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drop evaporation

F Giorgiutti-Dauphiné, L Pauchard
The drying of complex fluids involves a large number of microscopic phenomena (transport and organization of non-volatile solutes) as well as hydrodynamic and mechanical instabilities. These phenomena can be captured in drying sessile drops where different domains can be identified: strong concentration gradients, formation of a glassy or porous envelope that withstands mechanical stress, and consolidation of a layer strongly adhering to the substrate at the drop edge. In colloidal systems, we quantify the evolution of the particle volume fraction at a nanometric scale and microscopic scale and identify the conditions for the envelope formation at the free surface by balancing the effect of diffusion and evaporation...
March 19, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Victor J Drew, Ching-Li Tseng, Jerard Seghatchian, Thierry Burnouf
Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a multifactorial, frequent, pathology characterized by deficient tear production or increased evaporation of tears and associated with ocular surface alteration and inflammation. It mostly affects, but not exclusively, older individuals and leads to varying degrees of discomfort and decreased quality of life. Although the typical treatments of DES rely on using artificial tears, polyunsaturated fatty acids, integrin antagonists, anti-inflammatory agents, or on performing punctal occlusion, recently, standardized blood-derived serum eye drops (SED) are generating much interest as a new physiological treatment option...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Masato Nakamura, René-Jean Tarento
The fragmentation of doubly and triply charged mercury clusters is theoretically studied to analyze an experiment performed by Katakuse's group at Osaka University [T. Satoh et al., J. Mass Spectrom. Soc. Jpn. 51, 391 (2003)]. The fission barrier is calculated using a liquid-drop model proposed by Echt et al. In the decay of doubly charged clusters, the barrier height is found to take the minimum value for nearly symmetric fission. On the other hand, in the decay of triply charged clusters, the barrier is the lowest for strongly asymmetric fission...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Nozomi Saito, Higashi Kobayashi, Kiyoshi Kanie, Masahiko Yamaguchi
Long-range anisotropic structural materials exhibit notable optical and mechanical properties, and described here is an efficient method of synthesizing such materials involving self-assembly of well-defined monodispersed organic molecules. Hetero-double-helices are formed in toluene using a pseudoenantiomeric mixture of an ethynylhelicene (M)-tetramer with C16 terminal groups and a (P)-pentamer. When the concentration of the mixture was increased, the hetero-double-helices self-assembled to form lyotropic liquid crystal gels...
February 28, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
F Wodlei, J Sebilleau, J Magnaudet, V Pimienta
Drop motility at liquid surfaces is attracting growing interest because of its potential applications in microfluidics and artificial cell design. Here we report the unique highly ordered pattern that sets in when a millimeter-size drop of dichloromethane spreads on an aqueous substrate under the influence of surface tension, both phases containing a surfactant. Evaporation induces a Marangoni flow that forces the development of a marked rim at the periphery of the spreading film. At some point this rim breaks up, giving rise to a ring of droplets, which modifies the aqueous phase properties in such a way that the film recoils...
February 26, 2018: Nature Communications
C S Dias, P J Yunker, A G Yodh, N A M Araújo, M M Telo da Gama
The deposition process at the edge of evaporating colloidal drops varies with the shape of suspended particles. Experiments with prolate ellipsoidal particles suggest that the spatiotemporal properties of the deposit depend strongly on particle aspect ratio. As the aspect ratio increases, the particles form less densely-packed deposits and the statistical behavior of the deposit interface crosses over from the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) universality class to another universality class which was suggested to be consistent with the KPZ plus quenched disorder...
February 21, 2018: Soft Matter
Eilidh Martin, Katherine M Oliver, E Ian Pearce, Alan Tomlinson, Peter Simmons, Suzanne Hagan
PURPOSE: Three tear supplements were compared for their effects on the signs, symptoms and inflammatory status of subjects with dry eye disease. Assessments were made before and after both 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. METHODS: In this masked, randomized, 3-way crossover trial, eighteen dry eye subjects were recruited. At each visit, symptoms, tear evaporation rate, stability and osmolarity were measured and tear samples were analyzed for 7 inflammatory markers, using multiplex immunoassays...
