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Polymerase zeta

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610215/genetic-control-of-genomic-alterations-induced-in-yeast-by-interstitial-telomeric-sequences
#1
Anthony Moore, Margaret Dominska, Patricia Greenwell, Anna Y Aksenova, Sergei Mirkin, Thomas Petes
In many organisms, telomeric sequences can be located internally on the chromosome in addition to their usual positions at the ends of the chromosome. In humans, such interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs) are non-randomly associated with translocation breakpoints in tumor cells and with chromosome fragile sites (regions of the chromosome that break in response to perturbed DNA replication). We previously showed that ITSs in yeast generated several different types of instability including terminal inversions (recombination between the ITS and the "true" chromosome telomere) and point mutations in DNA sequences adjacent to the ITS...
April 2, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555059/impact-of-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-mutations-on-genotoxic-thresholds-of-oxidative-mutagens
#2
Tetsuya Suzuki, Kyomu Matsumoto, Masamitsu Honma, Takehiko Nohmi
In regulatory genetic toxicology, it is an axiom that there is no threshold for genotoxicity of chemicals, such that genotoxic chemicals may impose carcinogenic risk on humans even at very low doses. This paradigm is counterintuitive, however, because humans possess a number of self-defense mechanisms that may suppress the genotoxicity at these low doses and therefore manifest a practical threshold. DNA polymerase zeta (Pol ζ) is a specialized Pol that plays an important role in DNA synthesis across DNA damage, thereby modulating cell survival and genotoxicity...
April 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497292/poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-loaded-nanoparticles-of-betulinic-acid-for-improved-treatment-of-hepatic-cancer-characterization-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluations
#3
Pranesh Kumar, Ashok K Singh, Vinit Raj, Amit Rai, Amit K Keshari, Dinesh Kumar, Biswanath Maity, Anand Prakash, Sabyasachi Maiti, Sudipta Saha
Purpose: The application of betulinic acid (B), a potent antineoplastic agent, is limited due to poor bioavailability, short plasma half-life and inappropriate tissue distribution. Thus, we aimed to prepare novel 50:50 poly(lactic- co -glycolic acid) (PLGA)-loaded B nanoparticles (BNP) and to compare its anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) activity with parent B. Methods: BNP were synthesized and characterized using different methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and particle size analyses...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485045/blocking-interleukin-il-4-and-il13-mediated-phosphorylation-of-stat6-tyr641-decreases-m2-polarization-of-macrophages-and-protects-against-macrophage-mediated-radioresistance-of-inflammatory-breast-cancer
#4
Omar M Rahal, Adam R Wolfe, Pijus K Mandal, Richard Larson, Sanda Tin, Cristina Jimenez, Dadong Zhang, Janet Horton, James M Reuben, John S McMurray, Wendy A Woodward
PURPOSE: To determine the role of macrophage polarization on the response of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cells to radiation and whether modulation of macrophage plasticity can alter radiation response. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The human THP-1 monocyte cell line and primary human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated into macrophages and polarized to either an "antitumor" (M1) or a "protumor" (M2) phenotype...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435169/microrna-340-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-promotes-the-apoptosis-of-colon-cancer-cells-by-modulating-rev3l
#5
Roshini Arivazhagan, Jaesuk Lee, Delger Bayarsaikhan, Peter Kwak, Myeongjoo Son, Kyunghee Byun, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh, Bonghee Lee
DNA Directed Polymerase Zeta Catalytic Subunit (REV3L) has recently emerged as an important oncogene. Although the expressions of REV3L are similar in normal and cancer cells, several mutations in REV3L have been shown to play important roles in cancer. These mutations cause proteins misfolding and mislocalization, which in turn alters their interactions and biological functions. miRNAs play important regulatory roles during the progression and metastasis of several human cancers. This study was undertaken to determine how changes in the location and interactions of REV3L regulate colon cancer progression...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306967/identification-of-tarsal-less-peptides-from-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#6
Guangli Cao, Yongchang Gong, Xiaolong Hu, Min Zhu, Zi Liang, Lixu Huang, Lei Yu, Jian Xu, Kun Li, Mian Sahib Zar, Renyu Xue, Chengliang Gong
The polycistronic and non-canonical gene tarsal-less (tal, known as pri) was reported to be required for embryonic and imaginal development in Drosophila; however, there are few reports of the tal gene in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Here, we cloned a tal-like (Bmtal) gene, and a sequence analysis showed that the Bmtal cDNA (1661 bp) contains five small open reading frames (smORFs) (A1, A2, A3, A4, and B) that encode short peptides of 11-12 (A1-A4) amino acid residues containing an LDPTG(E)L(Q)(V)Y motif that is conserved in Drosophila Tal, as well as a 32-amino-acid B peptide...
