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primary adipocyte diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534013/serum-from-pregnant-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-increases-the-expression-of-fabp4-mrna-in-primary-subcutaneous-human-pre-adipocytes
#1
Lan Li, Se Jin Lee, Song Yi Kook, Tae Gyu Ahn, Ji Yeon Lee, Jong Yun Hwang
OBJECTIVE: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance first detected during pregnancy. It can result in pregnancy complications such as birth injury, stillbirth. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), found in adipose tissue, is associated with insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether FABP4 in the placenta and decidua of pregnant women with GDM is higher than that in normal pregnant women, and whether serum from pregnant women with GDM may cause adipocytes to secrete more FABP4 than does serum from a normal pregnant group...
May 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528355/increased-retinol-free-rbp4-contributes-to-insulin-resistance-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Yanmin Chen, Ping Lv, Mengkai Du, Zhaoxia Liang, Menglin Zhou, Danqing Chen
PURPOSE: Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a circulating retinol transporter that is strongly associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the RBP4 and retinol level in rat model of gestational diabetes mellitus and the relationship between retinol-free RBP4 (apo-RBP4), retinol-bound RBP4 (holo-RBP4) and insulin resistance. METHODS: Pregnant rats were administered streptozotocin to induce diabetes. The RBP4 and retinol levels were evaluated in GDM and normal pregnant rats...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447068/microrna-21-is-up-regulated-in-adipose-tissue-of-obese-diabetic-subjects
#3
Valeria Guglielmi, Monica D'Adamo, Rossella Menghini, Marina Cardellini, Paolo Gentileschi, Massimo Federici, Paolo Sbraccia
We investigated miR21 expression in omental (OAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from 16 obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. Patients were divided into two age- and BMI-matched groups according to the presence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). miR21 was not differently expressed in OAT and SAT. However, miR21 expression was two folds greater in adipose tissue in patients with T2D. Accordingly, in primary cultures of adipocytes from non diabetic overweight subjects, miR21 expression increased after 24-h exposure to high glucose and insulin...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416283/activation-of-irf1-in-human-adipocytes-leads-to-phenotypes-associated-with-metabolic-disease
#4
Max Friesen, Raymond Camahort, Youn-Kyoung Lee, Fang Xia, Robert E Gerszten, Eugene P Rhee, Rahul C Deo, Chad A Cowan
The striking rise of obesity-related metabolic disorders has focused attention on adipocytes as critical mediators of disease phenotypes. To better understand the role played by excess adipose in metabolic dysfunction it is crucial to decipher the transcriptional underpinnings of the low-grade adipose inflammation characteristic of diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Through employing a comparative transcriptomics approach, we identified IRF1 as differentially regulated between primary and in vitro-derived genetically matched adipocytes...
May 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357654/human-adipocyte-differentiation-and-characterization-in-a-perfusion-based-cell-culture-device
#5
Yunxiao Liu, Patthara Kongsuphol, Sajay Bhuvanendran Nair Gourikutty, Qasem Ramadan
Adipocytes have gained significant attention recently, because they are not only functioning as energy storage but also as endocrine cells. Adipocytes secret various signaling molecules, including adiponectin, MCP-1, and IL-6, termed collectively as "adipokines". Adipokines regulate glucose metabolism, thereby play an important role in obesity, diabetes type 2, and other metabolic disorders. Conventionally, to study the secretory function, adipocytes are cultured in vitro in static conditions. However, static culturing condition falls short of mimicking the interstitial fluid flows in living systems...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334807/allele-specific-quantitative-proteomics-unravels-molecular-mechanisms-modulated-by-cis-regulatory-pparg-locus-variation
#6
Heekyoung Lee, Kun Qian, Christine von Toerne, Lena Hoerburger, Melina Claussnitzer, Christoph Hoffmann, Viktoria Glunk, Simone Wahl, Michaela Breier, Franziska Eck, Leili Jafari, Sophie Molnos, Harald Grallert, Ingrid Dahlman, Peter Arner, Cornelia Brunner, Hans Hauner, Stefanie M Hauck, Helmut Laumen
Genome-wide association studies identified numerous disease risk loci. Delineating molecular mechanisms influenced by cis-regulatory variants is essential to understand gene regulation and ultimately disease pathophysiology. Combining bioinformatics and public domain chromatin information with quantitative proteomics supports prediction of cis-regulatory variants and enabled identification of allele-dependent binding of both, transcription factors and coregulators at the type 2 diabetes associated PPARG locus...
