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Game changer

Iryna Zablotska, Andrew E Grulich, Nittaya Phanuphak, Tarandeep Anand, Surang Janyam, Midnight Poonkasetwattana, Rachel Baggaley, Frits van Griensven, Ying-Ru Lo
INTRODUCTION: HIV epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region are concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and other key populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention intervention and could be a potential game changer in the region. We discuss the progress towards PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region, including opportunities and barriers. DISCUSSION: Awareness about PrEP in the Asia-Pacific is still low and so are its levels of use...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Till Bärnighausen, David E Bloom, Salal Humair
Shortages of human resources for treating HIV/AIDS (HRHA) are a fundamental barrier to reaching universal antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage in developing countries. Previous studies suggest that recruiting HRHA to attain universal ART coverage poses an insurmountable challenge as ART significantly increases survival among HIV-infected individuals. While new evidence about ART's prevention benefits suggests fewer infections may mitigate the challenge, new policies such as treatment-as-prevention (TasP) will exacerbate it...
2016: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Ulster Medical Journal
Mohamed Abu-Farha, Ashraf Al Madhoun, Jehad Abubaker
Diabetes is a global health problem that is caused by impaired insulin production from pancreatic β-cells. Efforts to regenerate β-cells have been advancing rapidly in the past two decades with progress made towards identifying new agents that induce β-cells regeneration. ANGPTL8, also named betatrophin, has been recently identified as a hormone capable of inducing β-cells proliferation and increasing β-cells mass in rodents. Its discovery has been cherished as a breakthrough and a game changer in the field of β-cells regeneration...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
A M Mohamed Thoufic Ali, S Vino
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory, multi-systemic autoimmune disease unremitted by genetic and environmental factors. The factors are crucial but inadequate in the development of disease; however, these factors can be representative of potential therapeutic targets and response to clinical therapy. Insights into the contribution of genetic risk factors are currently in progress with studies querying the genetic variation, their role in gene expression of coding and non-coding genes and other mechanisms of disease...
November 2016: Rheumatology International
Jonathan Berman, Tanya Radhakrishna
The neglected tropical disease priority review voucher (PRV) program ("tropical disease voucher," "voucher") is a U.S. government program intended to enlarge the number of products approved for tropical diseases in the United States. Ridley and others noted that "Infectious and parasitic diseases create enormous health burdens, but because most of the people suffering from these diseases are poor, little is invested in developing treatments." In 2006, these academicians proposed, and in 2007, the U.S. Congress enacted a new section 524 to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U...
August 29, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Melvin L K Chua, Anthony T C Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: Lancet
Ouzi Nissim, Roberto Spiegelmann
The article by Dr. Cohen-Inbar published in this issue of Harefuah is a timely review that brings to the general medical community the recent important developments in the field of radiosurgery--the evolution of multi-session radiosurgery [or "FSR", standing for Fractionated Stereotactic Radiation]. Radiosurgery and FSR continue to have a tremendous impact on modern neurosurgery. Sharing sub-millimetric accuracy in radiation delivery made possible by real-time-imaging positioning, frameless single and multisession radiosurgery have become two faces of a therapeutic technique with wide application in the field of intracranial pathology...
May 2016: Harefuah
S S C Rao
Faecal incontinence (FI) is common and its pathophysiology and treatments continue to evolve. However, a standard measure(s) for assessing its clinical outcome has been elusive. Consequently, over 100 measures and scoring systems, each with intrinsic biases have been reported. These include adequate relief or global satisfaction, ≥50% reduction in episodes or days without FI, quality of life (QOL), FI severity scales and composite indices. Earlier scales relied on the frequency and type of solid, liquid or flatus incontinence and effects on life style whereas newer scales have incorporated urgency, use of pads, antidiarrhoeals and amount of leakage, using prospective daily stool diaries or retrospective weekly or single point assessments...
August 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Lukas Weiss, Florian Huemer, Brigitte Mlineritsch, Richard Greil
Increased numbers of tumour infiltrating T‑cells have long been associated with a better prognosis in ovarian cancer, which has led to the general assumption of a relevant impact of T‑cellular anti-tumour immunity in this disease. As a consequence of this knowledge, a multitude of immunologic therapies has emerged over the past years. Although some reports could evidence a successful induction of anti-tumour T‑cells, in general, these attempts did not translate into clinically significant activity...
