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drop evaporation

Dulcia W N Tan, Soo Ghim Lim, Tina T Wong, Subbu S Venkatraman
Currently, infections following cataract surgery are not as effectively managed with antibiotic eye drops, which suffer from poor bioavailability of drug and low patient compliance. The ideal solution, which can help to overcome the issue of drug wastage and poor bioavailabilty, as well as the need for frequent applications (patient inconvenience), is a drug-eluting intraocular lens (IOL). We describe a novel approach to such a drug-eluting lens by using a peripheral IOL attachment as a drug depot to deliver antibiotics, Levofloxacin (LFX) or Moxifloxacin (MFX)...
2016: PloS One
Victoria C Harrold, James S Sharp
An instrument was developed for measuring real time changes in the surface tension and viscosity of multicomponent droplets of miscible liquids and other soft materials. Droplets containing glycerol and water were supported on superamphiphobic surfaces and vibrated by applying a short mechanical impulse. Laser light was refracted through the droplets and allowed to fall on the surface of a photodiode. Time dependent variations in the intensity measured by the photodiode during vibration were used to monitor the decay of the droplet oscillations...
September 30, 2016: Soft Matter
Hamza Al-Shehri, Tommy S Horozov, Vesselin N Paunov
We prepared model porous composite supra-particles and investigated the effect of the initial infused fluid phase on their attachment at the liquid-fluid interface. We used a simple method for fabrication of millimetre-sized spherical porous supra-particles from much smaller monodisperse latex microparticles as building blocks by evaporation of a polystyrene sulphate latex suspension on a hot super-hydrophobic surface. We annealed the dried supra-particles at the polymer's glass transition temperature to fuse partially their latex particle building blocks...
October 12, 2016: Soft Matter
Joseph J Armao, Jean-Marie Lehn
Non-volatile solutes in an evaporating drop experience an out-of-equilibrium state due to non-linear concentration effects and complex flow patterns. Here, we demonstrate a small molecule chemical reaction network that undergoes a rapid adaptation response to the out-of-equilibrium conditions inside the droplet leading to control over the molecular constitution and spatial arrangement of the deposition pattern. Adaptation results in a pronounced coffee stain effect and coupling to chemical concentration gradients within the drop is demonstrated...
October 17, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Hyunsook Jung, Dongha Kah, Kyoung Chan Lim, Jin Young Lee
After application of sulfur mustard to the soil surface, its possible fate via evaporation, degradation following absorption, and vapor emission after decontamination was studied. We used a laboratory-sized wind tunnel, thermal desorber, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) for systematic analysis. When a drop of neat HD was deposited on the soil surface, it evaporated slowly while being absorbed immediately into the matrix. The initial evaporation or drying rates of the HD drop were found to be power-dependent on temperature and initial drop volume...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Enrique Pérez-Gutiérrez, Denisse Barreiro-Argüelles, José-Luis Maldonado, Marco-Antonio Meneses-Nava, Oracio Barbosa-García, Gabriel Ramos-Ortíz, Mario Rodríguez, Canek Fuentes-Hernández
In this Research Article, the effect of two techniques for top-electrode deposition in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) cells with the configuration ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PTB7-Th:PC71BM/PFN/top-electrode is analyzed. One deposition was made by evaporation under high vacuum, meanwhile the other was carried out at normal room atmosphere; for the former, a double layer of Ca and the eutectic alloy Field's metal (FM) was thermally evaporated, while for the latter FM was deposited just by melting and dropping it on top of the delimited active area at temperatures about 90 °C...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
E Cuesta, R L Lozano, E G San Miguel, M Casas-Ruiz, J P Bolívar
This paper relates the calibration of a low background gas-flow proportional counter. This calibration has been used to determine low activity of (234)Th in coastal water samples. Two methods were used to prepare calibration samples: Evaporation and Electrodeposition. First method was rejected due to the lack of reproducibility because the different geometry adopted by the drops of tracer once dried on the disk. On the contrary, through the second method, similar efficiencies were obtained in all detectors with an average of 0...
