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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776018/voxel-based-morphometry-in-creative-writers-gray-matter-increase-in-a-prefronto-thalamic-cerebellar-network
#1
Nicola Neumann, Martin Domin, Katharina Erhard, Martin Lotze
Continuous practice modulates those features of brain anatomy specifically associated with requirements of the respective training task. The current study aimed to highlight brain structural changes going along with long-term experience in creative writing. To this end, we investigated the gray-matter volume of 23 expert writers with voxel-based morphometry and compared it to 28 matched non-expert controls. Expert writers had higher gray-matter volume in the right superior frontal and middle frontal gyri (BA 9,10) as well as left middle frontal gyrus (BA 9, 10, 46), the bilateral medial dorsal nuclei of the thalamus and left posterior cerebellum...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775988/effects-of-different-resistance-training-frequencies-on-fat-in-overweight-obese-older-women
#2
Edilaine F Cavalcante, Alex S Ribeiro, Matheus A do Nascimento, Analiza M Silva, Crisieli M Tomeleri, Hellen C G Nabuco, Fábio L C Pina, Jerry L Mayhew, Marzo E Da Silva-Grigoletto, Danilo R P da Silva, Steven J Fleck, Edilson S Cyrino
AIM: This study compared the effect of different resistance training (RT) frequencies on total, android, gynoid and trunk body fat in overweight/obese older women. METHODS: Fifty-seven overweight/obese older women (66.9±5.3 years and 39.9±4.9% body fat) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a group performing RT twice a week (G2X), a group performing RT three times a week (G3X), or a non-exercise control group (CG). Both training groups performed the same 12-week RT program consisting of 8 exercises that trained all major muscle groups...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775986/effects-of-two-training-programs-on-transcriptional-levels-of-neurotrophins-and-glial-cells-population-in-hippocampus-of-experimental-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Maryam Naghibzadeh, Rouhollah Ranjbar, Mohammad Reza Tabandeh, Abdolhamid Habibi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus low-intensity continuous training (LICT) on transcriptional levels of neurotrophic factors and oligodendrocyte/microglia cell loss in a cuprizone (CP) induced animal model of demyelination. Male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to six groups: control (C), cuprizone-induced demyelination (CP), interval training (IT), continuous training (CT), IT plus CP (ITCP), and CT plus CP (CTCP). Training programs on the treadmill were performed for four weeks, and then demyelination was induced by feeding mice a diet containing 0...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775985/sensorimotor-exercises-and-enhanced-trunk-function-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Steffen Mueller, Tilman Engel, Juliane Mueller, Josefine Stoll, Heiner Baur, Frank Mayer
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 6-week sensorimotor or resistance training on maximum trunk strength and response to sudden, high-intensity loading in athletes.Forty-three healthy, well-trained participants were randomized into sensorimotor (SMT; n=11), resistance training (RT; n=16) and control groups (CG; n=16). Treatment groups received either sensorimotor training (SMT) or resistance training (RT) for 6 weeks, 3 times a week. At baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention, participants' maximum isokinetic strength in trunk rotation and extension was tested (concentric/eccentric 30°/s)...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775984/static-postural-stability-in-chronic-ankle-instability-an-ankle-sprain-and-healthy-ankles
#5
Yong Ung Kwon
To identify the single leg balance (SLB) test that discriminates among healthy, coper, and chronic ankle instability (CAI) groups and to determine effects of ankle muscles on the balance error scoring system (BESS) among the three populations. 60 subjects (20 per group) performed the SLB test with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). Normalized mean amplitude (NMA) of the tibia anterior (TA), fibularis longus (FL), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles and BESS were measured while performing the SLB test. The coper group had a lower error score than the CAI group in the EC...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775958/a-systematic-review-of-community-based-interventions-to-improve-oral-chronic-disease-medication-regimen-adherence-among-individuals-with-substance-use-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Karen M Clements, Tasmina Hydery, Mark A Tesell, Bonnie C Greenwood, Michael C Angelini
BACKGROUND: Poor medication adherence has been shown to cause medical complications, death, and increased healthcare costs and may be of particular importance in patients with substance use disorder (SUD). Concerns regarding adherence in this population may influence a healthcare provider's decision to prescribe a medication requiring high adherence. Guidance defining best practices that promote adherence among individuals with SUD is lacking. METHODS: A review of English articles in Medline and PsycINFO databases, published between October 1, 1994 and October 31, 2017, was conducted in order to identify studies of interventions intended to improve adherence to oral chronic disease medication regimens among patients with SUD...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775957/how-treatment-improvement-in-adhd-and-cocaine-dependence-are-related-to-one-another-a-secondary-analysis
#7
Frances R Levin, C Jean Choi, Martina Pavlicova, John J Mariani, Amy Mahony, Daniel J Brooks, Edward V Nunes, John Grabowski
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is overrepresented among individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. We previously reported that treatment with extended release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS-XR) increased abstinence, compared to placebo, among patients with co-occurring ADHD and cocaine dependence. This secondary analysis investigates the temporal relationship between ADHD improvement and cocaine abstinence in the first six weeks of the trial...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775954/a-new-methodology-based-on-functional-principal-component-analysis-to-study-postural-stability-post-stroke
#8
M Luz Sánchez-Sánchez, Juan-Manuel Belda-Lois, Silvia Mena-Del Horno, Enrique Viosca-Herrero, Celedonia Igual-Camacho, Beatriz Gisbert-Morant
BACKGROUND: A major goal in stroke rehabilitation is the establishment of more effective physical therapy techniques to recover postural stability. Functional Principal Component Analysis provides greater insight into recovery trends. However, when missing values exist, obtaining functional data presents some difficulties. The purpose of this study was to reveal an alternative technique for obtaining the Functional Principal Components without requiring the conversion to functional data beforehand and to investigate this methodology to determine the effect of specific physical therapy techniques in balance recovery trends in elderly subjects with hemiplegia post-stroke...
