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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821209/cued-memory-reactivation-during-sws-abolishes-the-beneficial-effect-of-sleep-on-abstraction
#1
Nora Hennies, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Simon J Durrant, James N Cousins, Penelope A Lewis
Study Objectives: Extracting regularities from stimuli in our environment and generalizing these to new situations are fundamental processes in human cognition. Sleep has been shown to enhance these processes, possibly by facilitating reactivation-triggered memory reorganization. Here, we assessed whether cued reactivation during slow wave sleep (SWS) promotes the beneficial effect of sleep on abstraction of statistical regularities. Methods: We used an auditory statistical learning task, in which the benefit of sleep has been firmly established...
August 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821193/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-and-its-impact-on-drug-levels-an-aclps-critical-review
#2
Caleb W Cheng, Jeanne E Hendrickson, Christopher A Tormey, Davinder Sidhu
Objectives: To examine and summarize the current literature on the effects of therapeutic plasma exchange on medication levels. Methods: Literature review was performed via searches of the Cochrane Database and PubMed-MEDLINE (1996 to August 2016) looking for all case reports, case series, and human randomized controlled trials involving therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE)-associated drug removal. Results: Approximately 60 peer-reviewed articles were identified with the majority being case reports; no randomized controlled trials were identified...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821163/metformin-maintains-mucosal-integrity-in-experimental-model-of-colitis-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-and-pro-inflammatory-signaling
#3
Abhimanu Pandey, Sneh Verma, Vijay L Kumar
Metformin, an antidiabetic drug, is well known for its multifarious properties and its ability to modulate inflammatory cascade. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory condition of the colon where drugs exhibiting anti-inflammatory property have been shown to induce and maintain remission. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of metformin against acetic-acid induced colitis in rat. The study included five groups of rats namely normal control, experimental control, drug treated groups (50 and 500mg/kg of metformin, MET50, MET500 and 300mg/kg of mesalazine, MSZ300)...
August 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821162/oral-administration-of-thymoquinone-mitigates-the-effect-of-cisplatin-on-brush-border-membrane-enzymes-energy-metabolism-and-antioxidant-system-in-rat-intestine
#4
Faaiza Shahid, Zeba Farooqui, Subuhi Abidi, Iqbal Parwez, Farah Khan
Cisplatin (CP) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent that elicits severe gastrointestinal toxicity. Nigella sativa, a member of family Ranunculaceae, is one of the most revered medicinal plant known for its numerous health benefits. Thymoquinone (TQ), a major bioactive component derived from the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds, has been shown to improve gastrointestinal functions in animal models of acute gastric/intestinal injury. In view of this, the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of TQ on CP induced toxicity in rat intestine and to elucidate the mechanism underlying these effects...
August 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821141/designed-biocompatible-nano-inhibitor-based-on-poly-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-ester-for-reduction-of-the-dehp-migration-from-plasticized-pvc
#5
Ahmad Raeisi, Khalil Faghihi, Meisam Shabanian
The easy migration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from the plasticized PVC (P-PVC) poses a serious threat to human health and the ecosystems. Thus, its control migration from the P-PVC products is very important. In this work, a poly(β-cyclodextrin-ester) network (β-CDP) was synthesized via reaction of β-cyclodextrin with 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride. As a potential inhibitor for reduction of the DEHP migration, the β-CDP was grafted to Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Poly(β-cyclodextrin-ester) functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNP-CDP) has been used in PVC/DEHP system as a reactive nano-inhibitor to reduce DEHP migration...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821139/charge-functionalized-and-mechanically-durable-composite-cryogels-from-q-nfc-and-cs-for-highly-selective-removal-of-anionic-dyes
#6
Yufei Chen, Jing Ru, Biyao Geng, Haiying Wang, Congcong Tong, Chungui Du, Shengchun Wu, Hongzhi Liu
A composite cryogel was prepared from quaternized nanofibrillated cellulose (Q-NFC) and chitosan (CS) through a combination of freeze-drying and cross-linking with epichlorohydrin. The specific surface area of the composite cryogel was approximately two times that of Q-NFC cryogel. And the composite cryogel exhibited superior adsorption properties of anionic dyes than either the Q-NFC or CS cryogel controls. The adsorption isotherm well fitted the Langmuir model with the maximum theoretical adsorption capacity up to 473...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821135/exploring-pullulan-poly-vinyl-alcohol-interpenetrating-network-microspheres-as-controlled-release-drug-delivery-device
#7
Saundray Raj Soni, Animesh Ghosh
