morbidity and mortality. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has increasing role in traumatic isthmic rupture, as it avoids the thoracotomy-related morbidity, aortic cross clamping, and cardiopulmonary bypass. Additionally to the technical difficulties of open repair, multi-trauma patients may not tolerate the manipulations necessary to undergo open surgery, due to concomitant injuries...
2017: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657831/case-report-life-saving-application-of-commercial-tourniquet-in-pediatric-extremity-hemorrhage
#17
David W Callaway, Andrew Puciaty, Josh Robertson, Tony Hannon, Sarah E Fabiano
Hemorrhage is the leading preventable cause of death in civilian and military trauma. Recent data from the ongoing conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan suggest that early and aggressive tourniquet utilization is a safe and effective way to dramatically reduce mortality from extremity hemorrhage. As a result, prehospital tourniquet use is now endorsed by a majority of professional emergency medicine, emergency medical service and trauma professional societies. However, there currently exists scant evidence supporting the efficacy of commercially available tourniquets in controlling extremity hemorrhage in pediatric trauma patients...
June 28, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654066/a-mouse-model-of-single-and-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Bevan S Main, Stephanie S Sloley, Sonia Villapol, David N Zapple, Mark P Burns
Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) can result in the acute loss of brain function, including a period of confusion, a loss of consciousness (LOC), focal neurological deficits and even amnesia. Athletes participating in contact sports are at high risk of exposure to large number of mTBIs. In terms of the level of injury in a sporting athlete, a mTBI is defined as a mild injury that does not cause gross pathological changes, but does cause short-term neurological deficits that are spontaneously resolved. Despite previous attempts to model mTBI in mice and rats, many have reported gross adverse effects including skull fractures, intracerebral bleeding, axonal injury and neuronal cell death...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653434/injury-from-falls-in-infants-under-one-year
#19
Christopher S Mulligan, Susan Adams, Dimitra Tzioumi, Julie Brown
AIM: Falls in infants are a common cause of injury. Compared to older children, infants under age one are likely to have distinctive causation and injury patterns, as they are pre-mobile or have limited independent mobility and falls are more directly the responsibility of the care giver. There is little known about the mechanistic factors, predictors of injury and injury patterns in this age group. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of infants under age one who presented after a fall to a paediatric trauma centre in Sydney, Australia...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652078/extracellular-cytochrome-c-as-an-intercellular-signaling-molecule-regulating-microglial-functions
#20
Ayden Gouveia, Ekta Bajwa, Andis Klegeris
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome c is well known to be released from mitochondria into the cytosol where it can initiate apoptosis. Recent studies indicate that cytochrome c is also released into the extracellular space by both healthy and damaged cells, where its function is not well understood. We hypothesized that extracellular cytochrome c could function as an intercellular signaling molecule of the brain, which is recognized by brain microglia. These cells belong to the mononuclear phagocyte system and can be activated by endogenous substances associated with diverse pathologies including trauma, ischemic damage and neurodegenerative diseases...
June 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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