May 5, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775935/design-synthesis-antiproliferative-activity-and-docking-studies-of-quinazoline-derivatives-bearing-2-3-dihydro-indole-or-1-2-3-4-tetrahydroquinoline-as-potential-egfr-inhibitors
#9
Yiqiang OuYang, Wensheng Zou, Liang Peng, Zunhua Yang, Qidong Tang, Mengzi Chen, Shuang Jia, Hong Zhang, Zhou Lan, Pengwu Zheng, Wufu Zhu
Eight series of quinazoline derivatives bearing 2,3-dihydro-indole or 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline were designed, synthesized and evaluated for the IC50 values against three cancer cell lines (A549, MCF-7 and PC-3). Most of the forty nine target compounds showed excellent antiproliferative activity against one or several cancer cell lines. The compound 13a showed the best activity against A549, MCF-7 and PC-3 cancer cell lines, with the IC50 values of 1.09 ± 0.04 μM, 1.34 ± 0.13 μM and 1.23 ± 0...
May 9, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775920/il-33-stimulates-expression-of-the-gpr84-ex33-fatty-acid-receptor-gene-and-of-cytokine-and-chemokine-genes-in-human-adipocytes
#10
Mohamed S Zaibi, Małgorzata A Kępczyńska, Parvathy Harikumar, Suliman Y Alomar, Paul Trayhurn
Expression of GPCR fatty acid sensor/receptor genes in adipocytes is modulated by inflammatory mediators, particularly IL-1β. In this study we examined whether the IL-1 gene superfamily member, IL-33, also regulates expression of the fatty acid receptor genes in adipocytes. Human fat cells, differentiated from preadipocytes, were incubated with IL-33 at three different dose levels for 3 or 24 h and mRNA measured by qPCR. Treatment with IL-33 induced a dose-dependent increase in GPR84 mRNA at 3 h, the level with the highest dose being 13...
May 15, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775910/hip-and-patellofemoral-joint-loading-during-gait-are-increased-in-children-with-idiopathic-torsional-deformities
#11
Elyse Passmore, H Kerr Graham, Marcus G Pandy, Morgan Sangeux
BACKGROUND: Torsional deformities of the femur and tibia are associated with gait impairments and joint pain. Several studies have investigated these gait deviations in children with cerebral palsy. However, relatively little is known about gait deviations in children with idiopathic torsion and debate ensues about the management of these patients. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the effects of idiopathic increased femoral neck anteversion and external tibial torsion on lower-limb kinematics, kinetics and joint loading during gait in children and adolescents...
May 9, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775909/sensorimotor-control-and-neuromuscular-activity-of-the-shoulder-in-adolescent-competitive-swimmers-with-generalized-joint-hypermobility
#12
Thomas Frydendal, Henrik Eshøj, Behnam Liaghat, Pascal Edouard, Karen Søgaard, Birgit Juul-Kristensen
INTRODUCTION: Shoulder pain is highly prevalent in competitive swimmers, and generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is considered a risk factor. Sensorimotor control deficiencies and altered neuromuscular activation of the shoulder may represent underlying factors. RESEARCH QUESTION: To investigate whether competitive swimmers with GJH including shoulder hypermobility (GJHS) differ in shoulder sensorimotor control and muscle activity from those without GJH and no shoulder hypermobility (NGJH)...
May 5, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775906/bioaugmentation-with-diaphorobacter-polyhydroxybutyrativorans-to-enhance-nitrate-removal-in-a-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-supported-denitrification-reactor
#13
Shusong Zhang, Xingbin Sun, Xuming Wang, Tianlei Qiu, Min Gao, Yanmei Sun, Shoutao Cheng, Qingjing Zhang
A newly isolated and identified Diaphorobacter polyhydroxybutyrativorans strain (SL-205) was employed to enhance the denitrification performance of a laboratory-scale solid-phase denitrification (SPD) reactor using poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) as a carbon source, and dynamic variations in microbial communities in the reactor were investigated. Results indicated that bioaugmentation with strain SL-205 enabled rapid reactor startup and improved denitrification performance relative to the reactor inoculated with activated sludge...
