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James L Croft, John E A Bertram
Available behaviors are determined by the fit between features of the individual and reciprocal features of the environment. Beyond some critical boundary certain behaviors become impossible causing sudden transitions from one movement pattern to another. Parkour athletes have developed multiple movement patterns to deal with their momentum during landing. We were interested in whether drop distance would cause a sudden transition between a two-footed (precision) landing and a load-distributing roll and whether the transition height could be predicted by dynamic and geometric characteristics of individual subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Matthew E Rossheim, Caroline J Stephenson
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined injuries resulting from practicing parkour. The current study provides details on more parkour-related emergency department visits than existed in the combined research literature. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System were used to examine parkour-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency departments over a seven year period. RESULTS: Most parkour injuries were reportedly caused by landing or from striking objects...
October 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Lewis G Halsey, Samuel R L Coward, Robin H Crompton, Susannah K S Thorpe
An animal's size is central to its ecology, yet remarkably little is known about the selective pressures that drive this trait. A particularly compelling example is how ancestral apes evolved large body mass in such a physically and energetically challenging environment as the forest canopy, where weight-bearing branches and lianas are flexible, irregular and discontinuous, and the majority of preferred foods are situated on the most flexible branches at the periphery of tree crowns. To date the issue has been intractable due to a lack of relevant fossil material, the limited capacity of the fossil record to reconstruct an animal's behavioural ecology and the inability to measure energy consumption in freely moving apes...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
Lewis G Halsey, Samuel R L Coward, Susannah K S Thorpe
The tree canopy is an energetically challenging environment to traverse. Along with compliant vegetation, gaps in the canopy can prove energetically costly if they force a route-extending detour. Arboreal apes exhibit diverse locomotion strategies, including for gap crossing. Which one they employ in any given scenario may be influenced by the energy costs to do so, which are affected by the details of the immediate environment in combination with their body size. Measuring energetics of arboreal apes is not tractable; thus our knowledge in this area is limited...
November 2016: Biology Letters
Carolin Stangier, Thomas Abel, Julia Mierau, Wildor Hollmann, Heiko K Strüder
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of running versus cycling training on sprint and endurance capacity in inline speed skating. Sixteen elite athletes (8 male, 8 female, 24 ± 8 yrs) were randomly assigned into 2 training groups performing either 2 session per week of treadmill running or ergometer cycling in addition to 3 skating specific sessions (technique, plyometrics, parkour) for 8 weeks. Training intensity was determined within non-specific (cycling or running) and effects on specific endurance capacity within a specific incremental exercise test...
March 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Regan J Standing, Peter S Maulder
Parkour is an activity that encompasses methods of jumping, climbing and vaulting. With landing being a pertinent part of this practise, Parkour participants (traceurs) have devised their own habitual landing strategies, which are suggested to be a safer and more effective style of landing. The purpose of this study was to compare the habitual landing strategies of traceurs and recreationally trained individuals from differing drop heights. Comparisons between landing sound and mechanical parameters were also assessed to gauge the level of landing safety...
December 2015: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Sidney Grosprêtre, Romuald Lepers
Parkour is a modern physical activity that consists of using the environment, mostly urban, as a playground of obstacles. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate age, anthropometric and training characteristics of Parkour practitioners, called 'traceurs' and (ii) to assess jump performances and muscular characteristics of traceurs, compared to those of gymnasts and power athletes. The mean age of the population of traceurs studied (n = 130) was 19.4 ± 4.3 years, women represented 12.4% of the total field and mean training volume was 8...
August 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
G Maldonado, H Bitard, B Watier, P Soueres
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Tomasz Próchniak, Iwona Rozempolska-Rucińska, Grzegorz Zięba, Marek Łukaszewicz
The aim of the study was to select traits that may constitute a prospective criterion for breeding value prediction of young horses. The results of 1,232 starts of 894 four-, five-, six-, and seven-year-old horses, obtained during jumping championships for young horses which had not been evaluated in, alternative to championships, training centres were analyed. Nine traits were chosen of those recorded: ranking in the championship, elimination (y/n), conformation, rating of style on day one, two, and three, and penalty points on day one, two, and three of a championship...
August 2015: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Chen Li, Andrew O Pullin, Duncan W Haldane, Han K Lam, Ronald S Fearing, Robert J Full
Many animals, modern aircraft, and underwater vehicles use fusiform, streamlined body shapes that reduce fluid dynamic drag to achieve fast and effective locomotion in air and water. Similarly, numerous small terrestrial animals move through cluttered terrain where three-dimensional, multi-component obstacles like grass, shrubs, vines, and leaf litter also resist motion, but it is unknown whether their body shape plays a major role in traversal. Few ground vehicles or terrestrial robots have used body shape to more effectively traverse environments such as cluttered terrain...