February 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214156/off-target-effects-of-drugs-that-disrupt-human-mitochondrial-dna-maintenance
#7
REVIEW
Matthew J Young
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) were the first drugs used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Development of severe mitochondrial toxicity has been well documented in patients infected with HIV and administered NRTIs. In vitro biochemical experiments have demonstrated that the replicative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase gamma, Polg, is a sensitive target for inhibition by metabolically active forms of NRTIs, nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189894/the-importance-of-an-interaction-network-for-proper-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-heterotetramer-activity
#8
REVIEW
Ewa Szwajczak, Iwona J Fijalkowska, Catherine Suski
Precisely controlled mechanisms have been evolved to rescue impeded DNA replication resulting from encountered obstacles and involve a set of low-fidelity translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases. Studies in recent years have brought new insights into those TLS polymerases, especially concerning the structure and subunit composition of DNA polymerase zeta (Pol ζ). Pol ζ is predominantly involved in induced mutagenesis as well as the bypass of noncanonical DNA structures, and it is proficient in extending from terminal mismatched nucleotides incorporated by major replicative DNA polymerases...
November 30, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172719/t-cell-receptor-mediated-characteristic-signaling-pathway-of-peripheral-blood-t-cells-in-dermatomyositis-and-polymyositis
#9
Yasuhiro Shimojima, Masayuki Matsuda, Wataru Ishii, Dai Kishida, Yoshiki Sekijima
The characteristics of T cell expression in peripheral blood have been previously described in dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM); however, their intracellular signaling profiles remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated intracellular signaling in peripheral blood T cells in DM and PM. Peripheral blood T cells from 86 patients with DM (n = 57) and PM (n = 29) were used for experimental investigations. T-cell subtypes and TCR-induced phosphorylated zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 (pZAP70) were analyzed by flow cytometry...
December 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166707/-establishment-of-myocardial-targeted-nanoparticles-and-preliminary-evaluation-of-its-effects-on-prevention-and-treatment-of-myocardial-injury
#10
Y Y Liu, C Wang, P F Luo, Z F Xia
Objective: To establish 3-{4-[2-hydroxyl-(1-methylethylamino) propoxy] phenyl} propionic acid cetylesters (PAC) modified nanoparticles, and preliminarily explore its cardiomyocyte-targeting function and protection effects on myocardium. Methods: (1) HL-1 myocardial cells were divided into cyanidin-3 (Cy3) marked non-targeted small interference RNA (Cy3-siNC) group and Cy3 marked small interference RNA designed for the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-p65 gene (Cy3-si435) group according to the random number table, with 3 wells in each group...
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155773/dna-magnetic-particle-binding-analysis-by-dynamic-and-electrophoretic-light-scattering
#11
Yazan Haddad, Simona Dostalova, Jiri Kudr, Ondrej Zitka, Zbynek Heger, Vojtech Adam
Isolation of DNA using magnetic particles is a field of high importance in biotechnology and molecular biology research. This protocol describes the evaluation of DNA-magnetic particles binding via dynamic light scattering (DLS) and electrophoretic light scattering (ELS). Analysis by DLS provides valuable information on the physicochemical properties of particles including particle size, polydispersity, and zeta potential. The latter describes the surface charge of the particle which plays major role in electrostatic binding of materials such as DNA...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075057/evaluation-of-interleukin-9-expression-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-in-a-cohort-of-egyptian-patients
#12
Hadeer A Abbassy, Reham A Aboelwafa, Omar M Ghallab
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common lymphoid malignancy that has a highly variable clinical course. Genomic features as zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP70) expression and CD38 expression provide further differentiation of disease prognosis. Extensive studies have confirmed the oncogenic activities of IL-9 in lymphoma. The aim of the current study was to investigate the contribution of IL-9 expression to the pathogenesis of CLL and its correlation to other prognostic parameters. This study was conducted on 80 patients at diagnosis with CLL and 80 healthy controls...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946034/ngs-based-analysis-of-base-substitution-signatures-created-by-yeast-dna-polymerase-eta-and-zeta-on-undamaged-and-abasic-dna-templates-in-vitro
#13
Yizhang Chen, Tomohiko Sugiyama
Translesion synthesis (TLS) is the mechanism in which DNA polymerases (TLS polymerases) bypass unrepaired template damage with high error rates. DNA polymerase η and ζ (Polη and Polζ) are major TLS polymerases that are conserved from yeast to humans. In this study, we quantified frequencies of base-substitutions by yeast Polη and Polζ on undamaged and abasic templates in vitro. For accurate quantification, we used a next generation sequencing (NGS)-based method where DNA products were directly analyzed by parallel sequencing...
November 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941243/the-cysb-motif-of-rev3p-involved-in-the-formation-of-the-four-subunit-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-is-required-for-defective-replisome-induced-mutagenesis
#14
Ewa Szwajczak, Iwona J Fijalkowska, Catherine Suski
Eukaryotic DNA replication is performed by high-fidelity multi-subunit replicative B-family DNA polymerases (Pols) α, δ and ɛ. Those complexes are composed of catalytic and accessory subunits and organized in multicomplex machinery: the replisome. The fourth B-family member, DNA polymerase zeta (Pol ζ), is responsible for a large portion of mutagenesis in eukaryotic cells. Two forms of Pol ζ have been identified, a hetero-dimeric (Pol ζ2 ) and a hetero-tetrameric (Pol ζ4 ) ones and recent data have demonstrated that Pol ζ4 is responsible for damage-induced mutagenesis...
