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Polymerase zeta

Wen Zhao, Yifan Zhang, Xueyun Jiang, Chunying Cui
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery is a prospective method in gene therapy, but it has application limitations such as negative charge, water solubility and high molecular weight. In this study, a safe and efficient nano-vector, CRS, was designed and synthesized to facilitate siRNA delivery. Physical and chemical properties of VEGF-siRNA/CRS were characterized by methods including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential (ζ) measurement, drug-releasing rate measurement, gel electrophoresis and confocal microscopy...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Ji Young Yoon, Keum-Jin Yang, Shi-Nae Park, Dong-Kee Kim, Jong-Duk Kim
Dexamethasone (Dex)-loaded PHEA-g-C18-Arg8 (PCA) nanoparticles (PCA/Dex) were developed for the delivery of genes to determine the synergistic effect of Dex on gene expression. The cationic PCA nanoparticles were self-assembled to create cationic micelles containing an octadecylamine (C18) core with Dex and an arginine 8 (Arg8) peptide shell for electrostatic complexation with nucleic acids (connexin 26 [Cx26] siRNA, green fluorescent protein [GFP] DNA or brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] pDNA). The PCA/Dex nanoparticles conjugated with Arg8, a cell-penetrating peptide that enhances permeability through a round window membrane in the inner ear for gene delivery, exhibited high uptake efficiency in HEI-OC1 cells...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Yanzhao Bi, Yifan Zhang, Chunying Cui, Lulu Ren, Xueyun Jiang
Nanodiamond (ND) is a renowned material in nonviral small interfering RNA (siRNA) carrier field due to its unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. In our previous work, it was proven that ND could deliver siRNA into cells efficiently and downregulate the expression of desired protein. However, synthesizing a high-efficient tumor-targeting carrier using ND is still a challenge. In this study, a novel carrier, NDCONH(CH2)2NH-VDGR, was synthesized for siRNA delivery, and its properties were characterized with methods including Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, gel retardation assay, differential scanning calorimetry, confocal microscopy, releasing test, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry, cytotoxicity assay, and gene-silencing efficacy assay in vitro and in vivo...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Majid Kamali-Dolat Abadi, Marziyeh Tavalaee, Abdolhossein Shahverdi, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
OBJECTIVE: Globozoospermia is a rare type of teratozoospermia with incidence of 0.1% among infertile individuals. Phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) and postacrosomal sheath WW domain binding protein (PAWP) are the main candidates in sperm taking responsibility for oocyte activation during fertilization. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the expression of these two genes at RNA and protein levels in globozoospermic individuals and compare the results with fertile individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, semen samples of 21 infertile men with globozoospermia and 25 fertile men were collected...
2016: Cell Journal
Hui Tang, Di Fan, Chun-Tao Lei, Chen Ye, Pan Gao, Shan Chen, Xian-Fang Meng, Hua Su, Chun Zhang
: The mitotic arrest deficient protein MAD2B is a well-defined anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) inhibitor and a small subunit of DNA polymerase zeta. It is critical for mitotic control and DNA repair. However, the pathological role of MAD2B in kidney diseases has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we aim to explore the role of MAD2B in the pathogenesis of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) and the underlying mechanism. By immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, we found an obvious MAD2B enhancement in tubular area of TIF patients and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mice...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Matthew R Northam, Kelly M Trujillo
Histone modifications play an important role in regulating access to DNA for transcription, DNA repair and DNA replication. A central player in these events is the mono-ubiquitylation of histone H2B (H2Bub1), which has been shown to regulate nucleosome dynamics. Previously, it was shown that H2Bub1 was important for nucleosome assembly onto nascent DNA at active replication forks. In the absence of H2Bub1, incomplete chromatin structures resulted in several replication defects. Here, we report new evidence, which shows that loss of H2Bub1 contributes to genomic instability in yeast...
