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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144986/decadal-changes-in-emissions-of-volatile-organic-compounds-vocs-from-on-road-vehicles-with-intensified-automobile-pollution-control-case-study-in-a-busy-urban-tunnel-in-south-china
#1
Yanli Zhang, Weiqiang Yang, Isobel Simpson, Xinyu Huang, Jianzhen Yu, Zhonghui Huang, Zhaoyi Wang, Zhou Zhang, Di Liu, Zuzhao Huang, Yujun Wang, Chenglei Pei, Min Shao, Donald R Blake, Junyu Zheng, Zhijiong Huang, Xinming Wang
In the efforts at controlling automobile emissions, it is important to know in what extent air pollutants from on-road vehicles could be truly reduced. In 2014 we conducted tests in a heavily trafficked tunnel in south China to characterize emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from on-road vehicle fleet and compared our results with those obtained in the same tunnel in 2004. Alkanes, aromatics, and alkenes had average emission factors (EFs) of 338, 63, and 42 mg km(-1) in 2014 against that of 194, 129, and 160 mg km(-1) in 2004, respectively...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135258/effect-of-substrate-temperature-on-pattern-formation-of-bi-dispersed-particles-from-volatile-drops
#2
Maryam Parsa, Souad Harmand, Khellil Sefiane, Maxence Bigerelle, Raphaël Deltombe
In this study, pattern formation during evaporation of bi-dispersed drops (containing 1 and 3.2 μm particles) placed on a smooth substrate at different temperatures is investigated. Five distinctive deposition patterns are observed depending on the substrate temperature: a relatively uniform pattern enclosed by a disk-shaped ring, a nearly non-uniform pattern inside a thick outer ring, a "dual-ring" pattern, a "rose-like" pattern, and a set of concentric rings corresponding to "stick-slip" pattern. At drops edge, the particle size effect leads to the formation of three rings: an outermost ring formed by the non-volatile additives smaller than 1 μm, a middle ring built by particles with size of 1 μm, and an innermost ring formed by the mixture of 1 and 3...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134743/rapid-determination-of-ginkgolic-acids-in-ginkgo-biloba-kernels-and-leaves-by-direct-analysis-in-real-time-mass-spectrometry
#3
Zhongping Huang, Yueting Xu, Yilei Huang, Charles Liu, Kezhi Jiang, Lili Wang
A novel method on basis of direct analysis in real time integrated with mass spectrometry was established and applied into rapid determination of ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba kernels and leaves. Instrument parameter settings were optimized to obtain the sensitive and accurate determination of ginkgolic acids. At the sample introduction speed of 0.2 mm/s, high intensity of [M-H](-) ions for ginkgolic acids were observed in the negative ion mode by utilization of high purity helium gas at 450°C. 2 μL methanol extract of Ginkgo biloba kernels or leaves dropped on the surface of Quick-Strip module was analyzed after solvent evaporated to dryness...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116129/evaporation-of-a-sessile-water-drop-and-a-drop-of-aqueous-salt-solution
#4
S Y Misyura
The influence of various factors on the evaporation of drops of water and aqueous salt solution has been experimentally studied. Typically, in the studies of drop evaporation, only the diffusive vapor transfer, radiation and the molecular heat conduction are taken into account. However, vapor-gas convection plays an important role at droplet evaporation. In the absence of droplet boiling, the influence of gas convection turns out to be the prevailing factor. At nucleate boiling, a prevailing role is played by bubbles generation and vapor jet discharge at a bubble collapse...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110292/development-of-chitosan-based-ph-sensitive-polymeric-micelles-containing-curcumin-for-colon-targeted-drug-delivery
#5
Thisirak Woraphatphadung, Warayuth Sajomsang, Theerasak Rojanarata, Tanasait Ngawhirunpat, Prasopchai Tonglairoum, Praneet Opanasopit
pH-sensitive N-naphthyl-N,O-succinyl chitosan (NSCS) and N-octyl-N,O-succinyl chitosan (OSCS) polymeric micelles carriers have been developed to incorporate curcumin (CUR) for colon-targeted drug delivery. The physical entrapment methods (dialysis, co-solvent evaporation, dropping, and O/W emulsion) were applied. The CUR-loaded micelles prepared by the dialysis method presented the highest loading capacity. Increasing initial amount of CUR from 5 to 40 wt% to polymer resulted in the increase in loading capacity of the polymeric micelles...
