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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617579/programming-feature-size-in-thermal-wrinkling-of-metal-polymer-bilayer-by-modulating-substrate-visco-elasticity
#1
Anuja Das, Aditya Banerji, Rabibrata Mukherjee
We report a novel strategy to create stress induced self-organized wrinkles in a metal polymer bilayer with programmable periodicity (λS) varying over a wide range, from ≈ 20 m down to ≈ 800 nm by modulating the viscoelasticity of the bottom polymer layer. Substrates with different visco-elasticity are prepared by pre-curing thin films of a thermo-curable poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer (Sylgard 184) for different durations (tP) prior to deposition of the top aluminum layer by thermal evaporation...
June 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614744/effects-of-aeration-on-matrix-temperature-by-infrared-thermal-imager-and-computational-fluid-dynamics-during-sludge-bio-drying
#2
Dawei Yu, Min Yang, Lu Qi, Mengmeng Liu, Yawei Wang, Yuansong Wei
The effect of aeration on the pile matrix temperature was investigated using thermocouples and Infrared Thermal Imager (IRI) for temperature sensing, and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for modelling of temperature variation during aeration in a full-scale sludge biodrying plant. With aeration saving of 20%, the improved strategy speeded up biodrying from 21 days to 14 days, while achieving similar drying effect. A persistent thermocouple recorded the one-dimensional (1D) total temperature variation of all aeration strategies...
June 4, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585260/randomised-controlled-trial-of-topical-antibacterial-manuka-leptospermum-species-honey-for-evaporative-dry-eye-due-to-meibomian-gland-dysfunction
#3
Julie M Albietz, Katrina L Schmid
BACKGROUND: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of standardised Manuka (Leptospermum species) antibacterial honey as adjunctive twice daily treatment to conventional therapy (warm compresses, lid massage and preservative-free lubricant), in participants with evaporative dry eye due to moderate to advanced meibomian gland dysfunction. METHODS: This prospective, open-label study involved 114 participants. After two weeks of conventional therapy participants were randomised to one of three treatment groups: Optimel Antibacterial Manuka Eye Gel (98 per cent Leptospermum species honey) plus conventional therapy (n = 37), Optimel Manuka plus Lubricant Eye Drops (16 per cent Leptospermum species honey) plus conventional therapy (n = 37) and a control (conventional therapy) (n = 40)...
June 6, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584236/superlattice-growth-and-rearrangement-during-evaporation-induced-nanoparticle-self-assembly
#4
Elisabeth Josten, Erik Wetterskog, Artur Glavic, Peter Boesecke, Artem Feoktystov, Elke Brauweiler-Reuters, Ulrich Rücker, German Salazar-Alvarez, Thomas Brückel, Lennart Bergström
Understanding the assembly of nanoparticles into superlattices with well-defined morphology and structure is technologically important but challenging as it requires novel combinations of in-situ methods with suitable spatial and temporal resolution. In this study, we have followed evaporation-induced assembly during drop casting of superparamagnetic, oleate-capped γ-Fe2O3 nanospheres dispersed in toluene in real time with Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) in combination with droplet height measurements and direct observation of the dispersion...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580906/modelling-the-evaporation-of-nanoparticle-suspensions-from-heterogeneous-surfaces
#5
Christopher Chalmers, Roger Smith, Andrew J Archer
We present a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) grid-based model for the drying of drops of a nanoparticle suspension upon a heterogeneous surface. The model consists of a generalised lattice-gas in which the interaction parameters in the Hamiltonian can be varied to model different properties of the materials involved. We show how to choose correctly the interactions, to minimise the effects of the underlying grid so that hemispherical droplets form. We also include the effects of surface roughness to examine the effects of contact-line pinning on the dynamics...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560355/lake-afrera-a-structural-depression-in-the-northern-afar-rift-red-sea
#6
Enrico Bonatti, Elia Gasperini, Luigi Vigliotti, Luca Lupi, Orlando Vaselli, Alina Polonia, Luca Gasperini
The boundary between the African and Arabian plates in the Southern Red Sea region is displaced inland in the northern Afar rift, where it is marked by the Red Sea-parallel Erta Ale, Alaita, and Tat Ali volcanic ridges. The Erta Ale is offset by about 20 and 40 km from the two en echelon ridges to the south. The offset area is highly seismic and marked by a depression filled by lake Afrera, a saline body of water fed by hydrothermal springs. Acoustic bathymetric profiles show ≈80 m deep canyons parallel to the NNW shore of the lake, part of a system of extensional normal faults striking parallel to the Red Sea...
