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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110516/the-social-determinants-and-starting-and-sustaining-quit-attempts-in-a-national-sample-of-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-smokers
#1
David P Thomas, Kathryn S Panaretto, Maureen Davey, Viki Briggs, Ron Borland
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether social, economic and demographic measures are associated with initiating and sustaining quit attempts in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers. METHODS: We analysed data from 759 adults who reported smoking at least weekly in the Talking About The Smokes baseline survey (April 2012 - October 2013) and completed a follow up survey a year later (August 2013 - August 2014). RESULTS: Almost none of the standard baseline socioeconomic indicators predicted making or sustaining quit attempts...
January 22, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110513/effect-of-methylnaltrexone-and-naloxone-on-esophageal-motor-function-in-man
#2
E Scarpellini, A Pauwels, R Vos, N Rommel, J Tack
BACKGROUND: Endogenous opioids (EO) acting on μ-opiod receptors in central and enteric nervous system (ENS) control gastrointestinal motility but it is still unclear whether EO in ENS may control esophageal function in man, thus we will study the effects of methylnaltrexone (MNTX), a peripherally selective, and naloxone (NA), a non-selective μ-opiod receptor antagonist, on esophageal motility in healthy subjects. METHODS: Fifteen HV (6 M; 34.1 ± 0.6 years; BMI: 22...
January 22, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110508/on-an-enhanced-rank-preserving-structural-failure-time-model-to-handle-treatment-switch-crossover-and-dropout
#3
Lingling Li, Shijie Tang, Liewen Jiang
It is very challenging to estimate the comparative treatment effect between a treatment therapy and a control therapy on overall survival in the presence of treatment crossover, switch to an alternative non-study therapy, and non-random patient dropout. Existing methods (e.g., intent-to-treat and per-protocol) are known to be biased. We proposed two new estimators to address these analytical challenges and evaluated their performance via a comprehensive simulation study. The new estimators were constructed by combining an enhanced rank-preserving structural failure time model and the inverse probability censoring weighting approach...
January 22, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110489/video-assisted-laser-resection-of-lung-metastases-feasibility-of-a-new-surgical-technique
#4
Christian Meyer, Detlef Bartsch, Nikolas Mirow, Andreas Kirschbaum
Background Our pilot study describes our initial experience to do a laser resection of lung metastases under video-assisted thoracoscopic control via a minithoracotomy. With this approach, if needed, mediastinal lymphadenectomy is also possible. Methods In this study, 15 patients (11 men and 4 women, mean age: 60 years) with resectable lung metastases of different solid primary tumors (colorectal cancer in seven patients, melanoma in three patients, renal cell carcinoma in two patients, and one each with oropharyngeal cancer, breast cancer, and seminoma) were included...
January 22, 2017: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110485/are-obese-patients-at-an-increased-risk-of-pelvic-floor-dysfunction-compared-to-non-obese-patients
#5
Isaac José Felippe Corrêa Neto, Rodrigo Ambar Pinto, José Marcio Neves Jorge, Marco Aurélio Santo, Leonardo Alfonso Bustamante-Lopez, Ivan Cecconello, Sérgio Carlos Nahas
PURPOSE: Factors associated with increased intra-abdominal pressure such as chronic cough, morbid obesity, and constipation may be related to pelvic floor dysfunction. In this study, we compared anorectal manometry values and clinical data of class II and III morbidly obese patients referred to bariatric surgery with that of non-obese patients. METHODS: We performed a case-matched study between obese patients referred to bariatric surgery and non-obese patients without anorectal complaints...
January 21, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110482/the-evaluation-of-a-new-marker-of-transmyocardial-repolarization-parameters-in-ischemic-stroke-patients-t-peak-t-end-t-p-e-t-p-e-qtc
#6
Emine Emektar, Şeref Kerem Çorbacıoğlu, Osman Korucu, Selma Ramadan, Hüseyin Uzunosmanoğlu, Eda Kan, Yunsur Çevik
The cardiovascular manifestations of acute ischemic stroke have been well known. Several electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities have been reported in patients following acute stroke, including QT interval prolongation, ST segment deviation and T-wave changes. This study aimed to investigate the changes in transmyocardial repolarization parameters, in ischemic stroke patients. The study is a prospective, blind, and controlled clinical study. The patients without cardiac disease who received ischemic stroke diagnoses were included in the study...