September 13, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Kyung Man Park, Jeong Hee Moon, Seong Hoon Lee, Myung Soo Kim
In profiling of a specimen by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) using a solid matrix, the solvent of the matrix solution extracts an analyte(s). A quantitative profiling cannot be achieved if the solvent evaporates before the complete extraction of the analyte. The extraction can become more quantitative when a liquid matrix dissolved in a solvent is used, which remains a liquid even after the evaporation of the solvent. To check this, radii of an analyte circle (rA ), a matrix solution drop (rD ), and a liquid matrix (rM ) remaining after the solvent evaporation were controlled...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Maryam Kouchak, Reza Bahmandar, Neda Bavarsad, Fereydoun Farrahi
Dorzolamide ophthalmic drop is one of the most common glaucoma medications but it has a short residence time in the eye. The aim of this study is to develop ocular dorzolamide HCl nanoliposomes (DRZ - nanoliposomes) and to evaluate their potential use for the treatment of ocular hypertension. Nanoliposomes were prepared using Reverse-phase evaporation vesicle (REV) and thin layer hydration (TLH) method with 7:3 and 7:4 molar ratios of phosphatidylcholine:cholesterol. The physicochemical properties of the formulations were investigated...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Matthias Heinen, Jadran Vrabec, Johann Fischer
Molecular dynamics simulations are reported for the evaporation of a liquid into vacuum, where a Lennard-Jones type fluid with truncated and shifted potential at 2.5σ is considered. Vacuum is enforced locally by particle deletion and the liquid is thermostated in its bulk so that heat flows to the planar interface driving stationary evaporation. The length of the non-thermostated transition region between the bulk liquid and the interface Ln is under study. First, it is found for the reduced bulk liquid temperature Tl/Tc = 0...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Hisay Lama, Venkateshwar Rao Dugyala, Madivala G Basavaraj, Dillip K Satapathy
We report the effect of applied magnetic field on the morphology of cracks formed after evaporation of a colloidal suspension consisting of shape-anisotropic ellipsoidal particles on a glass substrate. The evaporation experiments are performed in sessile drop configuration, which usually leads to accumulation of particles at the drop boundaries, commonly known as the "coffee-ring effect." The coffee-ring-like deposits that accompany cracks are formed in the presence as well as in the absence of magnetic field...
July 2016: Physical Review. E
Stéphanie Devineau, Manos Anyfantakis, Laurent Marichal, Laurent Kiger, Mathieu Morel, Sergii Rudiuk, Damien Baigl
The coffee-ring effect denotes the accumulation of particles at the edge of an evaporating sessile drop pinned on a substrate. Because it can be detected by simple visual inspection, this ubiquitous phenomenon can be envisioned as a robust and cost-effective diagnostic tool. Toward this direction, here we systematically analyze the deposit morphology of drying drops containing polystyrene particles of different surface properties with various proteins (bovine serum albumin (BSA) and different forms of hemoglobin)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yijia Shen, Huixian Wang, Xiang Zhang, Yatao Zhang
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a graphene-like two-dimensional inorganic material, which has been used for the first time as an inorganic nanofiller to prepare a composite mixed matrix membrane to separate CO2 and N2. Polysulfone (PSf) was used as a support substrate and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was used as the gutter layer. The selective layer was prepared by mixing a CO2-philic copolymer Pebax 1657 with MoS2 nanosheets to enhance CO2 permeance. In addition, a simple drop-coating and evaporation method was developed to prepare the selective layer...
September 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Pin Chen, Malika Toubal, Julien Carlier, Souad Harmand, Bertrand Nongaillard, Maxence Bigerelle
Evaporation of droplets of three pure liquids (water, 1-butanol, and ethanol) and four binary solutions (5 wt % 1-butanol-water-based solution and 5, 25, and 50 wt % ethanol-water-based solutions) deposited on hydrophobic silicon was investigated. A drop shape analyzer was used to measure the contact angle, diameter, and volume of the droplets. An infrared camera was used for infrared thermal mapping of the droplet's surface. An acoustic high-frequency echography technique was, for the first time, applied to track the alcohol concentration in a binary-solution droplet...
