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Gynecomastia in children

Sana Doubi, Zoubida Amrani, Hanan El Ouahabi, Saïd Boujraf, Farida Ajdi
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is characterized in adults by the combination of a tall stature, small testes, gynecomastia, and azoospermia. This case is described in a North African population of the Mediterranean region of North Africa. We report the case of a male 16 years old, of Arab ethnic origin, and diagnosed with this syndrome, who had a small height in relation to a growth hormone (GH) deficiency and a history of absence seizures (generalized myoclonic epilepsy). The patient's size was <-2.8 standard deviation (SD) with weight <-3 SD...
2015: Genome Integrity
Joao Correia De Pinho, Lusine Aghajanova, Christopher N Herndon
BACKGROUND: Gynecomastia is a disorder of the endocrine system characterized by an abnormal presence of a palpable unilateral or bilateral enlargement and proliferation of glandular ductal benign breast tissue in male individuals. This case discusses the medical implications of an unregulated, indirect exposure to nonformulary, bioidentical hormone replacement therapy in male children. CASE: An 8-year-old boy presented with prepubertal gynecomastia secondary to estrogen exposure from maternal use of bioidentical hormonal replacement therapy (the Wiley protocol)...
January 2016: Journal of Reproductive Medicine
Avni Kaya, Zerrin Orbak, Harun Polat, Atilla Çayır, Abdullah Erdil, Hakan Döneray
OBJECTIVE: Kisspeptin levels have been reported in children with premature thelarche, precocious puberty and adolescent gynecomastia, but there are no reports on kisspeptin levels in the neonatal period. This study aimed to investigate plasma kisspeptin hormone levels in newborns with and without breast enlargement. METHODS: Plasma kisspeptin levels and other related biochemical variables were investigated in this prospective study conducted on 40 (20 girls and 20 boys) newborn infants with breast enlargement and on 40 healthy control infants (20 girls and 20 boys)...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Celeste C Patiño González, Enrique J RomeroManteola
INTRODUCTION: The association of gynecomastia and bloody nipple discharge (thelorragia) leads us to the diagnosis of intraductal papilloma. This is a very rare benign tumor in children. CLINICAL CASE: A 2 year old male child was referred due to gynecomastia and bloody nipple discharge of the left breast. A mastectomy was performed. At the age of 4 he returned with identical symptoms but in the right breast. A right mastectomy was also required. An excellent clinical outcome was present in the follow up...
December 1, 2015: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Tuğba Acer, Murat Derbent, Akgün Hiçsönmez
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Bloody nipple discharge (BND) is rare, distressing for parents, and presents a challenge for physicians. METHODS: We used PubMed to search for cases of BND that were diagnosed before adolescence and added data from two of our cases. RESULTS: The analyzed cohort comprised 46 patients (28 boys and 18 girls; mean [SD] age, 12.5±13.3months; range, 20days to 4years). The mean time for spontaneous resolution was 2.8±2.4months (range, 1week to 8months) after onset of BND without any intervention...
November 2015: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Alejandro Diaz, Laura Luque, Zain Badar, Steve Kornic, Marco Danon
INTRODUCTION: Prepubertal gynecomastia is a rare condition characterized by the growth of breast tissue in males as a consequence of early exposure to sexual hormones. When this condition is present, pathological sources of testosterone/estrogen production, such as adrenal or gonadal tumors must be searched for. A few reports have described an association between gynecomastia and substances that produce stimulation of the estrogen receptor, such as lavender and tea tree oil. METHODS: Here we describe the cases of three boys who presented with prepubertal gynecomastia and were chronically exposed to lavender...
January 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Mahyar Etminan, Bruce Carleton, James M Brophy
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the risk of gynecomastia with risperidone in adolescent and young adult males. METHODS: We created a cohort of males 15-25 years of age from the IMS LifeLink database, and conducted a case-control study within the cohort by identifying all new cases of gynecomastia. For each case, 10 controls were selected and matched to the cases by age, follow-up, and calendar times (cases and controls had the same follow up time and cohort entry date)...