In the present study, interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN) microsphere was prepared using glutaraldehyde assisted water-in-oil emulsion crosslinking method for controlled delivery of pirfenidone, the only chemical entity approved by US FDA for the treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). In our study, the natural biopolymer pullulan was harnessed in combination with synthetic polymer PVA for drug delivery applications. The prepared microspheres were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, solid state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance and field emission scanning electron microscopy...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821099/xyloglucan-gelation-induced-by-enzymatic-degalactosylation-kinetics-and-the-effect-of-the-molar-mass
#8
Caroline Novak Sakakibara, Maria Rita Sierakowski, Christophe Chassenieux, Taco Nicolai, Rilton Alves de Freitas
Gelation kinetics of aqueous solutions of xyloglucan (XG) extracted from H. courbaril seeds were investigated, in-situ, during enzymatic removal of galactose units by oscillatory shear rheological measurements, at different XG and enzyme (β-galactosidase) concentrations. Increasing the enzyme concentration (Cenz) led to an increase of the gelation rate. Master curves of the evolution of the storage shear modulus at different Cenz could be formed by time-Cenz superposition showing that Cenz influenced the kinetics, but not the gelation process and the final gel stiffness...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821088/microparticles-prepared-with-50-190kda-chitosan-as-promising-non-toxic-carriers-for-pulmonary-delivery-of-isoniazid
#9
Paula M Oliveira, Breno N Matos, Priscilla A T Pereira, Taís Gratieri, Lucia H Faccioli, Marcílio S S Cunha-Filho, Guilherme M Gelfuso
Chitosan biocompatibility and mucoadhesiveness make it an ideal polymer for antituberculotic drugs microcapsulation for pulmonary delivery. Yet, previous study indicated toxicity problems to J-774.1-cells treated with some medium molecular weight (190-310kDa) chitosan microparticles. As polymer molecular weight is a crucial factor to be considered, this paper describes the preparation and characterization of chitosan (50-190kDa) microparticles containing isoniazid (INH). Cytotoxicity assays were also performed on murine peritoneal (J-774...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821080/investigation-of-chitosan-s-antibacterial-activity-against-vancomycin-resistant-microorganisms-and-their-biofilms
#10
Eduardo M Costa, Sara Silva, Mariana Veiga, Sandra Vicente, Freni K Tavaria, Manuela E Pintado
Vancomycin-resistant microorganisms are a hurdle that traditional antibiotics struggle to overcome. These difficulties have led to search for new solutions based on natural products. Chitosan has been recognized as an effective antibacterial agent against a vast array of microorganisms including antibiotic resistant ones. As such, this work aimed to evaluate chitosan as an alternative to traditional antibiotics in the management/control of two vancomycin-resistant microorganisms, VRSA and VREF, in planktonic and sessile settings...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821069/preparation-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-norcantharidin-conjugated-carboxymethyl-chitosan-in-mice-bearing-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Zhiwen Jiang, Jinhua Chi, Baoqin Han, Wanshun Liu
In this study, norcantharidin (NCTD), a small-molecule anticancer drug derived from Chinese traditional medicine blister beetle (Mylabris), was conjugated covalently onto carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS). Then the hepatocellular carcinoma therapeutic properties and liver-protective effects were investigated through orthotopic transplantation tumor model. Results showed that the obtained CMCS-NCTD demonstrated remarkable anti-growth efficacy against hepatocellular 22 in mice. Significant improvement of the liver injury caused by cancer cells was observed in tumor-bearing mice administrated with CMCS-NCTD...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821061/morphology-and-mechanical-properties-of-poly-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-blends-controlled-with-cellulosic-particles
#12
Jianxiang Chen, Yuankun Wang, Zeren Yin, Kam C Tam, Defeng Wu
The rigid microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) particles and semi-rigid ethyl cellulose (EC) were used to control phase morphology and mechanical properties of immiscible poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) blends. The interfacial properties were evaluated by the fiber retraction and contact angle methods MCC is incompatible with PHB and PCL, and dispersed independently in the two polymer phases in their blends. However, EC is more compatible with the two polymers, with a higher affinity for PCL...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821060/construction-and-characterization-of-nanosized-curdlan-sulfate-chitosan-polyelectrolyte-complex-toward-drug-release-of-zidovudine
#13
Jing-Kun Yan, Yao-Yao Wang, Wen-Yi Qiu, Jian-Yong Wu
In this study, as-synthesized curdlan sulfate (CRDS) with a flexible random coil chain was selected as a polyanion to construct nanosized polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) with a polycation, chitosan (CS), via electrostatic interactions. Nanosized PECs were formed simply by mixing CRDS (0.5mg/mL) and CS (0.5mg/mL) at a mass ratio of 2:1 at pH 3.5. The CRDS/CS PECs exhibited a spherical morphology with a Z-average diameter of around 180nm and a zeta potential value of about -38mV. Subsequently, zidovudine (AZT) as a model antiviral drug was successfully encapsulated into the nanosized PECs with a favorable drug loading efficiency...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821033/novel-nitroaniline-cellulose-nanohybrids-nitro-radical-photo-release-and-its-antibacterial-action
#14
Prashant Chauhan, Ning Yan