September 27, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Philip E Mason, Tillmann Buttersack, Sigurd Bauerecker, Pavel Jungwirth
Alkali metals in water are always at the brink of explosion. Herein, we show that this vigorous reaction can be kept in a non-exploding regime, revealing a fascinating richness of hitherto unexplored chemical processes. A combination of high-speed camera imaging and visible/near-infrared/infrared spectroscopy allowed us to catch and characterize the system at each stage of the reaction. After gently placing a drop of a sodium/potassium alloy on water under an inert atmosphere, the production of solvated electrons became so strong that their characteristic blue color could be observed with the naked eye...
October 10, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Venkateshwar Rao Dugyala, Hisay Lama, Dillip K Satapathy, Madivala G Basavaraj
Cracks in a colloidal film formed by evaporation induced drying can be controlled by changing drying conditions. We show, for the first time that the crack morphologies in colloidal films are dependent on shape of constituting particles apart from the microstructure and particle assembly. In order to investigate the particle shape effect on crack patterns, monodispered spherical and ellipsoidal particles are used in sessile drop experiments. On observing the dried sessile drop we found cracks along the radial direction for spherical particle dispersions and circular crack patterns for ellipsoidal particle dispersions...
2016: Scientific Reports
Datong Zhang, Jiayang Hu, Kathleen M Kennedy, Irving P Herman
One standard way of forming monolayers (MLs) of nanoparticles (NPs) is to drop-cast a NP dispersion made using one solvent onto a second, immiscible solvent; after this upper solvent evaporates, the NP ML can be transferred to a solid substrate by liftoff. We show that this previously universal use of only immiscible solvent pairs can be relaxed and close-packed, hexagonally ordered NP monolayers can self-assemble at liquid-air interfaces when some miscible solvent pairs are used instead. We demonstrate this by drop-casting an iron oxide NP dispersion in toluene on a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) liquid substrate...
August 23, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Chiyu Xie, Guangzhi Liu, Moran Wang
The evaporation flux distribution of sessile drops is investigated by molecular dynamic simulations. Three evaporating modes are classified, including the diffusion dominant mode, the substrate heating mode, and the environment heating mode. Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drop-substrate interactions are considered. To count the evaporation flux distribution, which is position dependent, we proposed an azimuthal-angle-based division method under the assumption of spherical crown shape of drops. The modeling results show that the edge evaporation, i...
August 16, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
J Rodrigo Vélez-Cordero, Bernardo Yáñez Soto, José L Arauz-Lara
Nonhomogeneous evaporation fluxes have been shown to promote the formation of internal currents in sessile droplets, explaining the patterns that suspended particles leave after the droplet has dried out. Although most evaporation experiments have been conducted using spherical-cap-shaped drops, which are essentially in an axisymmetric geometry, here we show an example of nonhomogeneous evaporation in asymmetric geometries, which is visualized by following the motion of colloidal particles along liquid fingers forming a meniscus at square corners...
August 16, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Huanshu Tan, Christian Diddens, Pengyu Lv, J G M Kuerten, Xuehua Zhang, Detlef Lohse
Evaporating liquid droplets are omnipresent in nature and technology, such as in inkjet printing, coating, deposition of materials, medical diagnostics, agriculture, the food industry, cosmetics, or spills of liquids. Whereas the evaporation of pure liquids, liquids with dispersed particles, or even liquid mixtures has intensively been studied over the past two decades, the evaporation of ternary mixtures of liquids with different volatilities and mutual solubilities has not yet been explored. Here we show that the evaporation of such ternary mixtures can trigger a phase transition and the nucleation of microdroplets of one of the components of the mixture...
August 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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