November 6, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090296/recent-advances-in-droplet-wetting-and-evaporation
#6
REVIEW
D Brutin, V Starov
The wetting of solid surfaces using liquid droplets has been studied since the early 1800s. Thomas Young and Pierre-Simon Laplace investigated the wetting properties, as well as the role of the contact angle and the coupling of a liquid and solid, on the contact angle formation. The geometry of a sessile droplet is relatively simple. However, it is sufficiently complex to be applied for solving and prediction of real-life situations (for example, metallic inks for inkjet printing, the spreading of pesticides on leaves, the dropping of whole blood, the spreading of blood serum, and drying for medical applications)...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055238/patterns-produced-by-dried-droplets-of-protein-binary-mixtures-suspended-in-water
#7
Yojana J P Carreón, Jorge González-Gutiérrez, M I Pérez-Camacho, Hilda Mercado-Uribe
Patterns formed by the evaporation of a drop containing biological molecules have provided meaningful information about certain pathologies. In this context, several works propose the study of protein solutions as a model to understand the formation of deposits of biological fluids. Generally, dry droplets of proteins in a saline solution create complex aggregates. Here, we present an experimental study on the formation of patterns produced by the evaporation of droplet suspensions containing a protein binary mixture...
October 12, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984439/enhanced-quality-factor-label-free-biosensing-with-micro-cantilevers-integrated-into-microfluidic-systems
#8
Tadas Kartanas, Victor Ostanin, Pavan Kumar Challa, Ronan Daly, Jerome Charmet, Tuomas P J Knowles
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have enabled the development of a new generation of sensor platforms. Acoustic sensor operation in liquid, the native environment of biomolecules, causes, however, significant degradation of sensing performance due to viscous drag and relies on the availability of capture molecules to bind analytes of interest to the sensor surface. Here, we describe a strategy to interface MEMS sensors with microfluidic platforms through an aerosol spray. Our sensing platform comprises a microfluidic spray nozzle and a microcantilever array operated in dynamic mode within a closed loop oscillator...
November 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984133/evaporative-optical-marangoni-assembly-tailoring-the-three-dimensional-morphology-of-individual-deposits-of-nanoparticles-from-sessile-drops
#9
Manos Anyfantakis, Subramanyan Namboodiri Varanakkottu, Sergii Rudiuk, Mathieu Morel, Damien Baigl
We have recently devised the evaporative optical Marangoni assembly (eOMA), a novel and versatile interfacial flow-based method for directing the deposition of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) on solid substrates from evaporating sessile drops along desired patterns using shaped UV light. Here, we focus on a fixed UV spot irradiation resulting in a cylinder-like deposit of assembled particles and show how the geometrical features of the single deposit can be tailored in three dimensions by simply adjusting the optical conditions or the sample composition, in a quantitative and reproducible manner...
October 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945345/a-design-of-solid-state-li-s-cell-with-evaporated-lithium-anode-to-eliminate-shuttle-effects
#10
Yujie Hao, Sheng Wang, Feng Xu, Yijie Liu, Ningning Feng, Ping He, Haoshen Zhou
Li-S batteries hold great potential for energy storage systems due to their high theoretical capacity and low cost. However, the shuttle of polysulfides in conventional Li-S batteries with organic electrolyte results in severe problems, such as low Coulombic efficiency and poor cycling stability. Here, we developed a solid-state Li-S battery using Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 (LAGP) solid ceramic electrolyte instead of liquid electrolyte. Lithium film was deposited on one side of LAGP by an evaporation method to improve the contact between anode and LAGP...
