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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215806/introducing-the-2-drops-model-for-two-dimensional-simulation-of-crop-roots-and-pesticide-within-the-soil-root-zone
#1
Annika Agatz, Colin D Brown
Mathematical models of pesticide fate and behaviour in soils have been developed over the last 30years. Most models simulate fate of pesticides in a 1-dimensional system successfully, supporting a range of applications where the prediction target is either bulk residues in soil or receiving compartments outside of the soil zone. Nevertheless, it has been argued that the 1-dimensional approach is limiting the application of knowledge on pesticide fate under specific pesticide placement strategies, such as seed, furrow and band applications to control pests and weeds...
February 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205642/evaporation-of-inclined-water-droplets
#2
Jin Young Kim, In Gyu Hwang, Byung Mook Weon
When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188877/laser-deposition-of-poly-3-hydroxybutyric-acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric-acid-lysozyme-microspheres-based-coatings-with-anti-microbial-properties
#3
V Grumezescu, A M Holban, L E Sima, M B Chiritoiu, G N Chiritoiu, A M Grumezescu, L Ivan, F Safciuc, F Antohe, C Florica, C R Luculescu, M C Chifiriuc, G Socol
The purpose of this study was to obtain, characterize and evaluate the cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of coatings based on poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) - Lysozyme (P(3HB-3HV)/Lys) and P(3HB-3HV) - Polyethylene glycol - Lysozyme (P(3HB-3HV)/PEG/Lys) spheres prepared by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique, in order to obtain functional and improved Ti-based implants. Morphological investigation of the coatings by Infrared Microscopy (IRM) and SEM revealed that the average diameter of P(3HB-3HV)/Lys spheres is around 2μm and unlike the drop cast samples, IRM recorded on MAPLE films revealed a good distribution of monitored functional groups on the entire scanned surface...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185907/pharmaceutical-co-crystal-of-flufenamic-acid-synthesis-and-characterization-of-two-novel-drug-drug-co-crystal
#4
Kumar N Sunil, Tekuri Venkatadri, Darshak R Trivedi
Two novel pharmaceutical co-crystals of anti-inflammatory drug flufenamic acid (FFA) with 2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoic acid (CNB) and ethenzamide (ETZ) have been synthesized by solvent evaporation method as well as by solvent drop assisted grinding method. The synthesized co-crystals were characterized thoroughly by various spectroscopic methods and crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique (SC-XRD). In FFA-CNB co-crystal, robust supramolecular acid-acid homosynthon was observed...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185211/clear-aqueous-topical-drop-of-triamcinolone-acetonide
#5
Hoang M Trinh, Kishore Cholkar, Mary Joseph, Xiaoyan Yang, Ashim K Mitra
The objective of this study was to develop a clear aqueous mixed nanomicellar formulation (NMF) of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) with a combination of nonionic surfactant hydrogenated castor oil 60 (HCO-60) and octoxynol-40 (Oc-40). In order to delineate the effects of drug-polymer interactions on entrapment efficiency (EE), loading efficiency (LE), and critical micellar concentration (CMC), a design of experiment (DOE) was performed to optimize the formulation. In this study, full-factorial design has been used with HCO-60 and OC-40 as independent variables...
February 9, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177254/experimental-and-numerical-investigations-of-silver-nanoparticle-transport-under-variable-flow-and-ionic-strength-in-soil
#6
Joanna Makselon, Dan Zhou, Irina Engelhardt, Diederik Jacques, Erwin Klumpp
Unsaturated column experiments were conducted with an undisturbed loamy sand soil to investigate the influence of flow interruption (FI) and ionic strength (IS) on the transport and retention of surfactant-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) and the results were compared to those obtained under continuous flow conditions. AgNP concentrations for breakthrough curves (BTCs) and retention profiles (RPs) were analyzed by ICP-MS. Experimental results were simulated by the numerical code HP1 (Hydrus-PhreeqC) with the DLVO theory, extended colloid filtration theory and colloid release model...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153334/resolving-an-ostensible-inconsistency-in-calculating-the-evaporation-rate-of-sessile-drops
#7
S F Chini, A Amirfazli
This paper resolves an ostensible inconsistency in the literature in calculating the evaporation rate for sessile drops in a quiescent environment. The earlier models in the literature have shown that adapting the evaporation flux model for a suspended spherical drop to calculate the evaporation rate of a sessile drop needs a correction factor; the correction factor was shown to be a function of the drop contact angle, i.e. f(θ). However, there seemed to be a problem as none of the earlier models explicitly or implicitly mentioned the evaporation flux variations along the surface of a sessile drop...
