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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343136/facile-microfluidic-production-of-composite-polymer-core-shell-microcapsules-and-crescent-shaped-microparticles
#1
Ekanem E Ekanem, Zilin Zhang, Goran T Vladisavljević
HYPOTHESIS: Core-shell microcapsules and crescent-shaped microparticles can be used as picolitre bioreactors for cell culture and microwells for cell trapping/immobilisation, respectively. RESULTS: Monodisperse polylactic acid (PLA) core-shell microcapsules with a diameter above 200μm, a shell thickness of 10μm, and 96% water entrapment efficiency were produced by solvent evaporation from microfluidically generated W/O/W emulsion drops with core-shell structure, and used to encapsulate Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells in their aqueous cores...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338833/a-humidity-shock-leads-to-rapid-temperature-dependent-changes-in-coffee-leaf-physiology-and-gene-expression
#2
El-Hadji Thioune, James McCarthy, Thomas Gallagher, Bruce Osborne
Climate change is expected to increase the frequency of above-normal atmospheric water deficits contemporaneous with periods of high temperatures. Here we explore alterations in physiology and gene expression in leaves of Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner caused by a sharp drop in relative humidity (RH) at three different temperatures. Both stomatal conductance (gs) and CO2 assimilation (A) measurements showed that gs and A values fell quickly at all temperatures after the transfer to low RH.  However, leaf relative water content measurements indicated that leaves nonetheless experienced substantial water losses, implying that stomatal closure and/or resupply of water was not fast enough to stop excessive evaporative losses...
February 8, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295107/self-wrapping-of-an-ouzo-drop-induced-by-evaporation-on-a-superamphiphobic-surface
#3
Huanshu Tan, Christian Diddens, Michel Versluis, Hans-Jürgen Butt, Detlef Lohse, Xuehua Zhang
Evaporation of multi-component drops is crucial to various technologies and has numerous potential applications because of its ubiquity in nature. Superamphiphobic surfaces, which are both superhydrophobic and superoleophobic, can give a low wettability not only for water drops but also for oil drops. In this paper, we experimentally, numerically and theoretically investigate the evaporation process of millimetric sessile ouzo drops (a transparent mixture of water, ethanol, and trans-anethole) with low wettability on a superamphiphobic surface...
March 15, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294265/accelerated-evaporation-of-water-on-graphene-oxide
#4
Rongzheng Wan, Guosheng Shi
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the evaporation of nanoscale volumes of water on patterned graphene oxide is faster than that on homogeneous graphene oxide. The evaporation rate of water is insensitive to variation in the oxidation degree of the oxidized regions, so long as the water film is only distributed on the oxidized regions. The evaporation rate drops when the water film spreads onto the unoxidized regions. Further analysis showed that varying the oxidation degree observably changed the interaction between the outmost water molecules and the solid surface, but the total interaction for the outmost water molecules only changed a very limited amount due to the correspondingly regulated water-water interaction when the water film is only distributed on the oxidized regions...
March 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294114/dynamics-and-universal-scaling-law-in-geometrically-controlled-sessile-drop-evaporation
#5
P J Sáenz, A W Wray, Z Che, O K Matar, P Valluri, J Kim, K Sefiane
The evaporation of a liquid drop on a solid substrate is a remarkably common phenomenon. Yet, the complexity of the underlying mechanisms has constrained previous studies to spherically symmetric configurations. Here we investigate well-defined, non-spherical evaporating drops of pure liquids and binary mixtures. We deduce a universal scaling law for the evaporation rate valid for any shape and demonstrate that more curved regions lead to preferential localized depositions in particle-laden drops. Furthermore, geometry induces well-defined flow structures within the drop that change according to the driving mechanism...
March 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292574/effect-of-lipid-based-dry-eye-supplements-on-the-tear-film-in-wearers-of-eye-cosmetics
#6
Michael T M Wang, Irene Sung Hee Cho, Soo Hee Jung, Jennifer P Craig
PURPOSE: To compare the effects on tear film parameters and contamination in cosmetic eyeliner wearers, after single application of two lipid-based dry eye treatments: a lipid-containing lubricant eye drop and a phospholipid liposomal spray. METHODS: Fifty participants were enrolled in a prospective, randomised, paired-eye, investigator-masked trial. Pencil eyeliner (Body Shop(®) Crayon Eye Definer) was applied to the upper eyelid periocular skin of both eyes, anterior to the lash line...