November 2015: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Natalie S Valeur, Habib Rahbar, Teresa Chapman
The approach to breast masses in children differs from that in adults in many ways, including the differential diagnostic considerations, imaging algorithm and appropriateness of biopsy as a means of further characterization. Most pediatric breast masses are benign, either related to breast development or benign neoplastic processes. Biopsy is rarely needed and can damage the developing breast; thus radiologists must be familiar with the imaging appearance of common entities so that biopsies are judiciously recommended...
October 2015: Pediatric Radiology
Estelle Thebaud, Daniel Orbach, Cécile Faure-Conter, Catherine Patte, Frederic Hameury, Nicolas Kalfa, Frédérique Dijoud, Hélène Martelli, Brice Fresneau
Sex-cord stromal tumors (SCT) are rare pediatric tumors accounting for less than 5% of gonadal tumors in children and adolescents. They differ from those diagnosed in adults by their presentation, histology, evolution and treatment modalities. Testicular SCT occur mostly in infants less than 6 months. Testicular swelling is often the only symptom, but signs of hormonal secretion with gynecomastia may be present. Juvenile granulosa SCT is the main histologic subtype. Sertoli SCTs are much less frequent while Leydig tumors occurred in older children and adolescents...
June 2015: Bulletin du Cancer
Miao Qin, Chunxiu Gong, Zhan Qi, Di Wu, Min Liu, Yi Gu, Bingyan Cao, Wenjing Li, Xuejun Liang
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the clinical features of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) diagnosed during childhood, and detect mutations in KAL1 and FGFR1, acting as key clues for diagnoses. METHOD: We collected and analyzed clinical data of 21 cases (including demographic data, chief complaint, history of present illness, family history, physical examination, laboratory tests and imaging studies, etc.) diagnosed with IHH from December 2008 to February 2013...
December 2014: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Javier Sánchez, Ana Peciña, Olga Alonso-Luengo, Antonio González-Meneses, Rocío Vázquez, Guillermo Antiñolo, Salud Borrego
Angelman syndrome (AS, OMIM 105830) is a neurogenetic disorder with firm clinical diagnostic guidelines, characterized by severe developmental delay and speech impairment, balanced and behavioral disturbance as well as microcephaly, seizures, and a characteristic electroencephalogram (EEG). The majority of AS cases (70%) are caused by a 15q11.2-q13 deletion on the maternally derived chromosome. The frequency of AS has been estimated to be between 1/10000 and 1/20000. Klinefelter syndrome (KS) occurs due to the presence of an extra X chromosome (karyotype 47,XXY)...
2014: Case Reports in Genetics
Melissa K Crocker, Evgenia Gourgari, Maya Lodish, Constantine A Stratakis
CONTEXT: Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumors (LCCSCT) present in isolation or, especially in children, in association with Carney Complex (CNC) or Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS). These tumors overexpress aromatase (CYP19A1), which leads to increased conversion of delta-4-androstenedione to estrone and testosterone to estradiol. Prepubertal boys may present with growth acceleration, advanced bone age, and gynecomastia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcomes of aromatase inhibitor therapy (AIT) in prepubertal boys with LCCSCTs...
December 2014: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Bariş Ekici, Ayşe Nurcan Cebeci
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is characterized by mildly elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with normal serum-free thyroxine (fT4). While the prevalence of SH is 2 % in pediatric population, it has been reported much higher in children with migraine headache. In this study, the presence of subclinical hypothyroidism and associated endocrinological abnormalities in children with migraine naïve to treatment was investigated. Children with migraine who were diagnosed in Pediatric Neurology Clinic based on the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and who did not receive any medication were recruited in this cross-sectional study...
June 2015: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Toshihide Kubo, Mahoko Furujo
Although functional hyperprolactinemia originating in the hypothalamus has been observed, there have so far been few reports of this condition occurring in children. This report describes a 1-yr-and-4-mo old boy with hyperprolactinemia due to functional disorder of the hypothalamic region. He was referred to our hospital because of left gynecomastia which had been observed for one month. His left breast development was stage II, right breast stage I, and pubic hair stage I by Tanner stages, and his bilateral testicular volume was 1 ml...