April 7, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278164/rosiglitazone-drives-cavin-2-sdpr-expression-in-adipocytes-in-a-cebp%C3%AE-dependent-manner
#7
Björn Hansson, Catarina Rippe, Dorota Kotowska, Sebastian Wasserstrom, Johanna Säll, Olga Göransson, Karl Swärd, Karin G Stenkula
Caveolae are abundant adipocyte surface domains involved in insulin signaling, membrane trafficking and lipid homeostasis. Transcriptional control mechanisms for caveolins and cavins, the building blocks of caveolae, are thus arguably important for adipocyte biology and studies in this area may give insight into insulin resistance and diabetes. Here we addressed the hypothesis that one of the less characterized caveolar components, cavin-2 (SDPR), is controlled by CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein (CEBPα) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244046/bioenergetic-analyses-in-adipose-tissue
#8
Lawrence Kazak
Adipose tissue plays an important role in whole body metabolism, and its dysfunction results in poor metabolic health and is associated with a diverse set of disorders, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. The search for cellular processes that can be targeted to activate adipose oxidative metabolism is thought to hold promise for combating these diseases, and so the analysis of adipose bioenergetics is crucial toward this end. A description is provided here for the preparation of mitochondria and primary adipocytes from adipose tissue to be used for bioenergetics profiling...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244038/flow-cytometric-isolation-and-differentiation-of-adipogenic-progenitor-cells-into-brown-and-brite-beige-adipocytes
#9
Jochen Steinbring, Antonia Graja, Anne-Marie Jank, Tim J Schulz
Aside from mature adipocytes, adipose tissue harbors several distinct cell populations including immune cells, endothelial cells, and adipogenic progenitor cells (AdPCs). AdPCs represent the reservoir of regenerative cells that replenishes adipocytes during normal cellular turnover and during times of increased demand for triglyceride-storage capacity. The worldwide increase in pathologies associated with the metabolic syndrome, such as obesity and type-2 diabetes, has heightened public and scientific interest in adipose tissues and the cell biological processes of adipose tissue formation and function...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242620/rheb-inhibits-beigeing-of-white-adipose-tissue-via-pde4d5-dependent-down-regulation-of-the-camp-pka-signaling-pathway
#10
Wen Meng, Xiuci Liang, Hongzhi Chen, Hairong Luo, Juli Bai, Guangdi Li, Qinghai Zhang, Ting Xiao, Sijia He, Yacheng Zhang, Zhipeng Xu, Bo Xiao, Meilian Liu, Fang Hu, Feng Liu
Beigeing of white adipose tissue has potential anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effects, yet the underlying signaling mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Here we show that adipose-specific knockout of Rheb, an upstream activator of mTORC1, protects mice from high fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Rheb deficiency in adipose tissue reduced mTORC1 signaling, increased lipolysis, and promoted beigeing and energy expenditure. On the other hand, overexpression of Rheb in primary adipocytes significantly inhibited CREB phosphorylation and UCP1 expression...
February 27, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034763/using-neonatal-skin-to-study-the-developmental-programming-of-aging
#11
Leryn J Reynolds, Brett J Dickens, Benjamin B Green, Carmen J Marsit, Kevin J Pearson
Numerous studies have examined how both negative and positive maternal exposures (environmental contaminants, nutrition, exercise, etc.) impact offspring risk for age-associated diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and others. The purpose of this study was to introduce the foreskin as a novel model to examine developmental programming in human neonates, particularly in regard to adipogenesis and insulin receptor signaling, major contributors to age-associated diseases such as obesity and diabetes...
December 27, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986865/cross-talks-via-mtorc2-can-explain-enhanced-activation-in-response-to-insulin-in-diabetic-patients
#12
Rasmus Magnusson, Mika Gustafsson, Gunnar Cedersund, Peter Strålfors, Elin Nyman
The molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes have been extensively studied in primary human adipocytes, and mathematical modelling has clarified the central role of attenuation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) activity in the diabetic state. Attenuation of mTORC1 in diabetes quells insulin-signalling network-wide, except for the mTOR in complex 2 (mTORC2)-catalysed phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB) at Ser(473) (PKB-S473P), which is increased. This unique increase could potentially be explained by feedback and interbranch cross-talk signals...
February 28, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832861/perilipin-1-binds-to-aquaporin-7-in-human-adipocytes-and-controls-its-mobility-via-protein-kinase-a-mediated-phosphorylation
#13
Jesper S Hansen, Christian Krintel, Malin Hernebring, Tatu J K Haataja, Sofia de Marè, Sebastian Wasserstrom, Urszula Kosinska-Eriksson, Madelene Palmgren, Cecilia Holm, Karin G Stenkula, Helena A Jones, Karin Lindkvist-Petersson
Accumulating evidence suggests that dysregulated glycerol metabolism contributes to the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Glycerol efflux from adipocytes is regulated by the aquaglyceroporin AQP7, which is translocated upon hormone stimulation. Here, we propose a molecular mechanism where the AQP7 mobility in adipocytes is dependent on perilipin 1 and protein kinase A. Biochemical analyses combined with ex vivo studies in human primary adipocytes, demonstrate that perilipin 1 binds to AQP7, and that catecholamine activated protein kinase A phosphorylates the N-terminus of AQP7, thereby reducing complex formation...