March 11, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276550/particle-size-specific-distribution-of-perfluoro-alkyl-substances-in-atmospheric-particulate-matter-in-asian-cities
#7
H Ge, E Yamazaki, N Yamashita, S Taniyasu, A Ogata, M Furuuchi
Seasonal and local characteristics of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) were examined using size-segregated particles including an ultrafine range. The examination included sampling and analysis of ambient particles collected at four sites located in different environments in three different countries, Japan (Kanazawa and Okinawa), Hong Kong and India. To minimize the evaporation artefacts derived from PFASs during the sampling, an air sampler that permitted particles smaller than 0.1 μm (PM0.1) to be separated at a moderate pressure drop (<5-15 kPa), was used for all of the air sampling procedures...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256858/marangoni-bursting-evaporation-induced-emulsification-of-binary-mixtures-on-a-liquid-layer
#8
L Keiser, H Bense, P Colinet, J Bico, E Reyssat
Adjusting the wetting properties of water through the addition of a miscible liquid is commonly used in a wide variety of industrial processes involving interfaces. We investigate experimentally the evolution of a drop of water and volatile alcohol deposited on a bath of oil: The drop spreads and spontaneously fragments into a myriad of minute droplets whose size strongly depends on the initial concentration of alcohol. Marangoni flows induced by the evaporation of alcohol play a key role in the overall phenomenon...
February 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215806/introducing-the-2-drops-model-for-two-dimensional-simulation-of-crop-roots-and-pesticide-within-the-soil-root-zone
#9
Annika Agatz, Colin D Brown
Mathematical models of pesticide fate and behaviour in soils have been developed over the last 30years. Most models simulate fate of pesticides in a 1-dimensional system successfully, supporting a range of applications where the prediction target is either bulk residues in soil or receiving compartments outside of the soil zone. Nevertheless, it has been argued that the 1-dimensional approach is limiting the application of knowledge on pesticide fate under specific pesticide placement strategies, such as seed, furrow and band applications to control pests and weeds...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205642/evaporation-of-inclined-water-droplets
#10
Jin Young Kim, In Gyu Hwang, Byung Mook Weon
When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188877/laser-deposition-of-poly-3-hydroxybutyric-acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric-acid-lysozyme-microspheres-based-coatings-with-anti-microbial-properties
#11
V Grumezescu, A M Holban, L E Sima, M B Chiritoiu, G N Chiritoiu, A M Grumezescu, L Ivan, F Safciuc, F Antohe, C Florica, C R Luculescu, M C Chifiriuc, G Socol
The purpose of this study was to obtain, characterize and evaluate the cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of coatings based on poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) - Lysozyme (P(3HB-3HV)/Lys) and P(3HB-3HV) - Polyethylene glycol - Lysozyme (P(3HB-3HV)/PEG/Lys) spheres prepared by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique, in order to obtain functional and improved Ti-based implants. Morphological investigation of the coatings by Infrared Microscopy (IRM) and SEM revealed that the average diameter of P(3HB-3HV)/Lys spheres is around 2μm and unlike the drop cast samples, IRM recorded on MAPLE films revealed a good distribution of monitored functional groups on the entire scanned surface...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185907/pharmaceutical-co-crystal-of-flufenamic-acid-synthesis-and-characterization-of-two-novel-drug-drug-co-crystal
#12
Sunil Kumar Nechipadappu, Venkatadri Tekuri, Darshak R Trivedi
Two novel pharmaceutical co-crystals of anti-inflammatory drug flufenamic acid (FFA) with 2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoic acid (CNB) and ethenzamide (ETZ) have been synthesized by solvent evaporation method as well as by solvent drop-assisted grinding method. The synthesized co-crystals were characterized thoroughly by various spectroscopic methods and crystal structures were determined by single-crystal x-ray diffraction technique. In FFA-CNB co-crystal, robust supramolecular acid-acid homosynthon was observed. FFA-ETZ co-crystal is formed via robust supramolecular acid-amide heterosynthon...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185211/clear-aqueous-topical-drop-of-triamcinolone-acetonide
#13
Hoang M Trinh, Kishore Cholkar, Mary Joseph, Xiaoyan Yang, Ashim K Mitra
The objective of this study was to develop a clear aqueous mixed nanomicellar formulation (NMF) of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) with a combination of nonionic surfactant hydrogenated castor oil 60 (HCO-60) and octoxynol-40 (Oc-40). In order to delineate the effects of drug-polymer interactions on entrapment efficiency (EE), loading efficiency (LE), and critical micellar concentration (CMC), a design of experiment (DOE) was performed to optimize the formulation. In this study, full-factorial design has been used with HCO-60 and OC-40 as independent variables...