July 25, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Jin-Lu Liu, Wen-Ji Zhang, Xue-Dong Li, Na Yang, Wei-San Pan, Jun Kong, Jin-Song Zhang
AIM: To design and investigate the efficacy of a modified nanostructured lipid carrier loaded with genistein (Gen-NLC) to inhibit human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) proliferation. METHODS: Gen-NLC was made by melt emulsification method. The morphology, particle size (PS), zeta potentials (ZP), encapsulation efficiency (EE) and in vitro release were characterized. The inhibition effect of nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC), genistein (Gen) and Gen-NLC on HLECs proliferation was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, gene and protein expression of the proliferation marker Ki67 were evaluated with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunofluorescence analyses...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Soheil Salehi, Seyed Ataollah Sadat Shandiz, Farinaz Ghanbar, Mohammad Raouf Darvish, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani, Amir Mirzaie, Mohsen Jafari
A rapid phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel was investigated in this study. The synthesized AgNPs using A. marschalliana extract was analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Characteristic absorption bands of AgNPs were found near 430 nm in the UV-vis spectrum...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Hui Tang, Hua Su, Di Fan, Chen Ye, Chun-Tao Lei, Hua-Jun Jiang, Pan Gao, Fang-Fang He, Chun Zhang
MAD2B, an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) inhibitor and a small subunit of DNA polymerase ζ, is indispensible for mitotic checkpoint control and DNA repair. Previously, we established that MAD2B is expressed in glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments and participates in high glucose-induced podocyte injury. However, its role in other renal diseases remains elusive. In the present study, we aim to illustrate the potential role of MAD2B in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. By immunofluorescence and Western blotting, we found MAD2B expression is obviously increased in tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) patients and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mice...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Ju-Chun Hsu, Yu-Yu Lin, Chia-Che Chang, Kuo-Hsun Hua, Mei-Ju May Chen, Li-Hsin Huang, Chien-Yu Chen
Pesticide resistance poses many challenges for pest control, particularly for destructive pests such as diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella). Organophosphates have been used in the field since the 1950s, leading to selection for resistance-related gene variants and the development of resistance to new insecticides in the diamondback moth. Identifying actual and potential genes involved in resistance could offer solutions for control. This study established resistant diamondback moth strains from two different collections using mevinphos...
April 22, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Anjali Singh, Iqbal Ahmad, Sayeed Ahmad, Zeenat Iqbal, Farhan J Ahmad
The current investigation aims to present a novel solid lipid-based nanoparticulate system of resveratrol (RV) for the effective treatment of liver cirrhosis. A simplified solvent injection method was employed and the Box-Behnken experimental design was applied for optimization to get a window particle size of 150-200 nm having maximum entrapment efficiency as well as % release. Optimized resveratrol solid lipid nanoparticles (RV-SLNs) (SR-1) of appropriate characteristics (particle size = 191.1 ± 10...
September 2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Fatemeh Atyabi, Ali Rastegari, Esmail Mollarazi, Melika Kiani, Alireza Razavi, Mehdi Yousefi, Nasim Kheshtchin, Hadi Hassannia, Jamshid Hadjati, Fazel Shokri
The immunosuppressive factors in tumor microenvironment enhance tumor growth and suppress anti-tumor immune responses. Adenosine is an important immunosuppressive factor which can be secreted by both tumor and immune cells trough action of two cell surface ecto-nucleotidase molecules CD39 and CD73. Blocking the adenosine generating molecules has emerged as an effective immunotherapeutic approach for treatment of cancer. In this study, CD73-siRNA encapsulated into chitosan-lactate (ChLa) nanoparticles (NPs) was employed to suppress the expression of CD73 molecule on 4T1 breast tumor cells, in vitro...
June 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Tea Wey, Markus Schlegel, Sophie Stroheker, Andrin Gross
Recently, different reproductive modes were proposed between the emerging forest pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus and its closely related avirulent sister species, Hymenoscyphus albidus. In the present study, inter- and intraspecific crosses were performed to experimentally assess the reproduction barriers between the two species and to verify H. albidus' putative haploid-selfing reproductive mode. By means of H. fraxineus-specific microsatellite markers, no hybridization was observed in 29 apothecia that emerged from inter-specific crosses, suggesting reproduction barriers are well-established...
February 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Anaid Antaramian, Adriana González-Gallardo, Carlos García-Ugalde, Wendy Portillo, Raúl G Paredes
INTRODUCTION: Sexually sluggish (SS) males have been identified in several species of mammals including rats. These animals take more than 30 minutes to ejaculate; they do not ejaculate or do so inconsistently despite being tested repeatedly with sexually receptive females. Different brain areas and hormones play an important role in the control of male sexual behavior. AIMS: Determine gene expression for the androgen receptor (AR), the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), the progesterone receptor (PR), and the aromatase enzyme (ARO), in brain regions important in the control of male sexual behavior including the medial preoptic area (MPOA), the amygdala (AMG), the olfactory bulb (OB), and, as a control, the cortex (CTX) of copulating (C) and SS male rats...