December 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783862/adipose-tissue-derived-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-function-and-regulation
#14
Hiroshi Kaji
Adipose tissue has recently been reevaluated as an endocrine organ, and adipose-tissue-derived endocrine factors are termed adipokines. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of PAs, which convert plasminogen into plasmin, a critical protease involved in fibrinolysis. PAI-1 induces fibrinogenesis by suppressing intravascular and tissue fibrinolysis. Moreover, PAI-1 exerts various cellular effects independently of fibrinolysis. Although PAI-1 is expressed in various tissues, its expression is regulated by numerous growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in a paracrine and endocrine manner...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766585/anatomical-distribution-of-primary-amine-oxidase-activity-in-four-adipose-depots-and-plasma-of-severely-obese-women-with-or-without-a-dysmetabolic-profile
#15
Christian Carpéné, Francisco Les, Mounia Hasnaoui, Simon Biron, Picard Marceau, Denis Richard, Jean Galitzky, Denis R Joanisse, Pascale Mauriège
Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), identical to primary amine oxidase or vascular adhesion protein-1, is a membrane enzyme that generates hydrogen peroxide. SSAO is highly expressed at the adipocyte surface, and its plasma levels increase with type 2 diabetes. Since visceral adipose tissue (AT) is more tightly associated with obesity complications than subcutaneous (SC) abdominal fat, we compared SSAO activity in plasma and 4 distinct AT locations in 48 severely obese women (body mass index (BMI), averaging 54 ± 11 kg/m(2)), with or without a dysmetabolic profile...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753838/sy-06-1-obesity-diabetes-and-hypertension-are-adipokines-responsible
#16
Anthony Heagerty
There is now a considerable body of evidence to suggest that the fat cells that surround blood vessels (perivascular adipose tissue, PVAT) can influence profoundly arterial tone by releasing vasodilator adipokines which can act locally in a paracrine fashion. In healthy lean individuals the primary vasodilator released appears to be adiponectin and there is a complex interation between autonomic nerve firing in PVAT and the release of nitric oxide from adipocytes and an increased bioavailability of adiponectin...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717820/discovery-of-an-artificial-peptide-agonist-to-the-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-1c-%C3%AE-klotho-complex-from-random-peptide-t7-phage-display
#17
Kotaro Sakamoto, Yayoi Kawata, Yasushi Masuda, Tadashi Umemoto, Takashi Ito, Taiji Asami, Shiro Takekawa, Tetsuya Ohtaki, Hiroshi Inooka
Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1c (FGFR1c)/βKlotho (KLB) complex is a receptor of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). Pharmacologically, FGF21 shows anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects upon peripheral administration. Here, we report the development of an artificial peptide agonist to the FGFR1c/KLB heterodimer complex. The peptide, F91-8A07 (LPGRTCREYPDLWWVRCY), was discovered from random peptide T7 phage display and selectively bound to the FGFR1c/KLB complex, but not to FGFR1c and KLB individually...
October 4, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652072/strawberry-milk-like-blood-in-a-subject-with-diabetic-lipemia-dramatic-change-to-transparent-color-after-insulin-therapy
#18
Atsushi Obata, Shinji Kamei, Seizo Okauchi, Tomohiko Kimura, Hidenori Hirukawa, Akihito Tanabe, Tomoe Kinoshita, Kenji Kohara, Fuminori Tatsumi, Masashi Shimoda, Shuhei Nakanishi, Tomoatsu Mune, Kohei Kaku, Hideaki Kaneto
INTRODUCTION: It is known that chylomicronemia is caused by several pathologies and is classified as primary and secondary chylomicronemia. Since hypertriglycemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and severe pancreatitis, it is very important to make a proper diagnosis of the cause of hypertriglycemia. CASE DESCRIPTION: We herein present the case of a 40-year-old male who developed severe hypertriglycemia accompanied with acute exacerbation of type 2 diabetes mellitus...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642933/sy-06-1-obesity-diabetes-and-hypertension-are-adipokines-responsible
#19
Anthony Heagerty
There is now a considerable body of evidence to suggest that the fat cells that surround blood vessels (perivascular adipose tissue, PVAT) can influence profoundly arterial tone by releasing vasodilator adipokines which can act locally in a paracrine fashion. In healthy lean individuals the primary vasodilator released appears to be adiponectin and there is a complex interation between autonomic nerve firing in PVAT and the release of nitric oxide from adipocytes and an increased bioavailability of adiponectin...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572255/nicotinic-%C3%AE-7-receptor-inhibits-the-acylation-stimulating-protein%C3%A2-induced-production-of-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein%C3%A2-1-and-keratinocyte%C3%A2-derived-chemokine-in-adipocytes-by-modulating-the-p38-kinase-and-nuclear-factor%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#20
Zhou-Yang Jiao, Jing Wu, Chao Liu, Bing Wen, Wen-Zeng Zhao, Xin-Ling Du
Obesity is associated with chronic low‑grade inflammation, which is characterized by increased infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP) is an adipokine derived from the immune complement system, which constitutes a link between adipocytes and macrophages, and is involved in energy homeostasis and inflammation. The purpose of the present study was to preliminarily investigate in vitro, whether functional α7nAChR in adipocytes may suppress ASP‑induced inflammation and determine the possible signaling mechanism...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
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