June 4, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127611/liquid-identification-by-using-a-micro-electro-mechanical-interdigital-transducer
#8
ThuHang Bui, Bruno Morana, Atef Akhnoukh, Trinh Chu Duc, Pasqualina M Sarro
A surface-acoustic-mode aluminum nitride (AlN) transducer is utilized to determine the type of liquid dropped on the propagation path. It is based on tracking the shrinking droplet radius and observing stagnant liquid molecules during and after the liquid evaporation process. The device configuration is suitable to test small amounts of liquids, in the microliter range. According to both mass loading and physical property mechanisms, eight samples of liquids, isopropanol (IPA), ethanol (ETH), deionized-water (DW), tap water (TW), heptane (HEP), propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA), hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and acetone (ACE), which have different equilibrium vapor pressures, molecular weights and boiling points, are accurately detected...
January 27, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091856/daily-rhythmicity-of-the-thermoregulatory-responses-of-locally-adapted-brazilian-sheep-in-a-semiarid-environment
#9
Wilma Emanuela da Silva, Jacinara Hody Gurgel Morais Leite, José Ernandes Rufino de Sousa, Wirton Peixoto Costa, Wallace Sostene Tavares da Silva, Magda Maria Guilhermino, Luis Alberto Bermejo Asensio, Débora Andréa Evangelista Façanha
The goal of this study was to evaluate the daily rhythmicity of the thermoregulatory responses of Morada Nova ewes that were raised in a semiarid environment. The experiment was conducted during the dry season. Data were collected from 5:00 a.m. to 4:00 a.m.. Samples were taken over the course of 8 days, with a 1-week interval between sampling periods. During each day that the data were collected, animals were measured once an hour for 24 h in an area directly exposed to solar radiation. The environment was characterized by measuring the following variables: air temperature (TA), relative humidity (RH), Black Globe Humidity Index (BGHI), radiant heat load (RHL), and wind speed (WS)...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035085/coffee-stain-growth-dynamics-on-dry-and-wet-surfaces
#10
François Boulogne, François Ingremeau, Howard A Stone
The drying of a drop containing particles often results in the accumulation of the particles at the contact line. In this work, we investigate the drying of an aqueous colloidal drop surrounded by a hydrogel that is also evaporating. We combine theoretical and experimental studies to understand how the surrounding vapor concentration affects the particle deposit during the constant radius evaporation mode. In addition to the common case of evaporation on an otherwise dry surface, we show that in a configuration where liquid is evaporating from a flat surface around the drop, the singularity of the evaporative flux at the contact line is suppressed and the drop evaporation is homogeneous...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995235/liquid-capped-encoded-microcapsules-for-multiplex-assays
#11
Younghoon Song, Yunjin Jeong, Taehong Kwon, Daewon Lee, Dong Yoon Oh, Tae-Joon Park, Junhoi Kim, Jiyun Kim, Sunghoon Kwon
Although droplet microfludics is a promising technology for handling a number of liquids of a single type of analyte, it has limitations in handling thousands of different types of analytes for multiplex assay. Here, we present a novel "liquid-capped encoded microcapsule", which is applicable to various liquid format assays. Various liquid drops can be graphically encoded and arrayed without repeated dispensing processes, evaporation, and the risk of cross-contamination. Millions of nanoliter-scale liquids are encapsulated within encoded microcapsules and self-assembled in microwells in a single dispensing process...
December 20, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991791/following-the-assembly-of-iron-oxide-nanocubes-by-video-microscopy-and-quartz-crystal-microbalance-with-dissipation-monitoring
#12
Michael Agthe, Erik Wetterskog, Lennart Bergström
We have studied the growth of ordered arrays by evaporation-induced self-assembly of iron oxide nanocubes with edge lengths of 6.8 and 10.1 nm using video microscopy (VM) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Ex situ electron diffraction of the ordered arrays demonstrates that the crystal axes of the nanocubes are coaligned and confirms that the ordered arrays are mesocrystals. Time-resolved video microscopy shows that growth of the highly ordered arrays at slow solvent evaporation is controlled by particle diffusion and can be described by a simple growth model...
December 19, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959560/complex-filling-dynamics-in-mesoporous-thin-films
#13
Magalí Mercuri, Karina Pierpauli, Martín G Bellino, Claudio L A Berli
The fluid-front dynamics resulting from the coexisting infiltration and evaporation phenomena in nanofluidic systems has been investigated. More precisely, water infiltration in both titania and silica mesoporous films was studied through a simple experiment: a sessile drop was deposited over the film and the advancement of the fluid front into the porous structure was optically followed and recorded in time. In the case of titania mesoporous films, capillary infiltration was arrested at a given distance, and a steady annular region of the wetted material was formed...
December 21, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939693/influence-of-concentration-on-distribution-properties-of-stretched-dna-in-the-mec-studied-with-fluorescence-imaging-and-drop-shape-analyzing
#14
Mengjiao Wan, Dan Sun, Shuang Wang, Jianguo Wu, Yuanyuan Yang, Kaige Wang, Qingli He, Guiren Wang, Jintao Bai
Stretching and manipulating DNA efficiently is significant for exploring the properties and applications of single DNA molecules. Here, the influence of concentrations of buffer and DNA on properties of stretched DNA molecules in the molecular evaporation combing (MEC) is investigated systematically with the single molecule fluorescence imaging microscopy and the high-precision drop shape analyzing technology. The stretched degree and uniformity of combed DNA molecules decrease as the buffer concentration are increased from 7 to 20mM...