February 13, 2018: Cytokine
Marceau Guérin, Dario Martin-Benito, Georg von Arx, Laia Andreu-Hayles, Kevin L Griffin, Rayann Hamdan, Nate G McDowell, Robert Muscarella, William Pockman, Pierre Gentine
In the southwestern USA, recent large-scale die-offs of conifers raise the question of their resilience and mortality under droughts. To date, little is known about the interannual structural response to droughts. We hypothesized that piñon pines (Pinus edulis) respond to drought by reducing the drop of leaf water potential in branches from year to year through needle morphological adjustments. We tested our hypothesis using a 7-year experiment in central New Mexico with three watering treatments (irrigated, normal, and rain exclusion)...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
R N Nurdillayeva, A B Oshido, T A Bamford, O El-Zubir, A Houlton, J Hedley, A R Pike, B R Horrocks
Cadmium sulphide can be templated on λ-DNA molecules to form an aqueous dispersion of CdS/λ-DNA nanowires. Subsequent addition of ethylene glycol to 50% v/v is sufficient to formulate an ink suitable for printing using piezoelectric drop-on-demand technology. Printed droplet arrays show a coffee-ring morphology of individual deposits by fluorescence and Raman microscopy, but upon increasing the number of layers of printed material by repeated printing over each droplet, the dry deposit approaches closer to a disc shape...
February 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
Mavlavi Dustov, Diana I Golovina, Alexander Yu Polyakov, Anastasia E Goldt, Andrei A Eliseev, Efim A Kolesnikov, Irina V Sukhorukova, Dmitry V Shtansky, Wolfgang Grünert, Anastasia V Grigorieva
A new reactive ink based on a silver citrate complex is proposed for a photochemical route to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy active substrates with controllable extinction spectra. The drop-cast test of the ink reveals homogeneous nucleation of silver and colloid particle growth originating directly from photochemical in situ reduction in droplets, while the following evaporation of the deposited ink produces small nano- and micron-size particles. The prepared nanostructures and substrates were accurately characterized by electron microscopy methods and optical extinction spectroscopy...
February 9, 2018: Sensors
Dan Bi Lee, Jong-Min Kim, Jong Hyeon Seok, Ji-Hye Lee, Jae Deok Jo, Ji Young Mun, Chelsie Conrad, Jesse Coe, Gerrett Nelson, Brenda Hogue, Thomas A White, Nadia Zatsepin, Uwe Weierstall, Anton Barty, Henry Chapman, Petra Fromme, John Spence, Mi Sook Chung, Chang-Hyun Oh, Kyung Hyun Kim
Time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography with X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) holds the potential to view fast reactions occurring at near-physiological temperature. However, production and characterization of homogeneous micron-sized protein crystals at high density remain a bottleneck, due to the lack of the necessary equipments in ordinary laboratories. We describe here supersaturation-controlled microcrystallization and visualization and analysis tools that can be easily used in any laboratory...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Caroline A Blackie, Christy A Coleman, Kelly K Nichols, Lyndon Jones, Peter Q Chen, Ron Melton, David L Kading, Leslie E O'Dell, Sruthi Srinivasan
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a single vectored thermal pulsation (VTP) treatment in contact lens wearers with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and dry eye symptoms. Methods: The prospective, nonsignificant risk, open-label, randomized, multi-center clinical trial included 55 soft contact lens (SCL) wearers with MGD and evaporative dry eye. Subjects were randomized to the single VTP treatment group or an untreated control. The controls received a crossover VTP treatment at 3 months (crossover treatment group)...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
James M Cameron, Holly J Butler, David S Palmer, Matthew J Baker
The complex patterns observed from evaporated liquid drops have been examined extensively over the last 20 years. Complete understanding of drop deposition is vital in many medical processes, and one which is essential to the translation of biofluid spectroscopic disease diagnostics. The promising use of spectroscopy in disease diagnosis has been hindered by the complicated patterns left by dried biological fluids which may inhibit the clinical translation of this technology. Coffee-ring formation, cracking and gelation patterns have all been observed in biofluid drops, and with surface homogeneity being a key element to many spectroscopic techniques, experimental issues have been found to arise...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Narumi Oka, Fuyuki Ito, Yohei Haketa, Hiromitsu Maeda, Tetsuya Miyano, Norimitsu Tohnai, Syoji Ito, Hiroshi Miyasaka, Sumio Ozeki
Understanding the polymorph phenomenon for organic crystals is essential for the development of organic solid materials. Here, we report the fluorescence study of the evaporative crystallization of 1,3-dipyrrol-2-yl-1,3-propanedione boron difluoride complex (1), which has three polymorphs showing different emission profiles. The droplet of 1 in 1,2-dichloroethane showed blue emission just after dropping. The solids with bluish-green emission were observed. As time elapsed, a solid with red or orange emission was observed around the droplet...
