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Felipe Donoso, Helene Engstrand Lilja
Background Since 2005, infants with esophageal atresia (EA) in our unit are given prophylactic proton pump inhibitors (PPI) after repair until 1 year of age. The aims of this study were to identify risk factors for anastomotic strictures (AS) and to assess the efficacy of postoperative PPI prophylaxis in reducing the incidence of AS compared with symptomatic PPI. Methods Patients who underwent EA repair from 1994 to 2013 in our unit were included in this retrospective observational study approved by the local ethics review board...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Lai Yee Leung, Ying Deng-Bryant, Katherine Cardiff, Megan Winter, Frank Tortella, Deborah Shear
BACKGROUND: Energy metabolic dysfunction is a key determinant of cellular damage following traumatic brain injury and may be worsened by additional insults. This study evaluated the acute/subacute effects of combined hypoxemia (HX) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) on cerebral interstitial levels of glucose, lactate, and pyruvate in a rat model of penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). METHODS: Rats were randomly assigned into the sham control, PBBI, and combined injury (P + HH) groups...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Matthew D Hale, Matthew Nankivell, Gordon G Hutchins, Sally P Stenning, Ruth E Langley, Wolfram Mueller, Nicholas P West, Alexander I Wright, Darren Treanor, Lindsay C Hewitt, William H Allum, David Cunningham, Jeremy D Hayden, Heike I Grabsch
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery is the standard of care for UK patients with locally advanced resectable oesophageal carcinoma (OeC). However, not all patients benefit from multimodal treatment and there is a clinical need for biomarkers which can identify chemotherapy responders. This study investigated whether the proportion of tumour cells per tumour area (PoT) measured in the pre-treatment biopsy predicts chemotherapy benefit for OeC patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PoT was quantified using digitized haematoxylin/eosin stained pre-treatment biopsy slides from 281 OeC patients from the UK MRC OE02 trial (141 treated by surgery alone (S); 140 treated by 5-fluorouracil/cisplatin followed by surgery (CS))...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Annika Clamor, Julian Koenig, Julian F Thayer, Tania M Lincoln
Arousal and the way it is coped with are relevant to the emergence of psychotic symptoms. Heart rate variability (HRV) stems from autonomic responses to environmental demands such as stress and is an index of physiological arousal, adaptability, and homeostatic reflexes forming autonomic balance. A randomized-controlled between-subjects trial that compared HRV-biofeedback (BF) to an active relaxation and to a waiting control condition was conducted in a sample with attenuated subclinical psychotic symptoms (N = 84)...
October 11, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Gokoulakrichenane Loganadane, Florent Martinetti, Olaf Mercier, Samar Krhili, François-Georges Riet, Rodrigue Mbagui, Hanh To, Cécile Le Péchoux, Antonin Levy
Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) has become the standard treatment for peripheral medically non-operable patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous attempts of trials to compare SABR and surgery have failed and new randomized studies (SABRtooth, STABLEMATES, and VALOR) are ongoing. While predictive factors of relapse have been extensively studied in patients receiving surgery, there is scarce data on such putative factors in SABR patients. The purpose of this review is to analyze such predictive factors through a critical review of the literature...
October 13, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Kaitlin Mock, Sundus Lateef, Vagner A Benedito, Janet C Tou
High-fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) has been suggested to be more lipogenic than sucrose, which increases the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidemia. The study objectives were to determine the effects of drinking different sugar-sweetened solutions on hepatic gene expression in relation to liver fatty acid composition and risk of NAFLD. Female rats were randomly assigned (n=7 rats/group) to drink water or water sweetened with 13% (w/v) HFCS-55, sucrose or fructose for 8 weeks. Rats drinking HFCS-55 solution had the highest (P=...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Hamidreza Majidiani, Sahar Dalvand, Ahmad Daryani, Ma de la Luz Galvan-Ramirez, Masoud Foroutan-Rad
INTRODUCTION: The global protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, infects many warm-blooded animals and humans by employing different transmission routes. There have been some recent studies on the probable relevance of infectious agents and diabetes. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify the possible association between chronic toxoplasmosis and diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This study was conducted following the general methodology recommended for systematic reviews and meta-analysis...