January 21, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110481/pregnancy-associated-transient-osteoporosis-of-the-hip-results-of-a-case-control-study
#7
Peyman Hadji, Jelena Boekhoff, Melitta Hahn, Lars Hellmeyer, Olaf Hars, Ioannis Kyvernitakis
: The etiology and underlying mechanisms of transient of osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) during pregnancy are still unclear, since no systematic analyses exist. Our results support the hypothesis that TOH is a multifactorial disease, which is associated with immobility, dental problems, and lack of exercise in childhood. INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy-associated transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) is a rare but severe form of osteoporosis, which may affect a subgroup of women in the last trimester of pregnancy or immediately postpartum...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110475/pattern-recognition-of-spectral-entropy-features-for-detection-of-alcoholic-and-control-visual-erp-s-in-multichannel-eegs
#8
T K Padma Shri, N Sriraam
This paper presents a novel ranking method to select spectral entropy (SE) features that discriminate alcoholic and control visual event-related potentials (ERP'S) in gamma sub-band (30-55 Hz) derived from a 64-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) recording. The ranking is based on a t test statistic that rejects the null hypothesis that the group means of SE values in alcoholics and controls are identical. The SE features with high ranks are indicative of maximal separation between their group means. Various sizes of top ranked feature subsets are evaluated by applying principal component analysis (PCA) and k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification...
January 21, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110470/thermal-control-weather-and-aging
#9
REVIEW
Alexandra Schneider, Regina Rückerl, Susanne Breitner, Kathrin Wolf, Annette Peters
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight the latest developments in the field of weather and health with a focus on the elderly. The current state of knowledge is summarized and open questions and emerging fields of research are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: It is expected that climate change will lead to higher global average surface temperatures and more extreme climatic conditions. Previous studies have shown that non-optimal temperatures are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, specifically in elderly people...
January 21, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110459/calcium-phosphate-ceramics-and-polysaccharide-based-hydrogel-scaffolds-combined-with-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differently-support-bone-repair-in-rats
#10
Sophie Frasca, Françoise Norol, Catherine Le Visage, Jean-Marc Collombet, Didier Letourneur, Xavier Holy, Elhadi Sari Ali
Research in bone tissue engineering is focused on the development of alternatives to autologous bone grafts for bone reconstruction. Although multiple stem cell-based products and biomaterials are currently being investigated, comparative studies are rarely achieved to evaluate the most appropriate approach in this context. Here, we aimed to compare different clinically relevant bone tissue engineering methods and evaluated the kinetic repair and the bone healing efficiency supported by mesenchymal stem cells and two different biomaterials, a new hydrogel scaffold and a commercial hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate ceramic, alone or in combination...
February 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110449/membrane-fluidity-controls-redox-regulated-cold-stress-responses-in-cyanobacteria
#11
Eugene G Maksimov, Kirill S Mironov, Marina S Trofimova, Natalya L Nechaeva, Daria A Todorenko, Konstantin E Klementiev, Georgy V Tsoraev, Eugene V Tyutyaev, Anna A Zorina, Pavel V Feduraev, Suleyman I Allakhverdiev, Vladimir Z Paschenko, Dmitry A Los
Membrane fluidity is the important regulator of cellular responses to changing ambient temperature. Bacteria perceive cold by the transmembrane histidine kinases that sense changes in thickness of the cytoplasmic membrane due to its rigidification. In the cyanobacterium Synechocystis, about a half of cold-responsive genes is controlled by the light-dependent transmembrane histidine kinase Hik33, which also partially controls the responses to osmotic, salt, and oxidative stress. This implies the existence of some universal, but yet unknown signal that triggers adaptive gene expression in response to various stressors...
January 21, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110447/hemispheric-lateralization-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-ventral-striatum-an-exploratory-study
#12
Sheng Zhang, Sien Hu, Herta H Chao, Chiang-Shan R Li
Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is widely used to examine cerebral functional organization. The ventral striatum (VS) is critical to motivated behavior, with extant studies suggesting functional hemispheric asymmetry. The current work investigated differences in rsFC between the left (L) and right (R) VS and explored gender differences in the extent of functional lateralization. In 106 adults, we computed a laterality index (fcLI) to query whether a target region shows greater or less connectivity to the L vs R VS...
January 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110446/fabrication-and-optical-properties-of-strain-free-self-assembled-mesoscopic-gaas-structures
#13
Saimon Filipe Covre da Silva, Thayná Mardegan, Sidnei Ramis de Araújo, Carlos Alberto Ospina Ramirez, Suwit Kiravittaya, Odilon D D Couto, Fernando Iikawa, Christoph Deneke
We use a combined process of Ga-assisted deoxidation and local droplet etching to fabricate unstrained mesoscopic GaAs/AlGaAs structures exhibiting a high shape anisotropy with a length up to 1.2 μm and a width of 150 nm. We demonstrate good controllability over size and morphology of the mesoscopic structures by tuning the growth parameters. Our growth method yields structures, which are coupled to a surrounding quantum well and present unique optical emission features. Microscopic and optical analysis of single structures allows us to demonstrate that single structure emission originates from two different confinement regions, which are spectrally separated and show sharp excitonic lines...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110443/aerobic-endurance-training-does-not-protect-bone-against-poorly-controlled-type-1-diabetes-in-young-adult-rats
#14
Tom J Hazell, T Dylan Olver, Hana Kowalchuk, Matthew W McDonald, Adwitia Dey, Kenneth N Grisé, Earl G Noble, C W James Melling, Paula Lavery, Hope A Weiler
Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) decreases trabecular bone volume and bone strength in rodents. The current study investigated the potential protective effects of aerobic endurance training (AET) on bone in STZ-induced T1DM young adult rats. Sixty-four 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 16: control non-T1DM sedentary (CS) and exercised (CX), T1DM sedentary (DS) and exercised (DX). Blood glucose was maintained at 9-15 mmol/L using subcutaneously implanted insulin pellets (Linplant, Linshin Canada, Inc...