October 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942167/cracks-in-dried-deposits-of-hematite-ellipsoids-interplay-between-magnetic-and-hydrodynamic-torques
#11
Hisay Lama, Ranajit Mondal, Madivala G Basavaraj, Dillip K Satapathy
The orientation and morphology of cracks in coffee-ring like particulate deposit obtained by drying sessile drops containing anisotropic magnetic particles strongly depends on the magnitude of the applied magnetic field and its direction. This opens up the possibility of tuning the micro-structure of cracks via suitable manipulation of magnetic and hydrodynamic torques on the particles which has potential applications in nano-fabrication and field driven self-assembly. We report a systematic study of magnetic field driven self-assembly of hematite ellipsoids in sessile drops dried on solid substrates and resulting crack patterns...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936527/origin-of-spray-formation-during-impact-on-heated-surfaces
#12
Michiel A J van Limbeek, Paul B J Hoefnagels, Chao Sun, Detlef Lohse
In many applications, it is crucial to control the heat transfer rate of impacting drops on a heated plate. When the solid exceeds the so-called Leidenfrost temperature, an impacting drop is prevented from contacting the plate by its own evaporation. But the decrease in the resulting cooling efficiency of the impacting drop is yet not quantitatively understood. Here, we experimentally study the impact of such water drops on smooth heated surfaces of various substances. We demonstrate that, in contrast to previous results for other liquids, water exhibits spray in the vertical direction when impacting sapphire and silicon...
October 25, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925677/polypeptide-composite-particle-assisted-organization-of-%C3%AF-conjugated-polymers-into-highly-crystalline-coffee-stains
#13
Cornelia Rosu, Ping-Hsun Chu, Christopher J Tassone, Katherine Park, Paul L Balding, Jung Ok Park, Mohan Srinivasarao, Elsa Reichmanis
We demonstrate that homopolypeptides covalently tethered to anisotropically shaped silica particles induce crystalline ordering of representative semiconducting polymers. Films drop-cast from chloroform dispersions of poly(γ-stearyl-l-glutamate) (PSLG) composite particles and poly(3-hexythiophene) (P3HT) led to highly ordered crystalline structures of P3HT. Hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions between the alkyl side chains of P3HT and PSLG were the main driving force for P3HT chain ordering into the crystalline assemblies...
October 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924306/refrigerant-performance-evaluation-including-effects-of-transport-properties-and-optimized-heat-exchangers
#14
Riccardo Brignoli, J Steven Brown, H Skye, Piotr A Domanski
Preliminary refrigerant screenings typically rely on using cycle simulation models involving thermodynamic properties alone. This approach has two shortcomings. First, it neglects transport properties, whose influence on system performance is particularly strong through their impact on the performance of the heat exchangers. Second, the refrigerant temperatures in the evaporator and condenser are specified as input, while real-life equipment operates at imposed heat sink and heat source temperatures; the temperatures in the evaporator and condensers are established based on overall heat transfer resistances of these heat exchangers and the balance of the system...
August 2017: Revue Internationale du Froid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922088/semifluorinated-alkane-eye-drops-for-treatment-of-dry-eye-disease-due-to-meibomian-gland-disease
#15
Philipp Steven, Albert J Augustin, Gerd Geerling, Thomas Kaercher, Florian Kretz, Kathleen Kunert, Johannes Menzel-Severing, Norbert Schrage, Wolfgang Schrems, Sonja Krösser, Michael Beckert, Elisabeth M Messmer
PURPOSE: Meibomian gland disease is generally accepted as the leading cause for evaporative dry eye disease (DED). In a previous study, perfluorohexyloctane, a semifluorinated alkane, has been demonstrated to significantly increase tear film breakup time and to reduce corneal fluorescein staining in patients with evaporative DED, thereby vastly reducing dry eye-related symptoms. This study was set up to evaluate perfluorohexyloctane in a larger population of patients with Meibomian gland dysfunction...
