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Game changer

Madumali Kalubowilage, Obdulia Covarrubias-Zambrano, Aruni P Malalasekera, Sebastian O Wendel, Hongwang Wang, Asanka S Yapa, Lauren Chlebanowski, Yubisela Toledo, Raquel Ortega, Katharine E Janik, Tej B Shrestha, Christopher T Culbertson, Anup Kasi, Stephen Williamson, Deryl L Troyer, Stefan H Bossmann
Numerous proteases, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP's), cathepsins (CTS), and urokinase plasminogen activator (UpA), are dysfunctional (that is, over- or under-expressed) in solid tumors, when compared to healthy human subjects. This offers the opportunity to detect early tumors by liquid biopsies. This approach is of particular advantage for the early detection of pancreatic cancer, which is a "silent killer". We have developed fluorescence nanobiosensors for ultrasensitive (sub-femtomolar) arginase and protease detection, consisting of water-dispersible Fe/Fe3 O4 core/shell nanoparticles and two tethered fluorescent dyes: TCPP (Tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin) and cyanine 5...
May 18, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Catherine Yuk-Ping Lo
BACKGROUND: China has experienced unprecedented economic growth since the 1980s. Despite this impressive economic development, this growth exists side by side with the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) crises and the persisting deficiencies in public health provision in China. Acknowledging the prevailing health problems, the Chinese government has encouraged the development of health non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to respond to the health challenges and address the gaps in public health provision of the government...
May 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
Ahmed S Yassin, Hossam Abubakar, Tushar Mishra, Ahmed Subahi, Melanie Hartman, Abdelrahman Ahmed, Walid Ibrahim, Manmohan Singh, Mohit Pahuja
BACKGROUND: Aspirin (ASA) is the most used medication on the globe. ASA is a primary pillar of the secondary prevention of cardiovascular atherothromboembolic events. However, a fraction of the population does not respond to ASA as expected in a unique phenomenon called ASA resistance. Multiple mechanisms were described and studied in the literature to explain this phenomenon. AREA OF UNCERTAINTY: ASA resistance is an interesting phenomenon that is worth studying and reviewing...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
Deepak Choudhury, Han Win Tun, Tianyi Wang, May Win Naing
The extracellular matrix (ECM) comprises a complex milieu of proteins and other growth factors that provide mechanical, biophysical, and biochemical cues to cells. The ECM is organ specific, and its detailed composition varies across organs. Bioinks are material formulations and biological molecules or cells processed during a bioprinting process. Organ-derived decellularized ECM (dECM) bioinks have emerged as arguably the most biomimetic bioinks. Here, we review bioinks derived from different decellularized organs, the techniques used to obtain these bioinks, and the characterization methods used to evaluate their quality...
April 18, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
John W M Bastiaansen, Henk Bovenhuis, Martien A M Groenen, Hendrik-Jan Megens, Han A Mulder
BACKGROUND: Genome editing technologies provide new tools for genetic improvement and have the potential to become the next game changer in animal and plant breeding. The aim of this study was to investigate how genome editing in combination with genomic selection can accelerate the introduction of a monogenic trait in a livestock population as compared to genomic selection alone. METHODS: A breeding population was simulated under genomic selection for a polygenic trait...
April 16, 2018: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Sriparna Basu, Manish Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
Marco Lupidi, Alessio Cerquaglia, Jay Chhablani, Tito Fiore, Sumit Randhir Singh, Felice Cardillo Piccolino, Roberta Corbucci, Florence Coscas, Gabriel Coscas, Carlo Cagini
Optical coherence tomography angiography is one of the biggest advances in ophthalmic imaging. It enables a depth-resolved assessment of the retinal and choroidal blood flow, far exceeding the levels of detail commonly obtained with dye angiographies. One of the first applications of optical coherence tomography angiography was in detecting the presence of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration and establishing its position in relation to the retinal pigmented epithelium and Bruch's membrane, and thereby classifying the CNV as type 1, type 2, type 3, or mixed lesions...