October 18, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Han Qin, Lin Luo, Zexin Zhu, Jiwei Huang
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) or pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) is the best reconstruction method to reduce occurrence of postoperative complications, especially pancreatic fistula (PF), after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). BACKGROUND: PF is one of the most severe complications after PD. The best reconstruction method to reduce occurrence of PF is controversial. Therefore, we carried out this meta-analysis to compare PG with PJ. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library to identify studies comparing PG with PJ, published up to October 2015...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Pang Yao, Liang Sun, Ling Lu, Hong Ding, Xiafei Chen, Lixin Tang, Xinming Xu, Gang Liu, Yao Hu, Yiwei Ma, Feijie Wang, Qianlu Jin, He Zheng, Huiyong Yin, Rong Zeng, Yan Chen, Frank B Hu, Huaixing Li, Xu Lin
CONTEXT: Little is known how genetic and non-genetic factors modify responses of vitamin D supplementation in nonwhite populations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors modifying 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and bioavailable 25(OH)D (25[OH]DBio) responses after vitamin D3 supplementation. Design, Setting, Participants, and Intervention: In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 448 Chinese with vitamin D deficiency (25[OH]D<50 nmol/L) received 2000 IU/d vitamin D3 or placebo for 20 weeks...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Xiao Zheng, Zhi Yuan Bo, Wei Wan, Ye Chen Wu, Tian Tian Wang, Jun Wu, Dao Jian Gao, Bing Hu
AIM: Endoscopic biliary radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been increasingly used for unresectable malignant biliary obstruction (MBO). However, its efficacy and safety remain unclear. METHODS: A comprehensive search of Cochrane Library, PubMed and EMBASE was conducted to collect studies to evaluate endoscopic biliary RFA in the management of MBO. Meta-analysis was performed by extracting the data from included studies with regards to the technical effectiveness, overall survival, adverse events and mortality of endoscopic RFA...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Jiang Yue, James F Griffith, Fan Xiao, Lin Shi, Defeng Wang, Jiayun Shen, Priscilla Wong, Edmund K Li, Martin Li, Tena K Li, Tracy Y Zhu, Vivian W Hung, Ling Qin, Lai-Shan Tam
Objective To compare the bone healing effects of denosumab and alendronate in female rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). Methods This is a post-hoc analysis of a randomized-controlled trial (NCT01770106). 40 patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either subcutaneous denosumab (60mg) once or oral alendronate (70mg) weekly for 6 months. The size of individual bone erosions and the presence and extent of erosion-associated sclerosis (marginal osteosclerosis) were measured in the second metacarpal head of the non-dominant hand at baseline, 3 and 6 months...
October 21, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
Simon M Wilksch, Susan J Paxton, Susan M Byrne, S Bryn Austin, Anne O'Shea, Tracey D Wade
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if baseline shape and weight concern (SWC) moderated outcomes in Prevention Across the Spectrum, a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) of 3 school-based programs aimed at reducing eating disorder and obesity risk factors. METHOD: N = 1,316 Grade 7 and 8 girls and boys (M age = 13.21 years) across three Australian states were randomly allocated to: Media Smart; Life Smart; Helping, Encouraging, Listening and Protecting Peers Initiative (HELPP) or control (usual school class)...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Boel Bengtsson, Anders Heijl
Purpose: We evaluate how visual fields are affected by the initiation of IOP-reducing therapy in previously untreated glaucoma individuals. Methods: Qualifying individuals with newly diagnosed glaucoma having normal to moderately elevated IOP were prospectively randomized either to IOP-reducing therapy or to no treatment. Before randomization, individuals underwent repeatedly Standard Automated Perimetry (SAP) testing and Goldmann tonometry. Three months after randomization, patients again underwent SAP and tonometry...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Christine Aroney, Samantha Fraser-Bell, Ecosse L Lamoureux, Mark C Gillies, Lyndell L Lim, Eva K Fenwick
Purpose: To determine the patient-centered effectiveness of treatment with the slow-release dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX implant) and intravitreal bevacizumab using the Impact of Vision Impairment Questionnaire (IVI), a vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) measure, in patients with visual impairment secondary to center-involving diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods: Patients with DME were enrolled in a phase 2, prospective, multicenter, randomized, single-masked clinical trial and received either DEX implant 4 monthly or bevacizumab monthly, both pro re nata...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Zhaoyang Hu, Sheng Hu, Shuai Yang, Mou Chen, Ping Zhang, Jin Liu, Geoffrey W Abbott
BACKGROUND: Preconditioning stimuli conducted in remote organs can protect the heart against subsequent ischemic injury, but effects on arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of remote liver ischemia preconditioning (RLIPC) on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced cardiac arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in vivo, and determined the potential role of ERK/GSK-3βsignaling. METHODS/RESULTS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to sham-operated, control, or RLIPC groups...