January 21, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110436/contribution-of-inducible-and-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthases-to-mitochondrial-damage-and-melatonin-rescue-in-lps-treated-mice
#15
José Antonio García, Francisco Ortiz, Javier Miana, Carolina Doerrier, Marisol Fernández-Ortiz, Iryna Rusanova, Germaine Escames, José Joaquín García, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo
NOS isoform activation is related to liver failure during sepsis, but the mechanisms driving mitochondrial impairment remain unclear. We induced sepsis by LPS administration to inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS(-/-)) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS(-/-)) mice and their respective wild-type controls to examine the contribution of iNOS to mitochondrial failure in the absence of nNOS. To achieve this goal, the determination of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and protein content of iNOS in cytosol and mitochondria, the mitochondrial respiratory complex content, and the levels of nitrosative and oxidative stress (by measuring 3-nitrotyrosine residues and carbonyl groups, respectively) were examined in the liver of control and septic mice...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110427/evaluation-of-inos-icam-1-and-vcam-1-gene-expression-a-study-of-adult-t-cell-leukemia-malignancy-associated-with-htlv-1
#16
Mahdokht Jafarian, Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani, Elham Patrad, Hamidreza Vaziri, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Mohammad Mehdi Aakbarin, Mehdi Norouzi
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as host factors, and proviral load as the viral parameter, in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) individuals and healthy carrier (HC(s)) groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from ATLL patients (n = 17) and HC subjects (as the control group, n = 17) were evaluated using real-time PCR to determine the levels of HTLV-1 proviral load and mRNA expression of ICAM, VCAM-1, and iNOS...
January 21, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110421/dendritic-cell-immune-responses-in-hiv-1-controllers
#17
REVIEW
Enrique Martin-Gayo, Xu G Yu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Robust HIV-1-specific CD8 T cell responses are currently regarded as the main correlate of immune defense in rare individuals who achieve natural, drug-free control of HIV-1; however, the mechanisms that support evolution of such powerful immune responses are not well understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized innate immune cells critical for immune recognition, immune regulation, and immune induction, but their possible contribution to HIV-1 immune defense in controllers remains ill-defined...
January 21, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110412/prevention-of-cardiac-surgery-associated-aki-by-implementing-the-kdigo-guidelines-in-high-risk-patients-identified-by-biomarkers-the-prevaki-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Melanie Meersch, Christoph Schmidt, Andreas Hoffmeier, Hugo Van Aken, Carola Wempe, Joachim Gerss, Alexander Zarbock
PURPOSE: Care bundles are recommended in patients at high risk for acute kidney injury (AKI), although they have not been proven to improve outcomes. We sought to establish the efficacy of an implementation of the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines to prevent cardiac surgery-associated AKI in high risk patients defined by renal biomarkers. METHODS: In this single-center trial, we examined the effect of a "KDIGO bundle" consisting of optimization of volume status and hemodynamics, avoidance of nephrotoxic drugs, and preventing hyperglycemia in high risk patients defined as urinary [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] > 0...
January 21, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110399/safinamide-a-review-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Hannah A Blair, Sohita Dhillon
Safinamide (Xadago(®)) is an orally active, selective, reversible monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor with both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic (glutamatergic) properties. In the EU, safinamide is approved for the treatment of mid- to late-stage fluctuating Parkinson's disease (PD) as add-on therapy to a stable dose of levodopa alone or in combination with other PD medications. Safinamide 50-100 mg/day administered as a fixed or flexible dose significantly increased daily 'on' time without dyskinesia (primary endpoint) in patients with mid- to late-stage PD with motor fluctuations in 24-week, placebo-controlled clinical trials...
January 21, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110393/nitric-oxide-production-in-the-striatum-and-cerebellum-of-a-rat-model-of-preterm-global-perinatal-asphyxia
#20
M Barkhuizen, W D J Van de Berg, J De Vente, C E Blanco, A W D Gavilanes, H W M Steinbusch
Encephalopathy due to perinatal asphyxia (PA) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the period around birth. Preterm infants are especially at risk for cognitive, attention and motor impairments. Therapy for this subgroup is limited to supportive care, and new targets are thus urgently needed. Post-asphyxic excitotoxicity is partially mediated by excessive nitric oxide (NO) release. The aims of this study were to determine the timing and distribution of nitric oxide (NO) production after global PA in brain areas involved in motor regulation and coordination...
January 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
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