In this study, carboxylated nanocrystalline cellulose is surface functionalized by a chromophoric nitro radical (NO) photodonor via covalent bonding. The resulting new photoactive nanohybrid material displays an effective photogeneration of NO radicals upon illumination by light. The release of NO radicals has been chemically detected by various spectroscopic techniques. The bactericidal activity of the novel nanohybrid is effectively demonstrated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria with light...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821031/surface-deacetylated-chitin-nanofibers-reinforced-with-a-sulfobutyl-ether-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-gel-loaded-with-prednisolone-as-potential-therapy-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Ryo Tabuchi, Makoto Anraku, Daisuke Iohara, Takako Ishiguro, Shinsuke Ifuku, Tomone Nagae, Kaneto Uekama, Shoko Okazaki, Keizo Takeshita, Masaki Otagiri, Fumitoshi Hirayama
Surface-deacetylated chitin nanofibers (SDACNFs) reinforced with a sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) (NFs-CDs) gel were developed to obtain a controlled release carrier of prednisolone (PD) for the treatment of colitis. PD was released slowly from the gel at both pH 1.2 and 6.8. The in vitro slow release of PD from the NFs-CDs gel was reflected in the in vivo absorption of the drug after oral administration to rats. These results suggest that a simple gel composed of a mixture of SDACNFs and SBE-β-CD has the potential for use in the controlled release of PD...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821030/preparation-and-characterization-of-a-photocatalytic-antibacterial-material-graphene-oxide-tio2-bacterial-cellulose-nanocomposite
#16
Ling-Pu Liu, Xiao-Ning Yang, Li Ye, Dong-Dong Xue, Miao Liu, Shi-Ru Jia, Ying Hou, Li-Qiang Chu, Cheng Zhong
In this study, bacterial cellulose (BC) was used as a matrix to synthesize graphene oxide/Titanium dioxide (GOTiO2)-based hybrid materials. It was indicated by X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction that the crystal structure of GOTiO2 was a mixed phase containing anatase and rutile. TiO2 nanoparticles were of 10-30nm diameters and densely anchored on graphene oxide sheets. Superior photocatalytic performance of the GOTiO2 was achieved under near UV excitation. The photocatalytic efficiency was optimized through controlling an appropriate calcined temperature...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821027/preparation-characterization-and-antibacterial-activity-of-oxidized-%C3%AE%C2%BA-carrageenan
#17
Mingjin Zhu, Liming Ge, Yongbo Lyu, Yaxin Zi, Xinying Li, Defu Li, Changdao Mu
The oxidized κ-carrageenans with different oxidation levels were prepared through the hydrogen peroxide and copper sulfate redox system. The oxidation level of oxidized κ-carrageenan was successfully controlled by adjusting the dosage of hydrogen peroxide. The results showed that the microtopography of oxidized κ-carrageenan changed from rough granules to smooth flakes, mainly resulting from the easily melting property of oxidized κ-carrageenan induced by introduced carboxyl and aldehyde groups. Especially, the antibacterial activity of oxidized κ-carrageenans against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was systematically investigated...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821023/preparation-and-crystallization-behavior-of-poly-ethylene-2-5-furandicarboxylate-cellulose-composites-by-twin-screw-extrusion
#18
Amandine Codou, Nathanaël Guigo, Jesper Gabriël van Berkel, Ed de Jong, Nicolas Sbirrazzuoli
Poly(ethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PEF), an emerging biobased polyester, was compounded with cellulose via twin-screw extrusion. Different extrusion parameters such as mixing time, screw speed and temperature were employed. Composite thin films containing 1, 2 and 4% cellulose w/w were prepared and compared with neat PEF films. The morphology of PEF/cellulose composites was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the molecular weight after extrusion was controlled by means of size exclusion chromatography (SEC)...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821016/expression-of-interferon-inducible-chemokines-and-sleep-wake-changes-during-early-encephalitis-in-experimental-african-trypanosomiasis
#19
Claudia Laperchia, Chiara Tesoriero, Paul F Seke-Etet, Valentina La Verde, Valeria Colavito, Gigliola Grassi-Zucconi, Jean Rodgers, Paul Montague, Peter G E Kennedy, Marina Bentivoglio
BACKGROUND: Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei, leads to neuroinflammation and characteristic sleep/wake alterations. The relationship between the onset of these alterations and the development of neuroinflammation is of high translational relevance, but remains unclear. This study investigates the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ and IFN-inducible chemokine genes in the brain, and the levels of CXCL10 in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid prior to and during the encephalitic stage of trypanosome infection, and correlates these with sleep/wake changes in a rat model of the disease...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821015/extracting-replicable-associations-across-multiple-studies-empirical-bayes-algorithms-for-controlling-the-false-discovery-rate
#20
David Amar, Ron Shamir, Daniel Yekutieli
In almost every field in genomics, large-scale biomedical datasets are used to report associations. Extracting associations that recur across multiple studies while controlling the false discovery rate is a fundamental challenge. Here, we propose a new method to allow joint analysis of multiple studies. Given a set of p-values obtained from each study, the goal is to identify associations that recur in at least k > 1 studies while controlling the false discovery rate. We propose several new algorithms that differ in how the study dependencies are modeled, and compare them and extant methods under various simulated scenarios...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
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