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Carlos A Alvear Rodriguez, José Rafael Tovar Cuevas
A key biomarker in the study of differentiated thyroid cancer is thyroglobulin. Measurements of the levels of this protein in the blood are determined using laboratory instruments that cannot detect very small concentrations below a threshold, generating left-censored measurements. In the presence of censoring, ordinary least-squares regression models generate biased parameter estimates; therefore, it is necessary to resort to more complex models that consider the censored observations and the behavior of the distribution of the response variable, such as censored and mixed regression models...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Najeeb Ahmed, Kashif Niyaz, Aditya Borakati, Fahad Marafi, Rubinder Birk, Sharjeel Usmani
Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has a good prognosis overall; however, lifelong follow-up is required for many cases. Radioiodine planar imaging with iodine-123 (I-123) or radioiodine-131 (I-131) remains the standard in the follow-up after initial surgery and ablation of residual thyroid tissue using I-131 therapy. Radioiodine imaging is also used in risk-stratifying and for staging of thyroid cancer, and in long-term follow-up. Unfortunately, the lack of anatomical detail on planar gamma camera imaging and superimposition of areas presenting with increased radioiodine uptake can make accurate diagnosis and localization of radioiodine-avid metastatic disease challenging, leading to false positive results and potentially to over-treatment of patients...
February 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Rang Wang, Ke Zhou, Qiuping Fan, Haotian Chen, Chengzhong Fan
RATIONALE: Iodine-131 (I-131) is a sensitive marker for the detection of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). I-131 whole-body scintigraphy (WBS) has been used widely in evaluation of DTC patient. However, I-131 WBS exists many false-positive uptake of I-131 because radioiodine uptake can also be seen in healthy tissue or in a variety of benign and malignant non-thyroidal tumors. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 44-year-old woman with a papillary thyroid carcinoma for the purpose of ablation therapy after a total thyroidectomy...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Fiona Helen Barrack, James Scuffham, Sarah McQuaid
Whole body gamma camera images acquired after I-131 treatment for thyroid cancer can suffer from collimator septal penetration artefacts because of the high energy of the gamma photons. This results in the appearance of 'spoke' artefacts, emanating from regions of high activity concentration, caused by the non-isotropic attenuation of the collimator. Deconvolution has the potential to reduce such artefacts, by taking into account the non-Gaussian point-spread-function (PSF) of the system. A Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm, with and without prior scatter-correction was tested as a method of reducing septal penetration in planar gamma camera images...
February 21, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Mehdi Safaei, Seyed Masoud Jafarpour, Mehran Mohseni, Morteza Salimian, Hossein Akbari, Fateme Karami, Akbar Aliasgharzadeh, Bagher Farhood
Purpose: Iodine-131 is used as a radiopharmaceutical to treat thyroid cancer. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamins E and C on the level of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) caused by Radioiodine-131 (I-131) in human lymphocytes. Materials and Methods: Whole blood samples from human volunteers were incubated with a certain concentration of vitamins. After 1-h incubation, the samples were incubated with 20 μCi I-131/2 mL (blood + NaCl) for 1 h...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
Derya Çayır, Mine Araz, Mahmut Apaydın, Erman Çakal
We present a rare case with inguinal iodine-131 (I-131) uptake on whole body scan. The patient was suffering from a painful right inguinal mass during menstrual period, which was later sonographically and histopathologically confirmed to be an inguinal focus of endometriosis. Endometriosis is a previously reported site of radioiodine uptake and detection of radioiodine uptake in the inguinal region has also been described. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of I-131 uptake in an inguinal endometriosis focus...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Brandon A Howard, Olga G James, Jennifer M Perkins, Robert A Pagnanelli, Salvador Borges-Neto, Robert E Reiman
In thyroid cancer patients with renal impairment or other complicating factors, it is important to maximize I-131 therapy efficacy while minimizing bone marrow and lung damage. We developed a web-based calculator based on a modified Benua and Leeper method to calculate the maximum I-131 dose to reduce the risk of these toxicities, based on the effective renal clearance of I-123 as measured from two whole-body I-123 scans, performed at 0 and 24 h post-administration.