May 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555621/deposition-and-drying-dynamics-of-liquid-crystal-droplets
#7
Zoey S Davidson, Yongyang Huang, Adam Gross, Angel Martinez, Tim Still, Chao Zhou, Peter J Collings, Randall D Kamien, A G Yodh
Drop drying and deposition phenomena reveal a rich interplay of fundamental science and engineering, give rise to fascinating everyday effects (coffee rings), and influence technologies ranging from printing to genotyping. Here we investigate evaporation dynamics, morphology, and deposition patterns of drying lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal droplets. These drops differ from typical evaporating colloidal drops primarily due to their concentration-dependent isotropic, nematic, and columnar phases. Phase separation occurs during evaporation, and in the process creates surface tension gradients and significant density and viscosity variation within the droplet...
May 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551998/self-propulsion-and-shape-restoration-of-aqueous-drops-on-sulfobetaine-silane-surfaces
#8
Vickramjeet Singh, Cyuan-Jhang Wu, Yu-Jane Sheng, Heng-Kwong Tsao
The motion of droplets on typical surfaces is generally halted by contact line pinning associated with contact angle hysteresis. In this study, it was shown that, on a zwitterionic sulfobetaine silane (SBSi)-coated surface, aqueous drops with appropriate solutes can demonstrate hysteresis-free behavior, whereas a pure water drop shows spontaneous spreading. By adding solutes such as polyethylene glycol, 2(2-butoxy ethoxy) ethanol, or sodium n-dodecyl sulfate, an aqueous drop with a small contact angle (disappearance of spontaneous spreading) was formed on SBSi surfaces...
June 5, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535066/marangoni-flow-induced-evaporation-enhancement-on-binary-sessile-drops
#9
Pin Chen, Souad Harmand, Safouene Ouenzerfi, Jesse Schiffler
The evaporation processes of pure water, pure 1-butanol, and 5% 1-butanol aqueous solution drops on heated hydrophobic substrates are investigated to determine the effect of temperature on the drop evaporation behavior. The evolution of the parameters (contact angle, diameter, and volume) during evaporation measured using a drop shape analyzer and the infrared thermal mapping of the drop surface recorded by an infrared camera were used in investigating the evaporation process. The pure 1-butanol drop does not show any thermal instability at different substrate temperatures, while the convection cells created by the thermal Marangoni effect appear on the surface of the pure water drop from 50 °C...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510453/influence-of-local-heating-on-marangoni-flows-and-evaporation-kinetics-of-pure-water-drops
#10
Alexandros Askounis, Yutaku Kita, Masamichi Kohno, Yasuyuki Takata, Vasileios Koutsos, Khellil Sefiane
The effect of localized heating on the evaporation of pure sessile water drops was probed experimentally by a combination of infrared thermography and optical imaging. In particular, we studied the effect of three different heating powers and two different locations, directly below the center and edge of the drop. In all cases, four distinct stages were identified according to the emerging thermal patterns. In particular, depending on heating location, recirculating vortices emerge that either remain pinned or move azimuthally within the drop...
June 1, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470269/shape-of-a-sessile-drop-on-a-flat-surface-covered-with-a-liquid-film
#11
Martin Tress, Stefan Karpitschka, Periklis Papadopoulos, Jacco H Snoeijer, Doris Vollmer, Hans-Jürgen Butt
Motivated by the development of lubricant-infused slippery surfaces, we study a sessile drop of a nonvolatile (ionic) liquid which is embedded in a slowly evaporating lubricant film (n-decane) on a horizontal, planar solid substrate. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy we imaged the evolution of the shape of the liquid/liquid and liquid/air interfaces, including the angles between them. Results are compared to solutions of the generalized Laplace equations describing the drop profile and the annular wetting ridge...
May 24, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463480/an-open-pit-nanofluidic-tool-localized-chemistry-assisted-by-mesoporous-thin-film-infiltration
#12
Magalí Mercuri, Karina A Pierpauli, Claudio L A Berli, Martín G Bellino
Nanofluidics based on nanoscopic porous structures has emerged as the next evolutionary milestone in the construction of versatile nanodevices with unprecedented applications. However, the straightforward development of nanofluidically interconnected systems is crucial for the production of practical devices. Here, we demonstrate that spontaneous infiltration into supramolecularly templated mesoporous oxide films at the edge of a sessile drop in open air can be used to connect pairs of landmarks. The liquids from the drops can then join through the nanoporous network to guide a localized chemical reaction at the nanofluid-front interface...
May 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447798/spontaneous-droplet-motion-on-a-periodically-compliant-substrate
#13
Tianshu Liu, Nichole Nadermann, Zhenping He, Steven H Strogatz, Chung-Yuen Hui, Anand Jagota
Droplet motion arises in many natural phenomena, ranging from the familiar gravity-driven slip and arrest of raindrops on windows to the directed transport of droplets for water harvesting by plants and animals under dry conditions. Deliberate transportation and manipulation of droplets are also important in many technological applications, including droplet-based microfluidic chemical reactors and for thermal management. Droplet motion usually requires gradients of surface energy or temperature or external vibration to overcome contact angle hysteresis...
