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Sun gazing

Delin Sun, Robin Shao, Zhaoxin Wang, Tatia M C Lee
Gaze direction is a common social cue implying potential interpersonal interaction. However, little is known about the neural processing of social decision making influenced by perceived gaze direction. Here, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) method to investigate 27 females when they were engaging in an economic exchange game task during which photos of direct or averted eye gaze were shown. We found that, when averted but not direct gaze was presented, prosocial vs. selfish choices were associated with stronger activations in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) as well as larger functional couplings between right STG and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Qian Chayn Sun, Jianhong Cecilia Xia, Jibo He, Jonathan Foster, Torbjörn Falkmer, Hoe Lee
Visual information for a driver is predominant during driving. Linking drivers' visual search patterns with motor behaviour helps understand how drivers perceived spatial and hazardous information to regulate their physical movements. Visual-motor coordination performance can be a sensitive indicator for driver competency assessment. Due to age-related cognitive decline, older drivers are likely inefficient in visual-motor coordination. While poor visual-motor coordination can cause risky behaviour behind the wheel, it is yet challenging to examine it owing to the complexity of driving behaviour...
January 31, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Robin Grob, Pauline N Fleischmann, Kornelia Grübel, Rüdiger Wehner, Wolfgang Rössler
Central place foragers are faced with the challenge to learn the position of their nest entrance in its surroundings, in order to find their way back home every time they go out to search for food. To acquire navigational information at the beginning of their foraging career, Cataglyphis noda performs learning walks during the transition from interior worker to forager. These small loops around the nest entrance are repeatedly interrupted by strikingly accurate back turns during which the ants stop and precisely gaze back to the nest entrance-presumably to learn the landmark panorama of the nest surroundings...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Indu P Bodala, Nida I Abbasi, Yu Sun, Anastasios Bezerianos, Hasan Al-Nashash, Nitish V Thakor
Eye tracking offers a practical solution for monitoring cognitive performance in real world tasks. However, eye tracking in dynamic environments is difficult due to high spatial and temporal variation of stimuli, needing further and thorough investigation. In this paper, we study the possibility of developing a novel computer vision assisted eye tracking analysis by using fixations. Eye movement data is obtained from a long duration naturalistic driving experiment. Source invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm was implemented using VLFeat toolbox to identify multiple areas of interest (AOIs)...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Zongpeng Sun, Aleksandra Smilgin, Marc Junker, Peter W Dicke, Peter Thier
Scrutiny of the visual environment requires saccades that shift gaze to objects of interest. In case the object should be moving, smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) try to keep the image of the object within the confines of the fovea in order to ensure sufficient time for its analysis. Both saccades and SPEM can be adaptively changed by the experience of insufficiencies, compromising the precision of saccades or the minimization of object image slip in the case of SPEM. As both forms of adaptation rely on the cerebellar oculomotor vermis (OMV), most probably deploying a shared neuronal machinery, one might expect that the adaptation of one type of eye movement should affect the kinematics of the other...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Jirui Li, Amirsaman Sajad, Robert Marino, Xiaogang Yan, Saihong Sun, Hongying Wang, J Douglas Crawford
The relative contributions of egocentric versus allocentric cues on goal-directed behavior have been examined for reaches, but not saccades. Here, we used a cue conflict task to assess the effect of allocentric landmarks on gaze behavior. Two head-unrestrained macaques maintained central fixation while a target flashed in one of eight radial directions, set against a continuously present visual landmark (two horizontal/vertical lines spanning the visual field, intersecting at one of four oblique locations 11° from the target)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Anurag Badhani, Tapas Ranjan Padhi, Gopal Krishna Panda, Sujoy Mukherjee, Taraprasad Das, Subhadra Jalali
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical characteristics, macular structure and function, and to document sequential changes over 5 years in a 10-year-old boy with bilateral primary foveomacular retinitis. METHODS: A 10-year-old boy presented with sudden onset scotoma in both eyes, experienced after getting up from bed on a non-eclipse day. He persistently denied direct sun-gazing. He neither had any significant systemic illness, nor was using any medications. In addition to a detailed examination at presentation that included fundus fluorescein angiogram (FFA), electroretinogram (ERG), pattern ERG and electrooculogram (EOG), he was examined periodically for 5 years with Humphrey visual field (HVF), spectral domain optical coherence tomogram (SDOCT), Amsler grid charting and multifocal ERG...
