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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918262/circuit-changes-in-motor-cortex-during-motor-skill-learning
#1
Andrew E Papale, Bryan M Hooks
Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents as a model system...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916931/physical-exercise-prescription-in-metabolic-chronic-disease
#2
Laura Stefani, Giorgio Galanti
Metabolic syndrome as a consequence of the association to overweight, hypertension, and diabetes is at high risk of coronary events. Regular physical training has been recently promoted to reduce cardiovascular risks factors, by the improved lifestyle and also by the "anti-inflammatory effectiveness." A positive impact has been shown in case of cancer survived patients either with or without comorbidities and especially in those subjects where the inflammatory process is globally represented. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines and more recently a new Italian model both support the role of "exercise as therapy" at moderate level of energy expenditure...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913725/exercise-and-competitive-sport-physiology-adaptations-and-uncertain-long-term-risks
#3
REVIEW
Patrick T Gleason, Jonathan H Kim
The benefits of regular and moderate exercise training on cardiovascular outcomes have been well established. In addition, strenuous exercise training leads to corollary cardiac structural and functional adaptations that are sport-specific and facilitate athletic performance. In this review, the normal physiologic and hemodynamic changes that occur during exercise and the subsequent differential exercise-induced cardiac remodeling patterns that develop will be discussed. Paradoxically, recent data have raised concern about the long-term impact of higher doses of physical activity and exercise on mortality and cardiovascular health outcomes...
September 14, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901201/sex-differences-in-balance-among-alpine-ski-racers-cross-sectional-age-comparisons
#4
Christian Raschner, Carolin Hildebrandt, Johanna Mohr, Lisa Müller
Although balance is a key ability in the strength demands of alpine ski racing, affecting both performance and injury prevention, few studies have examined balance or related sex differences among still-maturing athletes. In this 10-year study, we investigated cross-sectional balance performances at different age periods of a representative sample of over 500 11-18-year-old elite skiers of both genders. Participants performed balance tests using the MFT S3-Check. Left-right and forward-backward movements were used to calculate sensory and symmetry balance scores, which were both incorporated into a stability score...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900575/energy-system-development-and-load-management-through-the-rehabilitation-and-return-to-play-process
#5
Scot Morrison, Patrick Ward, Gregory R duManoir
Return-to-play from injury is a complex process involving many factors including the balancing of tissue healing rates with the development of biomotor abilities. This process requires interprofessional cooperation to ensure success. An often-overlooked aspect of return-to-play is the development and maintenance of sports specific conditioning while monitoring training load to ensure that the athlete's training stimulus over the rehabilitation period is appropriate to facilitate a successful return to play...
August 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895388/probiotic-strains-as-the-element-of-nutritional-profile-in-physical-activity-%C3%A2-new-trend-or-better-sports-results
#6
Joanna Smarkusz, Lucyna Ostrowska, Katarzyna Witczak-Sawczuk
A diet, individually customized to the needs of sportsmen and sportswomen prepares them better for competition and achievement of better sports results. However, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and frequently recurrent upper respiratory tract infections pose a common problem observed among athletes of disciplines such as triathlon, cycling and marathon. Diarrhea, splashing in the intestines or gastrointestinal bleeding make it difficult to start and win in the race. Recently researchers have paid special attention to the therapeutic effect of probiotic strains on the human body...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886966/monitoring-training-load-and-fatigue-in-soccer-players-with-physiological-markers
#7
REVIEW
Léo Djaoui, Monoem Haddad, Karim Chamari, Alexandre Dellal
The quantification and monitoring of training load (TL) has been the topic of many scientific works in the last fifteen years. TL monitoring helps coaches to individually prescribe, follow-up, analyse, adjust and programme training sessions. In particular, the aim of the present review was to provide a critical literature report regarding different physiological markers of TL monitoring, particularly in soccer, as the load is specific to individual sports. Therefore, the interests and limitations of heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and biochemical variables (blood, urinary and hormonal variations) were analysed, with a special focus on daily measures (before, during and after training) and monitoring throughout a whole season...
September 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886819/nutritional-aspects-of-the-female-athlete
#8
REVIEW
Kelly A Rossi
Athletes have specific needs based on sex, size, sport, exercise intensity, duration of activity, phase of training, and the season in which the sport is played. Nutritionally, the female athlete is unique, with needs that may vary based on hormonal fluctuations related to the menstrual cycle. This article provides an overview of the distinct nutritional needs and concerns of the physically active female, including energy availability, macronutrient needs, micronutrient needs, hydration, supplements, and other nutritional issues...