May 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446021/evaporation-of-drops-containing-silica-nanoparticles-of-varying-hydrophobicities-exploiting-particle-particle-interactions-for-additive-free-tunable-deposit-morphology
#14
Manos Anyfantakis, Damien Baigl, Bernard P Binks
We describe the systematic and quantitative investigation of a large number of patterns that emerge after the evaporation of aqueous drops containing fumed silica nanoparticles (NPs) of varying wettabilities for an extended particle concentration range. We show that for a chosen system, the dry pattern morphology is mainly determined by particle-particle interactions (Coulomb repulsion and hydrophobic attraction) in the bulk. These depend on both particle hydrophobicity and particle concentration within the drop...
May 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421771/marangoni-contraction-of-evaporating-sessile-droplets-of-binary-mixtures
#15
Stefan Karpitschka, Ferenc Liebig, Hans Riegler
The Marangoni contraction of sessile drops of a binary mixture of a volatile and a nonvolatile liquid has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The origin of the contraction is the locally inhomogeneous evaporation rate of sessile drops. This leads to surface tension gradients and thus to a Marangoni flow. Simulations show that the interplay of Marangoni flow, capillary flow, diffusive transport, and evaporative losses can establish a quasistationary drop profile with an apparent nonzero contact angle even if both liquid components individually wet the substrate completely...
May 2, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384900/efficacy-of-green-tea-extract-for-treatment-of-dry-eye-and-meibomian-gland-dysfunction-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial-study
#16
Mahmood Nejabat, Salehi Ali Reza, Mehdi Zadmehr, Masoud Yasemi, Zahra Sobhani
INTRODUCTION: With an incidence rate of 9%, dry eye is a common problem of the ocular surface, especially in patients more than 40-year-old. Green tea extract has anti-oxidative, anti-bacterial, anti-androgen, and immunomodulatory properties. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of green tea extract for treatment of patients with dry eye and Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 patients were selected within the age range of 30 to 70 years, and divided into two groups by blocked randomization method...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343136/facile-microfluidic-production-of-composite-polymer-core-shell-microcapsules-and-crescent-shaped-microparticles
#17
Ekanem E Ekanem, Zilin Zhang, Goran T Vladisavljević
HYPOTHESIS: Core-shell microcapsules and crescent-shaped microparticles can be used as picolitre bioreactors for cell culture and microwells for cell trapping/immobilisation, respectively. RESULTS: Monodisperse polylactic acid (PLA) core-shell microcapsules with a diameter above 200μm, a shell thickness of 10μm, and 96% water entrapment efficiency were produced by solvent evaporation from microfluidically generated W/O/W emulsion drops with core-shell structure, and used to encapsulate Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells in their aqueous cores...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338833/a-humidity-shock-leads-to-rapid-temperature-dependent-changes-in-coffee-leaf-physiology-and-gene-expression
#18
El-Hadji Thioune, James McCarthy, Thomas Gallagher, Bruce Osborne
Climate change is expected to increase the frequency of above-normal atmospheric water deficits contemporaneous with periods of high temperatures. Here we explore alterations in physiology and gene expression in leaves of Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner caused by a sharp drop in relative humidity (RH) at three different temperatures. Both stomatal conductance (gs) and CO2 assimilation (A) measurements showed that gs and A values fell quickly at all temperatures after the transfer to low RH.  However, leaf relative water content measurements indicated that leaves nonetheless experienced substantial water losses, implying that stomatal closure and/or resupply of water was not fast enough to stop excessive evaporative losses...
March 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295107/self-wrapping-of-an-ouzo-drop-induced-by-evaporation-on-a-superamphiphobic-surface
#19
Huanshu Tan, Christian Diddens, Michel Versluis, Hans-Jürgen Butt, Detlef Lohse, Xuehua Zhang
Evaporation of multi-component drops is crucial to various technologies and has numerous potential applications because of its ubiquity in nature. Superamphiphobic surfaces, which are both superhydrophobic and superoleophobic, can give a low wettability not only for water drops but also for oil drops. In this paper, we experimentally, numerically and theoretically investigate the evaporation process of millimetric sessile ouzo drops (a transparent mixture of water, ethanol, and trans-anethole) with low wettability on a superamphiphobic surface...
April 12, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294265/accelerated-evaporation-of-water-on-graphene-oxide
#20
Rongzheng Wan, Guosheng Shi
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the evaporation of nanoscale volumes of water on patterned graphene oxide is faster than that on homogeneous graphene oxide. The evaporation rate of water is insensitive to variation in the oxidation degree of the oxidized regions, so long as the water film is only distributed on the oxidized regions. The evaporation rate drops when the water film spreads onto the unoxidized regions. Further analysis showed that varying the oxidation degree observably changed the interaction between the outmost water molecules and the solid surface, but the total interaction for the outmost water molecules only changed a very limited amount due to the correspondingly regulated water-water interaction when the water film is only distributed on the oxidized regions...
March 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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