December 3, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936769/wetting-of-inkjet-polymer-droplets-on-porous-alumina-substrates
#15
Haihua Zhou, Rui Chang, Elsa Reichmanis, Yanlin Song
The resolution of inkjet printing technology is determined by wetting and evaporation processes after the jet drop contacts the substrate. Here, the wetting of different picoliter solubilized polymer droplets jetting onto one-end-closed porous alumina was investigated. The selected polymers are commonly used in inkjet ink. The synergistic effects of the hierarchical structure and substrate surface modification were used to control the behavior of polymer-based ink drops. A model that invokes the effect of surface tension was applied to calculate the amount of polymer solution penetrating into the pores...
December 21, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905608/drop-coating-deposition-of-a-liposome-suspension-on-surfaces-with-different-wettabilities-coffee-ring-formation-and-suspension-preconcentration
#16
Eva Kočišová, Martin Petr, Hana Šípová, Ondřej Kylián, Marek Procházka
Evaporation of a drop of biomolecular solution on a solid surface typically creates a ring-shaped drying pattern, formed by the so-called "coffee ring" effect. The size and shape of the "coffee ring" pattern is strongly dependent on the properties of the surface as well as on the deposited molecular solution or suspension. In this paper, we tested six types of surfaces differing in their physico-chemical surface characteristics (contact angles, wettability and roughness) as well as in the presence or absence of a base metal layer...
December 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821339/experimental-study-of-the-heated-contact-line-region-for-a-pure-fluid-and-binary-fluid-mixture-in-microgravity
#17
Thao T T Nguyen, Akshay Kundan, Peter C Wayner, Joel L Plawsky, David F Chao, Ronald J Sicker
Understanding the dynamics of phase change heat and mass transfer in the three-phase contact line region is a critical step toward improving the efficiency of phase change processes. Phase change becomes especially complicated when a fluid mixture is used. In this paper, a wickless heat pipe was operated on the International Space Station (ISS) to study the contact line dynamics of a pentane/isohexane mixture. Different interfacial regions were identified, compared, and studied. Using high resolution (50×), interference images, we calculated the curvature gradient of the liquid-vapor interface at the contact line region along the edges of the heat pipe...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804094/climate-change-induced-salinity-variation-impacts-on-a-stenoecious-mangrove-species-in-the-indian-sundarbans
#18
Kakoli Banerjee, Roberto Cazzolla Gatti, Abhijit Mitra
The alterations in the salinity profile are an indirect, but potentially sensitive, indicator for detecting changes in precipitation, evaporation, river run-off, glacier retreat, and ice melt. These changes have a high impact on the growth of coastal plant species, such as mangroves. Here, we present estimates of the variability of salinity and the biomass of a stenoecious mangrove species (Heritiera fomes, commonly referred to as Sundari) in the aquatic subsystem of the lower Gangetic delta based on a dataset from 2004 to 2015...
November 1, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802687/measuring-10-20-t-magnetic-fields-in-single-wire-explosions-using-zeeman-splitting
#19
J T Banasek, J T Engelbrecht, S A Pikuz, T A Shelkovenko, D A Hammer
We have shown that the Zeeman splitting of the sodium (Na) D-lines at 5890 Å and 5896 Å can be used to measure the magnetic field produced by the current flowing in an exploding wire prior to wire explosion. After wire explosion, the lines in question are either not visible in the strong continuum from the exploding wire plasma, or too broad to measure the magnetic field by methods discussed in this paper. We have determined magnetic fields in the range 10-20 T, which lies between the small field and Paschen-Back regimes for the Na D-lines, over a period of about 70 ns on a 10 kA peak current machine...
October 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788012/deposition-of-colloidal-drops-containing-ellipsoidal-particles-competition-between-capillary-and-hydrodynamic-forces
#20
Dong-Ook Kim, Min Pack, Han Hu, Hyoungsoo Kim, Ying Sun
Ellipsoidal particles have previously been shown to suppress the coffee-ring effect in millimeter-sized colloidal droplets. Compared to their spherical counterparts, ellipsoidal particles experience stronger adsorption energy to the drop surface where the anisotropy-induced deformation of the liquid-air interface leads to much greater capillary attractions between particles. Using inkjet-printed colloidal drops of varying drop size, particle concentration, and particle aspect ratio, the present work demonstrates how the suppression of the coffee ring is not only a function of particle anisotropy but rather a competition between the propensity for particles to assemble at the drop surface via capillary interactions and the evaporation-driven particle motion to the contact line...
November 15, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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