December 2015: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Christopher Janich, Christian Wölk, Frank Erdmann, Thomas Groth, Gerald Brezesinski, Bodo Dobner, Andreas Langner
The use of cationic lipids as gene delivery systems is a basic method in gene therapy. Through ongoing research, lipofection is currently the leader of non-viral vectors in clinical trials. However, in order to unleash the full potential of lipofection further intensive investigations are indispensable. In this study, various lipoplex formulations were compared regarding their ability to bind DNA. To obtain information about a possible premature release of DNA at the cell surface, heparin and chondroitin dependent lipoplex destabilization experiments were carried out...
December 28, 2015: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Sabrina Kobbe, Oliver Trapp, Alexander Knoll, Anja Manuss, Holger Puchta
DNA polymerase zeta catalytic subunit REV3 is known to play an important role in the repair of DNA damage induced by cross-linking and methylating agents. Here, we demonstrate that in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the basic polymerase activity of REV3 is essential for resistance protection against these different types of damaging agents. Interestingly, its processivity is mainly required for resistance to interstrand and intrastrand cross-linking agents, but not alkylating agents. To better define the role of REV3 in relation to other key factors involved in DNA repair, we perform epistasis analysis and show that REV3-mediated resistance to DNA-damaging agents is independent of the replication damage checkpoint kinase ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and rad3-related homolog...
December 2015: Plant Physiology
Bhupendra Singh, Xiurong Li, Kjerstin M Owens, Ayyasamy Vanniarajan, Ping Liang, Keshav K Singh
To date, mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) is the only polymerase known to be present in mammalian mitochondria. A dogma in the mitochondria field is that there is no other polymerase present in the mitochondria of mammalian cells. Here we demonstrate localization of REV3 DNA polymerase in the mammalian mitochondria. We demonstrate localization of REV3 in the mitochondria of mammalian tissue as well as cell lines. REV3 associates with POLG and mitochondrial DNA and protects the mitochondrial genome from DNA damage...
2015: PloS One
Shakti Ranjan Satapathy, Sumit Siddharth, Dipon Das, Anmada Nayak, Chanakya Nath Kundu
A poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based uniform (50-100 nm) hybrid nanoparticle (QAgNP) with positive zeta potential (0.52 ± 0.09 mV) was prepared by single emulsion solvent evaporation method with bioactive small molecule quinacrine (QC) in organic phase and silver (Ag) in aqueous phase. Physiochemical properties established it as a true hybrid nanoparticle and not a mixture of QC and Ag. Antitumor activity of QAgNP was evaluated by using various cancer cell lines including H-357 oral cancer cells and OSCC-cancer stem cell in an in vitro model system...
November 2, 2015: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Vladimir B Seplyarskiy, Georgii A Bazykin, Ruslan A Soldatov
Replication timing is an important determinant of germline mutation patterns, with a higher rate of point mutations in late replicating regions. Mechanisms underlying this association remain elusive. One of the suggested explanations is the activity of error-prone DNA polymerases in late-replicating regions. Polymerase zeta (pol ζ), an essential error-prone polymerase biased toward transversions, also has a tendency to produce dinucleotide mutations (DNMs), complex mutational events that simultaneously affect two adjacent nucleotides...
December 2015: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Mariana Tomazini Pinto, Tathiane Maistro Malta, Evandra Strazza Rodrigues, Osvaldo Massaiti Takayanagui, Yuetsu Tanaka, Dimas Tadeu Covas, Simone Kashima
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus related to the chronic neuroinflammatory disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). CD4(+) T cells activation appears to play a key role on HTLV-1 infection. Here we investigated the expression of genes associated to T cell activation CD3e molecule, epsilon (CD3ɛ), lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK), vav 1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (VAV1), and zeta-chain (TCR) associated protein kinase 70kDa (ZAP70) on T lymphocytes of HTLV-1-infected individuals and compared to healthy uninfected individuals (CT)...
November 2015: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
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