October 2017: Clinics in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872383/weight-management-practices-of-australian-olympic-combat-sport-athletes
#9
Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Louise M Burke
PURPOSE: Combat sport athletes undertake chronic and rapid weight loss (RWL) practices to qualify for weight divisions lower than their training weight. Variation between sports in the prevalence, methods, and magnitude of weight loss as well as recovery practices may be influenced by factors including competition level and culture. Differences in methodologies of previous research in combat sports make direct comparisons difficult, thus this study aimed to examine weight loss practices among all Olympic combat sports in Australia, using standardised methodology...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872371/reliability-of-wearable-inertial-measurement-units-to-measure-physical-activity-in-team-handball
#10
Live S Luteberget, Benjamin R Holme, Matt Spencer
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and sensitivity of commercially available inertial measurement units (IMU) to measure physical activity in team handball. METHOD: Twenty-two handball players were instrumented with two IMUs (OptimEye S5, Catapult Sports, Australia) taped together. They participated in either a laboratory assessment (n=10), consisting of seven team handball specific tasks, or field assessment (n=12) conducted in twelve training sessions...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862529/an-algorithmic-approach-to-rehabilitation-following-arthroscopic-surgery-for-arthrofibrosis-of-the-knee-a-case-series
#11
Brian J Eckenrode
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Loss of knee range of motion (ROM) has been reported as the most common complication following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Arthrofibrosis of the knee, or specifically Cyclops syndrome, has been described as the formation of a scar tissue nodule adjacent to the tibial tunnel of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft. This lesion often results in loss of knee extension ROM, pain, and impaired function. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: Three consecutive patients were referred to physical therapy following arthroscopic knee surgery for lysis of adhesions of a Cyclops lesion from a previous ACLR...
September 1, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858057/effects-of-six-weeks-sprint-strength-and-agility-training-on-body-composition-cardiovascular-and-physiological-parameters-of-male-field-hockey-players
#12
Hanjabam Barun Sharma, Jyotsna Kailashiya
Optimal physiological and cardiovascular characteristics are essential for optimal physical performance. Different types of training regimes affect these characteristics and lead to trainee's adaptation and changes in relevant parameters. In present interventional study we have evaluated effects of six weeks sprint-strength & agility training on such parameters. Twenty four young Indian national hockey players volunteered for this study. BW(weight), BMI, BF (%body fat), LBM (lean body mass), rHR (resting heart rate), rBP (blood pressure), rDP (double-product), P/power (using Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test), VJ (vertical jump), SP (seated shot-put test), BS (ball-hitting speed), Tm (505-agility test) & VO2max were measured, and changes (d) after specified training regime were studied...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858054/utilizing-microsensor-technology-to-quantify-match-demands-in-collegiate-women-s-volleyball
#13
Travis G Vlantes, Tucker Readdy
The purpose of this study was to quantify internal and external load demands of women's NCAA Division I collegiate volleyball competitions using microsensor technology and session rating of perceived exertion (S-RPE). Eleven collegiate volleyball players wore microsensor technology (Optimeye S5; Catapult Sports USA, Chicago, IL) during fifteen matches played throughout the 2016 season. Parameters examined include: Player load (PL), High impact load (HI PL), percentage of high impact load (% HI PL), Explosive efforts (EE) and jumps...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858051/long-term-changes-in-jump-performance-and-maximum-strength-in-a-cohort-of-ncaa-division-i-women-s-volleyball-athletes
#14
Ashley A Kavanaugh, Satoshi Mizuguchi, William A Sands, Michael W Ramsey, Michael H Stone
The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the magnitude of change in maximal strength and jumping abilities over approximately one, two, and three years of supervised sport and resistance training in NCAA Division I women's volleyball athletes. This was an exploratory study on a cohort of women's volleyball athletes (n=29) split into three groups based on length of time spent in a supervised resistance training program: group 1 (n=11): 0.7±0.3 yrs, group 2 (n=9): 1.6±0.2 yrs, and group 3 (n=9): 2...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852338/evaluating-different-clinical-diagnosis-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-ruptures-in-providers-with-different-training-backgrounds
#15
Alexander Cm Chong, Chelsea Whitetree, Michael C Priddy, Parker R Zimmerman, Paul R Haeder, Daniel J Prohaska
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that provider training and the tests performed play a role in the accuracy of diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. The specific aim of the current study is to determine the examiner proficiency and accuracy in performing the different proactive tests of ACL rupture before and after the induction of anesthesia prior to a definitive surgical procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case series was performed from January of 2015 through July of 2015...