November 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704436/platinum-nanoparticles-induce-damage-to-dna-and-inhibit-dna-replication
#15
Lukas Nejdl, Jiri Kudr, Amitava Moulick, Dagmar Hegerova, Branislav Ruttkay-Nedecky, Jaromir Gumulec, Kristyna Cihalova, Kristyna Smerkova, Simona Dostalova, Sona Krizkova, Marie Novotna, Pavel Kopel, Vojtech Adam
Sparsely tested group of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) may have a comparable effect as complex platinum compounds. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of PtNPs in in vitro amplification of DNA fragment of phage λ, on the bacterial cultures (Staphylococcus aureus), human foreskin fibroblasts and erythrocytes. In vitro synthesized PtNPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (PtNPs size range 4.8-11.7 nm), zeta potential measurements (-15 mV at pH 7.4), X-ray fluorescence, UV/vis spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectrometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631559/pkc%C3%AE-in-prostate-cancer-cells-represses-the-recruitment-and-m2-polarization-of-macrophages-in-the-prostate-cancer-microenvironment
#16
Hui-Hui Fan, Ling Li, Yu-Ming Zhang, Jie Yang, Mao-Cheng Li, Fang-Yin Zeng, Fan Deng
Tumor-associated macrophages are key regulators of the complex interplay between tumor and tumor microenvironment. M2 Macrophages, one type of tumor-associated macrophages, are involved in prostate cancer growth and progression. Protein kinase C zeta has been shown to suppress prostate cancer cell growth, invasion, and metastasis as a tumor suppressor; however, its role in chemotaxis and activation of tumor-associated macrophages remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of protein kinase C zeta of prostate cancer cells in regulation of macrophage chemotaxis and M2 phenotype activation...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521674/sorbitane-monostearate-and-cholesterol-based-niosomes-for-oral-delivery-of-telmisartan-from-bench-to-preclinical-implementation-in-wistar-albino-rats
#17
Abdul Ahad, Mohammad Raish, Fahad I Al-Jenoobi, Abdullah M Al-Mohizea
BACKGROUND: Niosomes are non-ionic surfactant vesicles used as drug carriers for encapsulating both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs. The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize niosomes formulations for oral delivery of telmisartan and evaluated for its antihypertensive activity. METHOD: Telmisartan loaded niosomes were prepared using thin film hydration method by varying the Span 60 and cholesterol at several molar ratios and characterized for vesicles size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency...
May 18, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410879/determination-of-reference-genes-that-are-independent-of-feeding-rhythms-for-circadian-studies-of-mouse-metabolic-tissues
#18
Reiko Nakao, Hiroki Okauchi, Chiaki Hashimoto, Naoyuki Wada, Katsutaka Oishi
Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis is a popular method for the measurement of mRNA expression level and is a critical tool for basic research. The identification of suitable reference genes that are stable and not affected by experimental conditions is a critical step in the accurate normalization of RT-PCR. On the other hand, the levels of numerous transcripts exhibit circadian oscillation in various peripheral tissues and it is thought to be regulated by feeding rhythms in addition to the molecular circadian clock...
April 5, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315051/development-of-antibody-modified-chitosan-nanoparticles-for-the-targeted-delivery-of-sirna-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-as-a-strategy-for-inhibiting-hiv-replication-in-astrocytes
#19
Jijin Gu, Karam Al-Bayati, Emmanuel A Ho
RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing offers a novel treatment and prevention strategy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV was found to infect and replicate in human brain cells and can cause neuroinfections and neurological deterioration. We designed dual-antibody-modified chitosan/small interfering RNA (siRNA) nanoparticles to deliver siRNA across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) targeting HIV-infected brain astrocytes as a strategy for inhibiting HIV replication. We hypothesized that transferrin antibody and bradykinin B2 antibody could specifically bind to the transferrin receptor (TfR) and bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R), respectively, and deliver siRNA across the BBB into astrocytes as potential targeting ligands...
August 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920500/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-vegf-sirna-crs-as-a-novel-vector-for-gene-delivery
#20
Wen Zhao, Yifan Zhang, Xueyun Jiang, Chunying Cui
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery is a prospective method in gene therapy, but it has application limitations such as negative charge, water solubility and high molecular weight. In this study, a safe and efficient nano-vector, CRS, was designed and synthesized to facilitate siRNA delivery. Physical and chemical properties of VEGF-siRNA/CRS were characterized by methods including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential (ζ) measurement, drug-releasing rate measurement, gel electrophoresis and confocal microscopy...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
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