August 2015: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Jason F Harrison, Rafael A Vega, Theofilos G Machinis, John F Reavey-Cantwell
BACKGROUND: Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) present the clinician with diagnostic and surgical challenges. Extension of a CCF into the sphenoid sinus presents additional management difficulties. Endovascular interventions using various thrombogenic materials such as balloons, coils, or liquids are effective treatment strategies. Ideally, these techniques are used to obliterate the fistula while maintaining the patency of the parent artery. CASE REPORT: We present a rare case of traumatic carotid-cavernous sphenoid sinus fistulas complicated by multiple tears in the internal carotid artery with direct communication to the cavernous and sphenoid sinus...
2015: Ochsner Journal
Nima Derakhshan, Mohammad Reza Zarei, Zahed Malekmohammady, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
A 24-year-old male was transferred to the emergency department while being in the state of quadriplegia with a history of performing Parkour sport, which is also called double front flip. Neurological examination revealed that the patient's muscle power was 0/5 at all extremities. The patient did not show any sense of light touch or pain in his extremities. In radiological studies, cervical spine X-ray and CT scan images showed C4-C5 subluxation with bilateral locked facets and spinal cord injury. The results of this very rare case study revealed that exercising Parkour sport without taking into account safety standards could result in irreversible injuries to the cervical spinal cord with fatal outcome...
2014: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Damien L Puddle, Peter S Maulder
Due to the relative infancy of Parkour there is currently a lack of empirical evidence on which to base specific technique instruction upon. The purpose of this study was to compare the ground reaction forces and loading rates involved in two Parkour landing techniques encouraged by local Parkour instructors and a traditional landing technique recommended in the literature. Ten male participants performed three different drop landing techniques (Parkour precision, Parkour roll, and traditional) onto a force plate...
2013: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
E M Wanke, N Thiel, D A Groneberg, A Fischer
INTRODUCTION: Parkour sport is the playfully breaching of obstacles originally not created to get from A to B in the fastest manner. There have been only few publications on injuries in this young and trendy sport mainly performed in urban areas. The aim of this study is to analyse parkour-related acute injuries and their factors. METHODS: For the retrospective cross-sectional study, a total of n = 266 traceurs (m: n = 255, w: n = 11) completed anonymized online questionnaires...
September 2013: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
Pau Giner, Carlos Cetina, Raquel Lacuesta, Guillermo Palacios
Sensing technologies in mobile devices play a key role in reducing the gap between the physical and the digital world. The use of automatic identification capabilities can improve user participation in business processes where physical elements are involved(Smart Workflows). However, identifying all objects in the user surroundings does not automatically translate into meaningful services to the user. This work introduces Parkour,an architecture that allows the development of services that match the goals of each of the participants in a smart workflow...
2012: Sensors
Bert Vogelstein, Kenneth W Kinzler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2012: Science Translational Medicine
J Eric T Taylor, Jessica K Witt, Mila Sugovic
Through training, skilled parkour athletes (traceurs) overcome everyday obstacles, such as walls, that are typically insurmountable. Traceurs and untrained novices estimated the height of walls and reported their anticipated ability to climb the wall. The traceurs perceived the walls as shorter than did novices. This result suggests that perception is scaled by the perceiver's anticipated ability to act, and is consistent with the action-specific account of perception.
2011: Perception
Florian Lebreton, Guillaume Routier, Stephane Héas, Dominique Bodin
The article explores the process of "sportification"--i.e., processing physical activity in a sport regulated by a set of rules and standards, legitimized by supervisory institutions--from two originals practices, parkour and urban golf. To study these practices, we crossed the contributions of urban sociology and of the contemporary sociology of sport while respecting the methodological principles of qualitative sociology. A first point concerns the process of"sport" itself, its definition, its various stages, and the role played by communication of stakeholders on public space...
August 2010: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
Jason R Miller, Sébastien G Demoiny
Parkour is an extreme sport that has been popular in Europe for a few years. This sport has now made it across the Atlantic and is quickly gaining popularity in the United States. Participants of this activity, known as parkouristes, try to overcome obstacles in their environment in the most efficient manner possible. This can be accomplished by simply jumping or scaling an obstacle, but sometimes this is done in a very acrobatic manner. The sport had a longtime underground following but has now gained media exposure through various television advertisements, and it has even been featured in recent blockbuster films...
January 2008: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
C R McLean, S Houshian, J Pike
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2006: Injury
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