2016: Memo
W A Leber
The introduction of fractional flow reserve computed tomography (FFR-CT) that is performed from static coronary CT angiography datasets may open new horizons in the diagnostic management of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. FFR-CT has a high sensitivity and moderate specificity in identifying ischemia in intermediate coronary stenoses. It has been demonstrated that this technology has the potential to significantly reduce the number of invasive coronary angiograms and the rate of normal coronary angiograms that are not followed by an intervention...
August 2016: Herz
Hamid Reza Mirzaei, Hamed Mirzaei, Sang Yun Lee, Jamshid Hadjati, Brian G Till
Excitement is growing for therapies that harness the power of patients' immune systems to combat their diseases. One approach to immunotherapy involves engineering patients' own T cells to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to treat advanced cancers, particularly those refractory to conventional therapeutic agents. Although these engineered immune cells have made remarkable strides in the treatment of patients with certain hematologic malignancies, success with solid tumors has been limited, probably due to immunosuppressive mechanisms in the tumor niche...
October 1, 2016: Cancer Letters
Majed Chergui
The past 3-5 years have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of time-resolved X-ray spectroscopic studies, mainly driven by novel technical and methodological developments. The latter include (i) the high repetition rate optical pump/X-ray probe studies, which have greatly boosted the signal-to-noise ratio for picosecond (ps) X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies, while enabling ps X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) at synchrotrons; (ii) the X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are a game changer and have allowed the first femtosecond (fs) XES and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering experiments to be carried out; (iii) XFELs are also opening the road to the development of non-linear X-ray methods...
May 2016: Structural Dynamics (Melville, N.Y.)
L A Berchtold, M Prause, J Størling, T Mandrup-Poulsen
The discovery 30 years ago that inflammatory cytokines cause a concentration, activity, and time-dependent bimodal response in pancreatic β-cell function and viability has been a game-changer in the fields of research directed at understanding inflammatory regulation of β-cell function and survival and the causes of β-cell failure and destruction in diabetes. Having until then been confined to the use of pathophysiologically irrelevant β-cell toxic chemicals as a model of β-cell death, researchers could now mimic endocrine and paracrine effects of the cytokine response in vitro by titrating concentrations in the low to the high picomolar-femtomolar range and vary exposure time for up to 14-16h to reproduce the acute regulatory effects of systemic inflammation on β-cell secretory responses, with a shift to inhibition at high picomolar concentrations or more than 16h of exposure to illustrate adverse effects of local, chronic islet inflammation...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Sabriya Rice
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2016: Modern Healthcare
Teun Van Gelder, Dennis A Hesselink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Transplantation
Hilde Almåsbak, Tanja Aarvak, Mohan C Vemuri
The development of novel targeted therapies with acceptable safety profiles is critical to successful cancer outcomes with better survival rates. Immunotherapy offers promising opportunities with the potential to induce sustained remissions in patients with refractory disease. Recent dramatic clinical responses in trials with gene modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) in B-cell malignancies have generated great enthusiasm. This therapy might pave the way for a potential paradigm shift in the way we treat refractory or relapsed cancers...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
M Malone, I B Gosbell, H G Dickson, K Vickery, B A Espedido, S O Jensen
Diabetes foot infections (DFI) are a common condition and a major causal pathway to lower extremity amputation. Identification of causative pathogens is vital in directing antimicrobial therapy. Historically, clinicians have relied upon culture-dependent techniques that are now acknowledged as both being selective for microorganisms that thrive under the physiological and nutritional constraints of the microbiology laboratory, and that grossly underestimate the microbial diversity of a sample. The amplification and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene has revealed a diversity of microorganisms in DFIs, extending the view of the diabetic foot microbiome...
June 12, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Rakhee Goyal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
J P Finn, K-L Nguyen, F Han, Z Zhou, I Salusky, I Ayad, P Hu
The practice of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) has changed significantly in the span of a decade. Concerns regarding gadolinium (Gd)-associated nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in those with severely impaired renal function spurred developments in low-dose CEMRA and non-contrast MRA as well as efforts to seek alternative MR contrast agents. Originally developed for MR imaging use, ferumoxytol (an ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle), is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in adults with renal disease...
August 2016: Clinical Radiology
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