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
Jing Yang, Meng Liang, Yingying Jia, Li Wang, Lin Lin, Jianhua Geng, Shengzu Chen, Ye-Xiong Li, Rong Zheng
Objective: To explore the therapeutic response (TR) and long-term outcomes of iodine-131 (I-131) treatment for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and pulmonary metastases (DTC+PM), as well as the association between the assessment of TR and long-term outcomes. Methods: This retrospective study comprised 151 DTC+PM patients. TR was evaluated by changes in serum levels of thyroglobulin, anatomic imaging and iodine uptake in pulmonary nodules; logistic regression was applied to identify predictors...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
Alexey A Efanov, Alina V Brenner, Tetiana I Bogdanova, Lindsey M Kelly, Pengyuan Liu, Mark P Little, Abigail I Wald, Maureen Hatch, Liudmyla Y Zurnadzy, Marina N Nikiforova, Vladimir Drozdovitch, Kiyohiko Mabuchi, Mykola D Tronko, Stephen J Chanock, Yuri E Nikiforov
Background: Exposure to ionizing radiation during childhood is a well-established risk factor for thyroid cancer. However, the genetic mechanisms of radiation-associated carcinogenesis remain not fully understood. Methods: In this study, we used targeted next-generation sequencing and RNA-Seq to study 65 papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs) from patients in the Ukrainian-American cohort with measurement-based iodine-131 (I-131) thyroid doses received as a result of the Chernobyl accident...
November 18, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Mallika Bhat, Matty Mozzor, Savneek Chugh, Vamsi Buddharaju, Monica Schwarcz, Guy Valiquette
We describe detailed administration of thyroidal and extrathyroidal doses of radioiodine to a patient with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis. A thorough description of area under curve measurements in a patient with compromised renal function has rarely been described in the literature. Few publications have described thyroid cancer management of patients on hemodialysis, and we believe our management will aid in patient treatment in the future. Learning points: Scheduling of hemodialysis is important when administering radioactive iodine...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Marzieh Ebrahimi, Mohammad Reza Kardan, Vahid Changizi, Seyed Mahdi Hosseini Pooya, Parham Geramifar
In this study, the effective dose to family members and caregivers of 52 thyroid cancer patients who had been treated with radioiodine I-131 was measured to investigate the ability of neural network for predicting the doses to the relatives. Effectiveness of this method to define the relatives who will receive doses more than 1 mSv was evaluated. The effective doses were measured by TLD. The inputs of neural network were 13 different parameters that potentially could affect the dose and the output was dose to the family members...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Filipe Ivan Daniel, Luiza Dutra Lima, Liliane Janete Grando, Renata Castro, Elke Annegret K Cordeiro, Claudia Regina Dos Santos
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: radioiodine treatment (I(131)) used to treat thyroid carcinomas produces side effects (sialadenitis, xerostomia, dysphagia and caries susceptibility) reflecting in a poor patient quality of life. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of I(131) on salivary function and possible oral impairment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-seven patients undergoing I(131) were submitted to oral examination, answer questions regarding xerostomia/hyposalivation and collect saliva at three moments (M1: 30-45 days before I(131), M2: 1-2 days after I(131) and M3: 7-10 days after treatment)...
November 10, 2017: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
Richard B Noto, Daniel A Pryma, Jessica Jensen, Tess Lin, Nancy Stambler, Thomas Strack, Vivien Wong, Stanley J Goldsmith
Context: No therapies are approved for the treatment of metastatic and/or recurrent pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma (PPGL) in the United States. Objective: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of high-specific-activity I-131 meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) for the treatment of metastatic and/or recurrent PPGL. Design: Phase 1, dose-escalating study to determine the MTD via a standard 3 + 3 design, escalating by 37 MBq/kg starting at 222 MBq/kg...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Frédéric Juget, Youcef Nedjadi, Thierry Buchillier, Teresa Durán, François Bochud, Christian Kottler, Claude Bailat
A portable instrument was developed at the Institute of Radiation Physics (IRA) for on-site radionuclides measurements. It will enable the measurement of short-lived radionuclides in nuclear medicine departments or isotope production centres. The system involves an ionization chamber read directly by an electrometer and it was optimized to ensure a good reproducibility through the selection of an appropriate vial, filling volume and source position in the well chamber, as well as monitoring the external background and performing a detailed uncertainty estimation...