February 9, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177254/experimental-and-numerical-investigations-of-silver-nanoparticle-transport-under-variable-flow-and-ionic-strength-in-soil
#14
Joanna Makselon, Dan Zhou, Irina Engelhardt, Diederik Jacques, Erwin Klumpp
Unsaturated column experiments were conducted with an undisturbed loamy sand soil to investigate the influence of flow interruption (FI) and ionic strength (IS) on the transport and retention of surfactant-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) and the results were compared to those obtained under continuous flow conditions. AgNP concentrations for breakthrough curves (BTCs) and retention profiles (RPs) were analyzed by ICP-MS. Experimental results were simulated by the numerical code HP1 (Hydrus-PhreeqC) with the DLVO theory, extended colloid filtration theory and colloid release model...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153334/resolving-an-ostensible-inconsistency-in-calculating-the-evaporation-rate-of-sessile-drops
#15
S F Chini, A Amirfazli
This paper resolves an ostensible inconsistency in the literature in calculating the evaporation rate for sessile drops in a quiescent environment. The earlier models in the literature have shown that adapting the evaporation flux model for a suspended spherical drop to calculate the evaporation rate of a sessile drop needs a correction factor; the correction factor was shown to be a function of the drop contact angle, i.e. f(θ). However, there seemed to be a problem as none of the earlier models explicitly or implicitly mentioned the evaporation flux variations along the surface of a sessile drop...
June 4, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127611/liquid-identification-by-using-a-micro-electro-mechanical-interdigital-transducer
#16
ThuHang Bui, Bruno Morana, Atef Akhnoukh, Trinh Chu Duc, Pasqualina M Sarro
A surface-acoustic-mode aluminum nitride (AlN) transducer is utilized to determine the type of liquid dropped on the propagation path. It is based on tracking the shrinking droplet radius and observing stagnant liquid molecules during and after the liquid evaporation process. The device configuration is suitable to test small amounts of liquids, in the microliter range. According to both mass loading and physical property mechanisms, eight samples of liquids, isopropanol (IPA), ethanol (ETH), deionized-water (DW), tap water (TW), heptane (HEP), propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA), hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and acetone (ACE), which have different equilibrium vapor pressures, molecular weights and boiling points, are accurately detected...
January 27, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091856/daily-rhythmicity-of-the-thermoregulatory-responses-of-locally-adapted-brazilian-sheep-in-a-semiarid-environment
#17
Wilma Emanuela da Silva, Jacinara Hody Gurgel Morais Leite, José Ernandes Rufino de Sousa, Wirton Peixoto Costa, Wallace Sostene Tavares da Silva, Magda Maria Guilhermino, Luis Alberto Bermejo Asensio, Débora Andréa Evangelista Façanha
The goal of this study was to evaluate the daily rhythmicity of the thermoregulatory responses of Morada Nova ewes that were raised in a semiarid environment. The experiment was conducted during the dry season. Data were collected from 5:00 a.m. to 4:00 a.m.. Samples were taken over the course of 8 days, with a 1-week interval between sampling periods. During each day that the data were collected, animals were measured once an hour for 24 h in an area directly exposed to solar radiation. The environment was characterized by measuring the following variables: air temperature (TA), relative humidity (RH), Black Globe Humidity Index (BGHI), radiant heat load (RHL), and wind speed (WS)...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035085/coffee-stain-growth-dynamics-on-dry-and-wet-surfaces
#18
François Boulogne, François Ingremeau, Howard A Stone
The drying of a drop containing particles often results in the accumulation of the particles at the contact line. In this work, we investigate the drying of an aqueous colloidal drop surrounded by a hydrogel that is also evaporating. We combine theoretical and experimental studies to understand how the surrounding vapor concentration affects the particle deposit during the constant radius evaporation mode. In addition to the common case of evaporation on an otherwise dry surface, we show that in a configuration where liquid is evaporating from a flat surface around the drop, the singularity of the evaporative flux at the contact line is suppressed and the drop evaporation is homogeneous...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995235/liquid-capped-encoded-microcapsules-for-multiplex-assays
#19
Younghoon Song, Yunjin Jeong, Taehong Kwon, Daewon Lee, Dong Yoon Oh, Tae-Joon Park, Junhoi Kim, Jiyun Kim, Sunghoon Kwon
Although droplet microfludics is a promising technology for handling a number of liquids of a single type of analyte, it has limitations in handling thousands of different types of analytes for multiplex assay. Here, we present a novel "liquid-capped encoded microcapsule", which is applicable to various liquid format assays. Various liquid drops can be graphically encoded and arrayed without repeated dispensing processes, evaporation, and the risk of cross-contamination. Millions of nanoliter-scale liquids are encapsulated within encoded microcapsules and self-assembled in microwells in a single dispensing process...
December 20, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991791/following-the-assembly-of-iron-oxide-nanocubes-by-video-microscopy-and-quartz-crystal-microbalance-with-dissipation-monitoring
#20
Michael Agthe, Erik Wetterskog, Lennart Bergström
We have studied the growth of ordered arrays by evaporation-induced self-assembly of iron oxide nanocubes with edge lengths of 6.8 and 10.1 nm using video microscopy (VM) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Ex situ electron diffraction of the ordered arrays demonstrates that the crystal axes of the nanocubes are coaligned and confirms that the ordered arrays are mesocrystals. Time-resolved video microscopy shows that growth of the highly ordered arrays at slow solvent evaporation is controlled by particle diffusion and can be described by a simple growth model...
December 19, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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