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Gynecomastia in children

Ryan Flannigan, Premal Patel, Darius A Paduch
INTRODUCTION: Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the result of sex chromosome aneuploidy most often characterized as 47,XXY. The typical features of KS include tall stature, gynecomastia, small firm testicles, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and infertility. However, abnormalities in neurodevelopment, cognition, and social and behavioral functioning also can be present. The abnormalities in neurodevelopment are believed to be due in part to androgen deficiency during early development and puberty...
April 18, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Emel Durmaz, Murat Alp Öztek, Hatice Arıöz Habibi, Uğur Kesimal, Hakkı Timur Sindel
PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the spectrum of radiologic findings and referral reasons for breast diseases in children considering age-appropriate presentation. METHODS: Our retrospective cohort study included 348 consecutive pediatric patients aged <19 years (median, 13 years) referred to radiology with a clinical presentation between 2005 and 2016. Radiologic findings were reviewed in four age ranges (0-2 years, 2-8 years, 8-15 years, >15 years). RESULTS: Of 348 patients, 257 had a referral reason...
November 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
Pinar Erkekoglu, Erdem Durmaz, Murat Kızılgün, Elif N Özmert, Orhan Derman, Kadriye Yurdakök, Belma Kocer-Gumusel
This study aimed to determine whether there were any differences in trace element levels between adolescent boys with gynecomastia and control boys and to determine the correlations between the levels of trace elements and body mass index (BMI) and sex hormones. The pubertal gynecomastia group comprised of 41 patients (mean age=13.2 ±0.9 years), who were admitted to Hacettepe University İhsan Doğramacı Children's Hospital in Ankara. Control group comprised of 21 healthy male children. Analyses of trace element levels were performed atomic absorption spectrometry...
December 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Dmitry Zavlin, Kevin T Jubbal, Jeffrey D Friedman, Anthony Echo
BACKGROUND: Gynecomastia is a common disease that is prevalent across all age groups of boys and men. Although benign in nature, it can lead to psychological and social distress, prompting affected patients to seek medical attention. Management strategies include observation and drug therapy, yet surgical procedures remain the hallmark of treatment. The goal of this study was to analyze patient demographics, outcomes, and complication rates of gynecomastia surgery in a large multi-institutional cohort...
August 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Alexander K C Leung, Alexander A C Leung
BACKGROUND: Gynecomastia may occur physiologically in the neonatal period, during puberty, and in old age. It may also develop in association with various pathologic states. The challenge for the physician is to distinguish physiological gynecomastia from those with an underlying pathology. OBJECTIVE: To review in depth the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of gynecomastia. METHOD: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "gynecomastia"...
2017: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
Chiara Mameli, Giorgio Selvaggio, Chiara Cerini, Gaetano Bulfamante, Cristina Madia, Giovanna Riccipetitoni, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti
Leydig cell tumors (LCTs) are rare cord-stromal tumors that may occur in testis or ovaries and may produce androgens or estrogens. The majority has been found in men between the ages of 20 and 60 years. Adults with androgen-secreting LCTs are usually asymptomatic; feminizing syndromes may result from the production of estradiol or the peripheral aromatization of testosterone. In children, LCTs usually present between 5 and 10 years of age with isosexual precocious pseudopuberty or gynecomastia. We report 2 cases of LCT in prepubertal boys presenting with advanced unilateral pubarche and testicular volume asymmetry...
November 2016: Pediatrics
Julia Kenny, Katja Doerholt, Di M Gibb, Ali Judd
There are few data on gynecomastia in HIV-infected children. Within the UK/Ireland's national cohort, 56 of 1873 (3%) HIV-infected children had gynecomastia, of which 10 (0.5%) were severe. All 10 had received antiretroviral therapy for a median of 27.5 (21, 42) months; 4 of 10 had received efavirenz, 7 of 10 and 6 of 10 had received stavudine and/or didanosine respectively. Five were nonreversible, despite changing antiretroviral therapy, and required breast reduction surgery.