January 22, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Raushan Nurdillayeva, Atsinafe Oshido, Thomas Bamford, Osama El-Zubir, Andrew Houlton, John Hedley, Andrew Pike, Benjamin Horrocks
Cadmium sulfide can be templated on -DNA molecules to form an aqueous dispersion of CdS/-DNA nanowires. Subsequent addition of ethylene glycol to 50% v/v is sufficient to formulate an ink suitable for printing using piezoelectric drop-on-demand technology. Printed droplet arrays show a coffee-ring morphology of individual deposits by fluorescence and Raman microscopy, but upon increasing the number of layers of printed material by repeated printing over each droplet, the dry deposit approaches closer to a disc shape...
January 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
Martina Banchelli, Marella de Angelis, Cristiano D'Andrea, Roberto Pini, Paolo Matteini
An advanced optofluidic system for protein detection based on Raman signal amplification via dewetting and molecular gathering within temporary mesoscale assemblies is presented. The evaporation of a microliter volume of protein solution deposited in a circular microwell precisely follows an outward-receding geometry. Herein the combination of liquid withdrawal with intermolecular interactions induces the formation of self-assembled molecular domains at the solid-liquid interface. Through proper control of the evaporation rate, amplitude of the assemblies and time for spectral collection at the liquid edge are extensively raised, resulting in a local enhancement and refinement of the Raman response, respectively...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sergey Semenov, Florian Carle, Marc Medale, David Brutin
The work is focused on obtaining boundary conditions for a one-sided numerical model of thermoconvective instabilities in evaporating pinned sessile droplets of ethanol on heated substrates. In the one-sided model, appropriate boundary conditions for heat and mass transfer equations are required at the droplet surface. Such boundary conditions are obtained in the present work based on a derived semiempirical theoretical formula for the total droplet's evaporation rate, and on a two-parametric nonisothermal approximation of the local evaporation flux...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
Xiufeng Yang, Song-Charng Kong
The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method has been increasingly used for simulating fluid flows; however, its ability to simulate evaporating flow requires significant improvements. This paper proposes an SPH method for evaporating multiphase flows. The present SPH method can simulate the heat and mass transfers across the liquid-gas interfaces. The conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy were reformulated based on SPH, then were used to govern the fluid flow and heat transfer in both the liquid and gas phases...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
Pawan Kumar, D V Maheswar Repaka, Kedar Hippalgaonkar
We have developed a new and accurate technique to measure temperature dependent in-plane Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of organic and inorganic thin films. The measurement device consists of one heater, two thermometers, and a four-probe configuration which is patterned on a substrate of choice using a simple shadow mask. The high resolution in temperature measurements and repeatability of resistance thermometry is leveraged while enabling simple implementation using only a shadow mask for patterning...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Daniel E Winkler, Joshua L Conver, Travis E Huxman, Don E Swann
The long-lived columnar saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) is among the most studied plants in the world. Long-term studies have shown saguaro establishment to be generally episodic and strongly influenced by precipitation and temperature. Water limitation through lower-than-average seasonal rainfall and elevated temperatures increasing evaporative loss can reduce survivorship of recent germinates. Thus, multi-year, extended drought could cause populations to decline as older saguaros die without replacement...
December 27, 2017: Ecology
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