2016: PloS One
Klaus Kratochwill, Michael Boehm, Rebecca Herzog, Katharina Gruber, Anton Michael Lichtenauer, Lilian Kuster, Dagmar Csaicsich, Andreas Gleiss, Seth L Alper, Christoph Aufricht, Andreas Vychytil
BACKGROUND: Peritonitis and ultrafiltration failure remain serious complications of chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). Dysfunctional cellular stress responses aggravate peritoneal injury associated with PD fluid exposure, potentially due to peritoneal glutamine depletion. In this randomized cross-over phase I/II trial we investigated cytoprotective effects of alanyl-glutamine (AlaGln) addition to glucose-based PDF. METHODS: In a prospective randomized cross-over design, 20 stable PD outpatients underwent paired peritoneal equilibration tests 4 weeks apart, using conventional acidic, single chamber 3...
2016: PloS One
Lotta Walz, Anna K Jönsson, Brita Zilg, Carl Johan Östgren, Henrik Druid
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with confirmed fatal hyperglycaemia, which could predispose potentially preventable deaths in individuals on glucose lowering drugs. METHODS: A retrospective register-based case-control study conducted on a nationwide cohort with individuals who died due to hyperglycaemia as determined by forensic postmortem examination, in Sweden August 2006 to December 2012. Vitreous glucose was used to diagnose hyperglycaemia postmortem...
2016: PloS One
Qian Lu, Jihong Wang, Junshu Jiang, Shengnan Wang, Qilan Jia, Yue Wang, Weiping Li, Qin Zhou, Li Lv, Qingwei Li
BACKGROUND: The RGD-toxin protein Lj-RGD3 is a naturally occurring 118 amino acid peptide that can be obtained from the salivary gland of the Lampetra japonica fish. This unique peptide contains 3 RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motifs in its primary structure. Lj-RGD3 is available in recombinant form (rLj-RGD3) and can be produced in large quantities using DNA recombination techniques. The pharmacology of the three RGD motif-containing peptides has not been studied. This study investigated the protective effects of rLj-RGD3, a novel polypeptide, against ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage to the brain caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in a rat stroke model...
2016: PloS One
Higinio Mora, Jerónimo M Mora-Pascual, Alberto García-García, Pablo Martínez-González
The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is currently one of the most popular methods for rigid registration so that it has become the standard in the Robotics and Computer Vision communities. Many applications take advantage of it to align 2D/3D surfaces due to its popularity and simplicity. Nevertheless, some of its phases present a high computational cost thus rendering impossible some of its applications. In this work, it is proposed an efficient approach for the matching phase of the Iterative Closest Point algorithm...
2016: PloS One
Yendouban Lamboni, Kristian F Nielsen, Anita R Linnemann, Yüksel Gezgin, Kerstin Hell, Martinus J R Nout, Eddy J Smid, Manuele Tamo, Martinus A J S van Boekel, Jakob Blæsbjerg Hoof, Jens Christian Frisvad
In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusing on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These samples showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence of aflatoxins. To investigate the diversity of secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins, the species of A. section Nigri may produce and thus threaten to contaminate the raw cashew kernels, 150 strains were isolated from cashew samples and assayed for their production of secondary metabolites using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS)...
2016: PloS One
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