March 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Sana Doubi, Zoubida Amrani, Hanan El Ouahabi, Saïd Boujraf, Farida Ajdi
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is characterized in adults by the combination of a tall stature, small testes, gynecomastia, and azoospermia. This case is described in a North African population of the Mediterranean region of North Africa. We report the case of a male 16 years old, of Arab ethnic origin, and diagnosed with this syndrome, who had a small height in relation to a growth hormone (GH) deficiency and a history of absence seizures (generalized myoclonic epilepsy). The patient's size was <-2.8 standard deviation (SD) with weight <-3 SD...
2015: Genome Integrity
Joao Correia De Pinho, Lusine Aghajanova, Christopher N Herndon
BACKGROUND: Gynecomastia is a disorder of the endocrine system characterized by an abnormal presence of a palpable unilateral or bilateral enlargement and proliferation of glandular ductal benign breast tissue in male individuals. This case discusses the medical implications of an unregulated, indirect exposure to nonformulary, bioidentical hormone replacement therapy in male children. CASE: An 8-year-old boy presented with prepubertal gynecomastia secondary to estrogen exposure from maternal use of bioidentical hormonal replacement therapy (the Wiley protocol)...
January 2016: Journal of Reproductive Medicine
Avni Kaya, Zerrin Orbak, Harun Polat, Atilla Çayır, Abdullah Erdil, Hakan Döneray
OBJECTIVE: Kisspeptin levels have been reported in children with premature thelarche, precocious puberty and adolescent gynecomastia, but there are no reports on kisspeptin levels in the neonatal period. This study aimed to investigate plasma kisspeptin hormone levels in newborns with and without breast enlargement. METHODS: Plasma kisspeptin levels and other related biochemical variables were investigated in this prospective study conducted on 40 (20 girls and 20 boys) newborn infants with breast enlargement and on 40 healthy control infants (20 girls and 20 boys)...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Celeste C Patiño González, Enrique J RomeroManteola
INTRODUCTION: The association of gynecomastia and bloody nipple discharge (thelorragia) leads us to the diagnosis of intraductal papilloma. This is a very rare benign tumor in children. CLINICAL CASE: A 2 year old male child was referred due to gynecomastia and bloody nipple discharge of the left breast. A mastectomy was performed. At the age of 4 he returned with identical symptoms but in the right breast. A right mastectomy was also required. An excellent clinical outcome was present in the follow up...
December 1, 2015: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Tuğba Acer, Murat Derbent, Akgün Hiçsönmez
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Bloody nipple discharge (BND) is rare, distressing for parents, and presents a challenge for physicians. METHODS: We used PubMed to search for cases of BND that were diagnosed before adolescence and added data from two of our cases. RESULTS: The analyzed cohort comprised 46 patients (28 boys and 18 girls; mean [SD] age, 12.5±13.3months; range, 20days to 4years). The mean time for spontaneous resolution was 2.8±2.4months (range, 1week to 8months) after onset of BND without any intervention...
November 2015: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Alejandro Diaz, Laura Luque, Zain Badar, Steve Kornic, Marco Danon
INTRODUCTION: Prepubertal gynecomastia is a rare condition characterized by the growth of breast tissue in males as a consequence of early exposure to sexual hormones. When this condition is present, pathological sources of testosterone/estrogen production, such as adrenal or gonadal tumors must be searched for. A few reports have described an association between gynecomastia and substances that produce stimulation of the estrogen receptor, such as lavender and tea tree oil. METHODS: Here we describe the cases of three boys who presented with prepubertal gynecomastia and were chronically exposed to lavender...
January 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Mahyar Etminan, Bruce Carleton, James M Brophy
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the risk of gynecomastia with risperidone in adolescent and young adult males. METHODS: We created a cohort of males 15-25 years of age from the IMS LifeLink database, and conducted a case-control study within the cohort by identifying all new cases of gynecomastia. For each case, 10 controls were selected and matched to the cases by age, follow-up, and calendar times (cases and controls had the same follow up time and cohort entry date)...