May 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775905/kinetic-modelling-of-methane-production-during-bio-electrolysis-from-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-sewage-sludge-and-food-waste
#14
Kalp Bhusan Prajapati, Rajesh Singh
In present study batch tests were performed to investigate the enhancement in methane production under bio-electrolysis anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste. The bio-electrolysis reactor system (B-EL) yield more methane 148.5 ml/g COD in comparison to reactor system without bio-electrolysis (B-CONT) 125.1 ml/g COD. Whereas bio-electrolysis reactor system (C-EL) Iron Scraps amended yield lesser methane (51.2 ml/g COD) in comparison to control bio-electrolysis reactor system without Iron scraps (C-CONT - 114...
May 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775893/puerarin-prevents-vascular-endothelial-injury-through-suppression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-lps-challenged-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#15
Hua-Fei Deng, Sha Wang, Lian Li, Qin Zhou, Wan-Bei Guo, Xiao-Li Wang, Mei-Dong Liu, Ke Liu, Xian-Zhong Xiao
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we aimed to explore the effects of puerarin on vascular endothelial cell injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: The cell viability and morphological changes were assessed using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and 4´,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, respectively. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), monocyte/macrophage chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-8, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), thrombomodulin (TM) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in cell culture supernatant were determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775886/sprint-interval-training-sit-substantially-reduces-depressive-symptoms-in-major-depressive-disorder-mdd-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Alice Minghetti, Oliver Faude, Henner Hanssen, Lukas Zahner, Markus Gerber, Lars Donath
Continuous aerobic exercise training (CAT) is considered a complementary treatment option in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Intermittent exercise training protocols, such as sprint interval training (SIT) have gained increasing popularity, but no studies on depressive symptoms following SIT in patients with MDD are available. Fifty-nine in-patients with MDD were randomly assigned to a SIT or CAT group. Medication was counterbalanced in both intervention arms. Both intervention groups received 3 weekly training sessions for 4-weeks (12 sessions in total)...
May 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775885/clinical-correlates-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-measures-in-individuals-at-risk-for-psychosis-and-with-first-episode-psychosis
#17
Javier Labad, Antonio Armario, Roser Nadal, Montse Solé, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Zotes, Itziar Montalvo, Lorena Moreno-Samaniego, Lourdes Martorell, Vanessa Sánchez-Gistau, Elisabet Vilella
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alterations in at-risk mental states (ARMS) resemble those observed in established psychosis but are less consistent. We aimed to explore HPA axis abnormalities in both first-episode psychosis (FEP) and ARMS patients, while controlling for psychopathological symptoms. We studied 21 ARMS, 34 FEP patients and 34 healthy subjects. Clinical assessment included psychopathological symptoms (positive, negative, disorganized, excited and depressive symptoms) and stress measures...
May 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775880/photocatalytic-reductive-dechlorination-of-2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-by-pd-modified-g-c-3-n-4-photocatalysts-under-uv-vis-irradiation-efficacy-kinetics-and-mechanism
#18
Jiafeng Ding, Gaoyuan Long, Yang Luo, Runze Sun, Mengxia Chen, Yajun Li, Yanfang Zhou, Xinhua Xu, Weirong Zhao
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), as a group of notorious anthropogenic environmental toxicants, are arguably ubiquitous in nature. In this study, we investigated the photocatalytic reductive dechlorination of 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2-CDD) over Pd/g-C3 N4 catalysts under UV-vis irradiation. The g-C3 N4 and a series of Pd/g-C3 N4 catalysts were prepared by thermal polymerization and mechanical mixing-illumination method and characterized by XRD, TEM, BET, SEM and UV-vis DRS analyses. Among all the samples, the Pd/g-C3 N4 (5 wt%) yielded the optimal dechlorination activity with a total 2-CDD conversion of 54% within 4 h, and 76% of those converted 2-CDD were evolved to dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775878/repositioning-of-diabetes-treatments-for-depressive-symptoms-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-clinical-trials
#19
REVIEW
Calum D Moulton, Christopher W P Hopkins, Khalida Ismail, Daniel Stahl
Depression is a common comorbidity in diabetes but conventional antidepressant treatments do not consistently improve outcomes. We tested whether established diabetes treatments can also improve depressive symptoms and examined biological correlates of response. We performed a multi-database systematic search of all clinical trials, which measured the effect of licensed diabetes treatments on depressive symptoms using a validated questionnaire. Results of randomised controlled trials (RCT's) were pooled for meta-analysis...
May 7, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775876/childhood-abuse-and-depression-in-adulthood-the-mediating-role-of-allostatic-load
#20
Sandra Scheuer, Nicole Wiggert, Tanja Maria Brückl, Yvonne Awaloff, Manfred Uhr, Susanne Lucae, Stefan Kloiber, Florian Holsboer, Marcus Ising, Frank H Wilhelm
BACKGROUND: Traumatic experiences during childhood are considered a major risk factor for depression in adulthood. Childhood trauma may induce physiological dysregulation with long-term effects of increased allostatic load until adulthood, which may lead to depression. Thus, our aim was to investigate whether allostatic load - which represents a multi-system measure of physiological dysregulation - mediates the association between childhood trauma and adult depression. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 324 depressed inpatients participating in the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS) project and 261 mentally healthy control participants...
April 22, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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