August 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Zhongqiang Sun, Wenjun Yu, Jifan Zhou, Mowei Shen
People automatically redirect their visual attention by following others' gaze orientation, a phenomenon called "gaze following." This is an evolutionarily generated socio-cognitive process that provides people with information about their environments. Often, however, people in crowds can have rather different gaze orientations. This study investigated how gaze following occurs in situations with many conflicting gazes. In two experiments, we modified the gaze cueing paradigm to use a crowd rather than a single individual...
May 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Mathieu Coquand, François Henault, Cyril Caliot
This paper describes a backward-gazing method for measuring the optomechanical errors of solar concentrating surfaces. It makes use of four cameras placed near the solar receiver and simultaneously recording images of the sun reflected by the optical surfaces. Simple data processing then allows reconstructing the slope and shape errors of the surfaces. The originality of the method is enforced by the use of generalized quad-cell formulas and approximate mathematical relations between the slope errors of the mirrors and their reflected wavefront in the case of sun-tracking heliostats at high-incidence angles...
March 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Wanqi Sun, Guanghai Wang, Yanrui Jiang, Yuanjin Song, Shumei Dong, Qingmin Lin, Yujiao Deng, Qi Zhu, Fan Jiang
BACKGROUND: Sleep is known to influence socio-emotional regulation among children and preschoolers, whereas little is known about the association between sleep and social preference during infancy. METHODS: In the current study, habitual sleep of 49 infants aged around six months old were surveyed by questionnaire, and their social preference was revealed by their preferential gaze in three conditions: (1) a human face paired with an object (ie, a cup), (2) a human face paired with an animal face (ie, a dog), and (3) a dog face paired with a cup...
November 2016: Sleep Medicine
Peng Sen Wu, Reshvin Matoo, Hong Sun, Li Yuan Song, Don O Kikkawa, Wei Lu
BACKGROUND: Orbital fractures with open periorbital wounds cause significant morbidity. Timing of debridement with fracture repair and soft tissue reconstruction is controversial. This study focuses on the efficacy of early single-stage repair in combined bony and soft tissue injuries. METHODS: Retrospective review. Twenty-three patients with combined open soft tissue wounds and orbital fractures were studied for single-stage orbital reconstruction and periorbital soft tissue repair...
February 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
M Tsatsos, C MacGregor, D Gousia, M Moschos, E Detorakis
A solar eclipse is an impressive natural phenomenon that was last experienced in Europe in 2006. Last year, on March 20th 2015, a solar eclipse was visible in much of Europe. Solar retinopathy is a recognised potentially sight threatening condition that has been associated with direct or unprotected sun gazing. Public education has been shown to improve behaviour and attitudes that could influence the development of solar retinopathy during an eclipse. We have performed a study through newspapers prior to the 2015 solar eclipse in different European countries, in order to determine the level of public health awareness and attitudes to protection...
June 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
J Mehlan, S J Linke, L Wagenfeld, J Steinberg
A 43-year-old male patient with unilateral metamorphosia presented after gazing at an eclipse with only one eye. Damage of the macula was demonstrated funduscopically, with OCT and angiography. Six weeks after initial presentation and oral methylprednisolone therapy (40 mg/d for 10 days), the symptoms and the morphological changes decreased. Solar retinopathy is a photochemical alteration of the retina, usually seen after sun gazing. In younger patients, it mostly presents as bilateral solar maculopathy. Some patients exhibit partial or total recovery...
June 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Mary Smith
"Get the camera!" I yelled. As my young son came running towards me with the camera, I pointed up to the sky. Therethey were, four magnificent gleaming rainbows. The cloudssurrounding were a moody bluish black and the sun swiftly andgracefully beamed through them. The shimmering and glistening rainbows in that brief moment of sunshine pierced throughmy own darkness. In the last few months in my First Nationscommunity, we had experienced many deaths. Some of thesedeaths were relatives and friends. Years later, I would gaze atthe picture taken through hot tears, Nagweyaab geebawug orrainbow spirits I thought--these are the ancestors, those whohave passed reminding us to never give up...