November 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910685/the-deposition-of-colloidal-particles-from-a-sessile-drop-of-a-volatile-suspension-subject-to-particle-adsorption-and-coagulation
#16
Anna Zigelman, Ofer Manor
Electrical double layer and van der Waals (DLVO) forces are known to determine the morphology of the deposit of colloidal particles following the evaporation of the carrier liquid. It is assumed that the adsorption of particles to the solid substrate and their coagulation in the liquid are the mechanisms connecting DLVO forces to the morphology of the deposit. We use theory to test this assertion. We model the deposition of particles from a volatile drop while accounting for the contribution of adhesion and coagulation...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895608/surfactant-effects-on-droplet-dynamics-and-deposition-patterns-a-lattice-gas-model
#17
Narina Jung, Hae Won Seo, Perry H Leo, Jaeup Kim, Pilwon Kim, Chun Sang Yoo
A coarse-grained lattice gas model is developed to study pattern forming processes in drying drops containing surfactant. By performing Monte Carlo simulations of the model, the coupled dynamics of surfactant and liquid evaporation and the resulting oscillatory dynamics at the contact line are elucidated. We show that the coupled drop dynamics and the resulting final deposition patterns can be altered by adsorption kinetics. For slow adsorption rates, surfactant molecules recirculate along with colloidal particles and the area covered by the surfactant on the surface grows from the contact line as the initial concentration of the surfactant increases...
September 27, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839279/epigallocatechin-gallate-loaded-gelatin-g-poly-n-isopropylacrylamide-as-a-new-ophthalmic-pharmaceutical-formulation-for-topical-use-in-the-treatment-of-dry-eye-syndrome
#18
Li-Jyuan Luo, Jui-Yang Lai
Given that biodegradable in situ gelling delivery systems may have potential applications in the design of ophthalmic pharmaceutical formulations, this study, for the first time, aims to develop gelatin-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (GN) carriers for topical epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) administration in the treatment of dry eye disease (DED). By temperature triggered sol-gel phase transition of copolymers, EGCG-loaded GN was prepared at 32 °C and characterized by FTIR, NMR, and HPLC analyses. Results of WST-1 and live/dead assays showed that GN materials have good compatibility with corneal epithelial cells...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827776/template-assisted-preparation-of-micrometric-suspended-membrane-lattices-of-photoluminescent-and-non-photoluminescent-polymers-by-capillarity-driven-solvent-evaporation-application-to-microtagging
#19
Giovanni Polito, Valentina Robbiano, Chiara Cozzi, Franco Cacialli, Giuseppe Barillaro
In this work, the bottom-up template-assisted preparation of high-density lattices (up to 11 · 10(6) membranes/cm(2)) of suspended polymer membranes with micrometric size (in the order of few μm(2)) and sub-micrometric thickness (in the order of hundreds of nm) is demonstrated for both photoluminescent and non-photoluminescent polymers by capillarity-driven solvent evaporation. Solvent evaporation of low concentration polymer solutions drop-cast on an array of open-ended micropipes is shown to lead to polymer membrane formation at the inlet of the micropipes thanks to capillarity...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791607/treatment-of-dry-eye-disease-with-autologous-platelet-rich-plasma-a-prospective-interventional-non-randomized-study
#20
Jorge L Alio, Alejandra E Rodriguez, Renan Ferreira-Oliveira, Dominika Wróbel-Dudzińska, Ahmed A Abdelghany
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) eye drops as monotherapy for the treatment of moderate to severe cases of dry eye disease. METHODS: Three hundred and sixty-eight patients with moderate to severe dry eye disease (DED) were included in this prospective case series. Subjects were classified as evaporative DED (EDED) or aqueous deficient DED (ADDED). Improvement of the DED subjective symptoms, corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), and corrected distance visual acuity (BCVA) were evaluated...
December 2017: Ophthalmology and Therapy
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