November 2015: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Natalie S Valeur, Habib Rahbar, Teresa Chapman
The approach to breast masses in children differs from that in adults in many ways, including the differential diagnostic considerations, imaging algorithm and appropriateness of biopsy as a means of further characterization. Most pediatric breast masses are benign, either related to breast development or benign neoplastic processes. Biopsy is rarely needed and can damage the developing breast; thus radiologists must be familiar with the imaging appearance of common entities so that biopsies are judiciously recommended...
October 2015: Pediatric Radiology
Estelle Thebaud, Daniel Orbach, Cécile Faure-Conter, Catherine Patte, Frederic Hameury, Nicolas Kalfa, Frédérique Dijoud, Hélène Martelli, Brice Fresneau
Sex-cord stromal tumors (SCT) are rare pediatric tumors accounting for less than 5% of gonadal tumors in children and adolescents. They differ from those diagnosed in adults by their presentation, histology, evolution and treatment modalities. Testicular SCT occur mostly in infants less than 6 months. Testicular swelling is often the only symptom, but signs of hormonal secretion with gynecomastia may be present. Juvenile granulosa SCT is the main histologic subtype. Sertoli SCTs are much less frequent while Leydig tumors occurred in older children and adolescents...
June 2015: Bulletin du Cancer
Miao Qin, Chunxiu Gong, Zhan Qi, Di Wu, Min Liu, Yi Gu, Bingyan Cao, Wenjing Li, Xuejun Liang
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the clinical features of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) diagnosed during childhood, and detect mutations in KAL1 and FGFR1, acting as key clues for diagnoses. METHOD: We collected and analyzed clinical data of 21 cases (including demographic data, chief complaint, history of present illness, family history, physical examination, laboratory tests and imaging studies, etc.) diagnosed with IHH from December 2008 to February 2013...
December 2014: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Javier Sánchez, Ana Peciña, Olga Alonso-Luengo, Antonio González-Meneses, Rocío Vázquez, Guillermo Antiñolo, Salud Borrego
Angelman syndrome (AS, OMIM 105830) is a neurogenetic disorder with firm clinical diagnostic guidelines, characterized by severe developmental delay and speech impairment, balanced and behavioral disturbance as well as microcephaly, seizures, and a characteristic electroencephalogram (EEG). The majority of AS cases (70%) are caused by a 15q11.2-q13 deletion on the maternally derived chromosome. The frequency of AS has been estimated to be between 1/10000 and 1/20000. Klinefelter syndrome (KS) occurs due to the presence of an extra X chromosome (karyotype 47,XXY)...
2014: Case Reports in Genetics
Melissa K Crocker, Evgenia Gourgari, Maya Lodish, Constantine A Stratakis
CONTEXT: Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumors (LCCSCT) present in isolation or, especially in children, in association with Carney Complex (CNC) or Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS). These tumors overexpress aromatase (CYP19A1), which leads to increased conversion of delta-4-androstenedione to estrone and testosterone to estradiol. Prepubertal boys may present with growth acceleration, advanced bone age, and gynecomastia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcomes of aromatase inhibitor therapy (AIT) in prepubertal boys with LCCSCTs...
December 2014: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Bariş Ekici, Ayşe Nurcan Cebeci
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is characterized by mildly elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with normal serum-free thyroxine (fT4). While the prevalence of SH is 2 % in pediatric population, it has been reported much higher in children with migraine headache. In this study, the presence of subclinical hypothyroidism and associated endocrinological abnormalities in children with migraine naïve to treatment was investigated. Children with migraine who were diagnosed in Pediatric Neurology Clinic based on the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and who did not receive any medication were recruited in this cross-sectional study...
June 2015: Acta Neurologica Belgica
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