October 2015: CANNT Journal, Journal ACITN
Daniel Tibussek, Rungrote Natesirinilkul, Lisa R Sun, Bruce A Wasserman, Leonardo R Brandão, Gabrielle deVeber
We report on 2 patients who developed widespread cerebral vasospasm and arterial ischemic strokes (AIS) after application of intrathecal (IT) cytarabine. In a 3-year-old child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), left leg weakness, hyperreflexia, and clonus were noted 4 days after her first dose of IT cytarabine during the induction phase of her chemotherapy. Cerebral MRI revealed multiple acute cerebral ischemic infarcts and widespread cerebral vasospasm. A 5-year-old girl complained of right arm and leg pain and began limping 11 days after IT cytarabine...
February 2016: Pediatrics
Yinliang Diao, Sai-Wing Leung, Kwok Hung Chan, Weinong Sun, Yun-Ming Siu, Richard Kong
This article investigates the effect of gaze angle on the specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature rise in human eye under electromagnetic exposures from 0.9 to 10 GHz. Eye models in different gaze angles are developed based on biometric data. The spatial-average SARs in eyes are investigated using the finite-difference time-domain method, and the corresponding maximum temperature rises in lens are calculated by the finite-difference method. It is found that the changes in the gaze angle produce a maximum variation of 35, 12 and 20 % in the eye-averaged SAR, peak 10 g average SAR and temperature rise, respectively...
December 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Hong Ji, Jiafu Yang, Huali Zhu, Wen Jiang, Fengyuan Sun
OBJECTIVE: To summarized the clinical features of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy patients with myasthenia gravis. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series study. The clinical data of 12 thyroid associated ophthalmopathy patients with myasthenia gravis were collected in the 416 Hospital of Nuclear Industry from Oct. 2012 to Feb. 2014. All patients had a detailed medical history including symptoms of onset, the best corrected visual acuity, anterior and posterior segment examination, the exophthalmos, eyelid position, eye movement, diplopia, strabismus, systemic symptoms, concurrent fatigue test, neostigmine test, thyroid function and orbital CT scan...
August 2015: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Daniel R Leff, David R C James, Felipe Orihuela-Espina, Ka-Wai Kwok, Loi Wah Sun, George Mylonas, Thanos Athanasiou, Ara W Darzi, Guang-Zhong Yang
Minimally invasive and robotic surgery changes the capacity for surgical mentors to guide their trainees with the control customary to open surgery. This neuroergonomic study aims to assess a "Collaborative Gaze Channel" (CGC); which detects trainer gaze-behavior and displays the point of regard to the trainee. A randomized crossover study was conducted in which twenty subjects performed a simulated robotic surgical task necessitating collaboration either with verbal (control condition) or visual guidance with CGC (study condition)...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sun-Uk Lee, Seong-Ho Park, Jeong-Jin Park, Hyo Jung Kim, Moon-Ku Han, Hee-Joon Bae, Ji-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The characteristics of infarctions restricted to the dorsal medulla have received little attention. This study aimed to define the distinct clinical features of dorsal medullary infarction. METHODS: Of the 172 patients with a diagnosis of medullary infarction at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from 2003 to 2014, 18 patients with isolated dorsal medullary infarction were subjected to analyses of clinical and laboratory findings...
November 2015: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Sun Young Im, Young Eun Kim, Yun Joong Kim
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative syndrome that is clinically characterized by progressive postural instability, supranuclear gaze palsy, parkinsonism and cognitive decline. Pathologically, diagnosis of PSP is based on characteristic features, such as neurofibrillary tangles, neutrophil threads, tau-positive astrocytes and their processes in basal ganglia and brainstem, and the accumulation of 4 repeat tau protein. PSP is generally recognized as a sporadic disorder; however, understanding of genetic background of PSP has been expanding rapidly...
September 2015: Journal of Movement Disorders
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