April 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Faezeh Behzadi, Sheyda Darouie, Seyed Mehdi Alavi, Parvin Shariati, Gurvinder Singh, Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Ayyoob Arpanaei
Antimicrobial agents, such as nisin are used extensively in the food industry. Here, we investigated various approaches to load nisin onto mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs, 92 ± 10 nm in diameter), so as to enhance its stability and sustained release. Nisin was either physically adsorbed or covalently attached to the variously functionalized MSNs, with high loading capacities (>600 mg nisin g-1 nanoparticles). Antibacterial activities of the nisin-loaded MSNs were evaluated by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration of nisin against Staphylococcus aureus...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
David A Rochefort
Often described in such terms as a "revolution" and a "game-changer" for the behavioral health sector in the United States, the Affordable Care Act has helped to enhance coverage for mental health and substance use disorders while encouraging service system innovations at the organizational level. However, tens of millions of Americans still lack health insurance, insurance companies are resisting the implementation of parity coverage rules, and inequalities in the financing and organization of care continue to worsen in key respects...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
Jennifer Ronholm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Asaf Ta-Shma, Simon Edvardson, Orly Elpeleg, Polina Stepensky
Thirteen years after the completion of the human genome project, the determination of the genomic sequence of the coding parts of the DNA (the exones, hence the exome), has turned into a primary diagnostic tool in daily use in clinical practice. The Department of Genetics at Hadassah was the first in Israel to introduce exome analysis as a robust diagnostic tool into the pediatric departments. Till now 2600 exomes were analyzed at Hadassah, 850 of them in 2016 alone. Exome analysis is cheap and fast, enabling precise and non-invasive diagnosis for a vast array of genetic disorders and congenital malformations...
March 2018: Harefuah
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2018: British Dental Journal
Federica Scaletti, Joseph Hardie, Yi-Wei Lee, David C Luther, Moumita Ray, Vincent M Rotello
The delivery of proteins into cells is a potential game changer for a wide array of therapeutic purposes, including cancer therapy, immunomodulation and treatment of inherited diseases. In this review, we present recently developed nanoassemblies for protein delivery that utilize strategies that range from direct assembly, encapsulation and composite formation. We will discuss factors that affect the efficacy of nanoassemblies for delivery from the perspective of both nanoparticles and proteins. Challenges in the field, particularly achieving effective cytosolar protein delivery through endosomal escape or evasion are discussed...
May 21, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Mariëlle Walraven, Boris Hinz
Organ fibrosis is characterized by the accumulation of disorganized and stiff extracellular matrix (ECM) and represents the final stage of several life-threatening diseases. The progressive replacement of normal tissue by fibrotic ECM impedes organ functionality to the point of failure. Fibrosis affects millions of people worldwide with no effective cure for various reasons: (a) Due to the lack of clinical biomarkers and non-invasive detection methods fibrosis is often diagnosed too late, when organs are already destroyed beyond repair...
February 27, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Jacob Shapira, Yaniv Keren, Nadav Rinott, Yaron Berkovich
We are now standing four decades after the 'running revolution' which occurred during the 70's of the previous century. Despite the developments that have occurred in medicine and the large budgets invested in the development of the sport's equipment, the runner's morbidity has not changed. In this article, we would like to review the changes in running that occurred throughout the years, as well as the common risk factors for running injuries. Furthermore, we would like to examine the scientific point of view regarding running shoes and running technique as risk factors for running injuries...
February 2018: Harefuah
Thanthima Suwanthawornkul, Naiyana Praditsitthikorn, Wantanee Kulpeng, Manuel Alexander Haasis, Anna Melissa Guerrero, Yot Teerawattananon
Background: Many economic evaluations ignore economies of scale in their cost estimation, which means that cost parameters are assumed to have a linear relationship with the level of production. Economies of scale is the situation when the average total cost of producing a product decreases with increasing volume caused by reducing the variable costs due to more efficient operation. This study investigates the significance of applying the economies of scale concept: the saving in costs gained by an increased level of production in economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Victoria Ponce Hardy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Kandarp Priyakant Parikh, Ravi Jineshkumar Jain, Aditya Parikh Kandarp
Introduction: Success of any modality for stone disease needs to be evaluated in terms of Stone Free Rates (SFR), auxiliary procedures needed; complications and follow up. SFR in RIRS is subject to parameters like stone burden, location, number, hardness, composition; calyceal and ureter anatomy; use of ureteric access sheath (UAS); surgeon experience etc. Methods: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of RIRS for managing upper tract stones...
January 2018: Urology Annals
David Tuller
Initially billed as a game changer, Truvada has faced multiple obstacles to widespread adoption.
February 2018: Health Affairs
Hiroshi Doi, Naohito Beppu, Kazuhiro Kitajima, Kozo Kuribayashi
Surgical resection is the standard therapy for solitary primary or metastatic liver tumors. However, liver tumors are often unresectable at diagnosis and hepatectomy is invasive. Local therapies, such as radiofrequency ablation, are used instead, which can be challenging. Recent advances in modern radiotherapy, including stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), have increased the use of radiotherapy as a curative modality. SBRT delivers ablative high doses of irradiation in small volumes. SBRT for liver tumors provided local control with potential survival benefits in patients with inoperable status...
February 2018: Anticancer Research
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