2007: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
Sebastian Fischer, Tobias Hirsch, Christoph Hirche, Jurij Kiefer, Maximilian Kueckelhaus, Günter Germann, Matthias A Reichenberger
PURPOSE: Idiopathic gynecomastia is a common diagnosis in children and adolescents. Though medical treatments reveal potentially harmful side effects, surgical interventions are performable in numerous techniques. In children and adolescents, only minimal evidence exists. This retrospective study presents our experiences with two common surgical techniques, namely subcutaneous mastectomy and combination with liposuction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included all patients <18 years who underwent surgery due to idiopathic gynecomastia...
June 2014: Pediatric Surgery International
Yan Wang, Aiping Wang, Lifang Kong, Jie Li, Suyue Li, Yun Liu, Li Zhang, Ruifang Zhang, Caixia Ban, Yanrui Jiang, Wanqi Sun, Yuanjin Song, Fan Jiang
OBJECTIVE: The term "premature thelarche" refers to isolated breast development before 8 years of age in female, without any other signs of sexual maturation, while "gynecomastia" is the presence of breast tissue in males. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of premature thelarche and gynecomastia in Chinese infants and toddlers, identify the potential risk factors, and explore the influence of early breast development on physical growth, mental development and psychomotor development...
January 2014: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Louise A Brinton, Michael B Cook, Valerie McCormack, Kenneth C Johnson, Håkan Olsson, John T Casagrande, Rosie Cooke, Roni T Falk, Susan M Gapstur, Mia M Gaudet, J Michael Gaziano, Georgios Gkiokas, Pascal Guénel, Brian E Henderson, Albert Hollenbeck, Ann W Hsing, Laurence N Kolonel, Claudine Isaacs, Jay H Lubin, Karin B Michels, Eva Negri, Dominick Parisi, Eleni Th Petridou, Malcolm C Pike, Elio Riboli, Howard D Sesso, Kirk Snyder, Anthony J Swerdlow, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Giske Ursin, Piet A van den Brandt, Stephen K Van Den Eeden, Elisabete Weiderpass, Walter C Willett, Marianne Ewertz, David B Thomas
BACKGROUND: The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly because of its relative rarity. Although genetic factors are involved, less is known regarding the role of anthropometric and hormonally related risk factors. METHODS: In the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of 11 case-control and 10 cohort investigations involving 2405 case patients (n = 1190 from case-control and n = 1215 from cohort studies) and 52013 control subjects, individual participant data were harmonized and pooled...
March 2014: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
K Sudeep, Joison Abraham, Lakshmi Seshadri, M S Seshadri
The most common cause for menstrual abnormality and virilization in children and adolescents would be congenital adrenal hyperplasia. An elevated 17(OH) progesterone is invariably seen in this condition. Aromatase deficiency can also lead to a similar presentation but differs in several aspects. The age of onset of the clinical manifestations, the phenotype, biochemical abnormalities and karyotype help us to arrive at a definitive diagnosis. However sometimes the history is atypical, biochemical abnormalities may overlap between the different conditions and prior treatment may modify the clinical features...
May 2013: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Ibrahim Al Alwan, Hanan Al Azkawi, Motasim Badri, Hani Tamim, Mohammed Al Dubayee, Waleed Tamimi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine factors associated with pubertal gynecomastia. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: A cross-sectional study among healthy male school children and adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Subjects were selected from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Tanner stage, height, weight, blood hormonal levels (leutilizing hormone [LH], follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH], total testosterone, and estradiol), and anthropometric and lipid parameters (body mass index [BMI], triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], and low-density lipoprotein [LDL]), were collected and compared in children with and without gynecomastia...
November 2013: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Mette S van Ramshorst, Magdeline Kekana, Helen E Struthers, James A McIntyre, Remco P H Peters
BACKGROUND: Prepubertal gynecomastia is a rare condition and most frequently classified as idiopathic. In HIV-infected adults gynecomastia is a recognised but infrequent side-effect of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and mostly attributed to efavirenz use. Gynecomastia should be distinguished from pseudogynecomastia as part of the lipodystrophy syndrome caused by Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) to avoid incorrect substitution of drugs. In the medical literature only five cases of prepubertal gynecomastia in children taking ART are described and underlying pathogenesis was unknown...
2013: BMC Pediatrics
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