2017: Iowa Orthopaedic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847143/description-of-three-female-24-h-ultra-endurance-race-winners-in-various-weather-conditions-and-disciplines
#16
Daniela Chlíbková, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Alena Žákovská, Karl Sudi
A The incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is higher in women than in men. We present three cases of a very mild post-race EAH in female winners of three 24-h ultra races in various weather conditions and disciplines with post-race plasma sodium [Na⁺] levels of 134 mM (Case 1), 133 mM (Case 2) and 134 mM (Case 3). Moreover, Case 1 and Case 2 showed elevated creatine kinase concentrations of >10,000 U/l with an absence of renal function abnormality. The common characteristics were female sex, veteran recreational category, long race experience in the particular sports discipline, excellent race performance, similar total weekly training hours and the presence of luteal phase of the menstrual cycle during the race...
August 31, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835512/non-battle-injury-among-repatriated-uk-armed-forces-since-cessation-of-combat-operations-a-prospective-observational-study
#17
Emma Toman, A Beaven, D N Naumann, R W Myatt, P J Parker, A R Kay
AIM: To describe the mechanisms, burden of injury, inpatient management and rehabilitation requirements of wounded military personnel at the UK Role 4 (R4) facility within the first 12 months following cessation of combat operations in Afghanistan. METHODS: All aeromedical evacuations were recorded prospectively between October 2014 and October 2015. Demographic, logistical and clinical data were derived manually from referring medical unit and patient movement requests in addition to host nation and R4 medical records...
August 23, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828077/balance-training-programs-in-athletes-a-systematic-review
#18
Anna Brachman, Anna Kamieniarz, Justyna Michalska, Michał Pawłowski, Kajetan J Słomka, Grzegorz Juras
It has become almost routine practice to incorporate balance exercises into training programs for athletes from different sports. However, the type of training that is most efficient remains unclear, as well as the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise that would be most beneficial have not yet been determined. The following review is based on papers that were found through computerized searches of PubMed and SportDiscus from 2000 to 2016. Articles related to balance training, testing, and injury prevention in young healthy athletes were considered...
September 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820847/effectiveness-of-a-16-week-high-intensity-cardioresistance-training-program-in-adults
#19
Tina A Greenlee, Daniel R Greene, Nathan J Ward, Ginger E Reeser, Courtney M Allen, Nicholas W Baumgartner, Neal J Cohen, Arthur F Kramer, Charles H Hillman, Aron K Barbey
Greenlee, TA, Greene, DR, Ward, NJ, Reeser, GE, Allen, CM, Baumgartner, NW, Cohen, NJ, Kramer, AF, Hillman, CH, and Barbey, AK. Effectiveness of a 16-week high-intensity cardioresistance training program in adults. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2528-2541, 2017-The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a novel, 16-week high-intensity cardioresistance training (HICRT) program on measures of aerobic fitness, agility, aerobic power, muscular endurance, lower-body explosive power, and self-reported activity level...
September 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811191/can-psychological-well-being-scales-and-hormone-levels-be-used-to-predict-acute-performance-of-anaerobic-training-tasks-in-elite-female-volleyball-players
#20
Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, Michael C Zourdos, Vicente J Clemente-Suárez, Julio Calleja-González, Amber M Shipherd
The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between pre-training psychological well-being assessment scales (General Health Questionnaire-28-GHQ-28, Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2-CSAI-2, Sport Competition Anxiety Test-SCAT, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-S-STAI-S, Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire-OSQ and Psychological Characteristics Related to Sport Performance-PCSP), and pre-training stress hormone concentrations (cortisol-C, total testosterone-TT, free testosterone-FT, adrenocorticotropic hormone-ACTH and testosterone/cortisol-T/C ratios), on acute neuromuscular performance (ANP) in female volleyballers...
August 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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