October 12, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
T Ziemek, M Capogni, G Ratel, R Broda, T Dziel, A Fazio, A Listkowska
A bilateral comparison between ENEA-INMRI (Italy) and NCBJ RC POLATOM (Poland) of (131)I-solution activity measurements was organized in the year 2015 and piloted by POLATOM, which provided the sources for the comparison. The (131)I master solution was standardized independently at both institutes by using Liquid Scintillation Counting and ionization chamber techniques. The (131)I master solution was then sent by POLATOM to the BIPM International Reference System (SIR). The comparison was registered as an EURAMET...
September 28, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Yasuhiro Maruoka, Shingo Baba, Takuro Isoda, Yoshiyuki Kitamura, Koichiro Abe, Masayuki Sasaki, Hiroshi Honda
INTRODUCTION: Radioiodine therapy with (131)I ((131)I therapy) after total or near-total thyroidectomy has been established as an effective treatment for Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (DTC), but can induce dry mouth symptoms by salivary gland damage and impair the patients' quality of life. AIM: To propose a functional scoring system based on Salivary Gland Scintigraphy (SGS) findings that evaluates development of salivary gland dysfunction secondary to (131)I therapy in patients with DTC...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Maureen Hatch, Elisabeth Cardis
2016 marked the 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. We and others wrote reviews for the 25th anniversary. Since then, additional papers have appeared and it seems timely to highlight lessons learned. To present, not a systematic review, but a commentary drawing attention to notable findings. We include not only recent reports and updates on previous results, but key findings from prior Chernobyl studies. The dose-dependent increase in Papillary Thyroid Cancer (PTC) following childhood I-131 exposure in Ukraine and Belarus has now been shown to persist for decades...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
Claudia Hurtado, María Soledad Báez, Anabel Bate, Claudio Opazo, Mauricio Troncoso
Although radioiodine (131-I) can be used as treatment of hyperthyroidism for patients in hemodialysis, its use is limited and the experience is mainly related to differentiated thyroid carcinoma. We report a 58 years old female on hemodialysis with recurrent hyperthyroidism after propylthiouracil treatment. She was successfully treated with 131-I and four months after the intervention her euthyroid state was confirmed. We measured 131-I activity in blood, dialysate liquid and other waste products, as well as patient radiation exposure rates...
May 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
Apichaya Claimon, Minseok Suh, Gi Jeong Cheon, Dong Soo Lee, E Edmund Kim, June-Key Chung
Renal metastasis of thyroid cancer is extremely rare. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with Hürthle cell thyroid cancer (HCTC) with lungs, bones, and bilateral kidneys metastases. The renal metastatic lesions were clearly demonstrated by (131)I whole body scan (WBS) with SPECT/CT. However, they exhibited false-negative results in (18)F-FDG PET/CT, kidney ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced CT scan. The findings imply that tumors have low glucose metabolism and are able to accumulate radioiodine, which is not commonly found in the relatively aggressive nature of HCTC...
September 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Uta Eberlein, Marta Cremonesi, Michael Lassmann
In 2005, the term theragnostics (theranostics) was introduced for describing the use of imaging for therapy planning in radiation oncology. In nuclear medicine, this expression describes the use of tracers for predicting the absorbed doses in molecular radiotherapy and, thus, the safety and efficacy of a treatment. At present, the most successful groups of isotopes for this purpose are 123I/124I/131I, 68Ga/177Lu, and 111In/86Y/90Y. The purpose of this review is to summarize available data on the dosimetry and dose-response relationships of several theranostic compounds, with a special focus on radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy...
September 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
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