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Stefan Mogk, Christian M Boßelmann, Celestin N Mudogo, Jasmin Stein, Hartwig Wolburg, Michael Duszenko
African trypanosomes induce sleeping sickness. The parasites are transmitted during the blood meal of a tsetse fly and appear primarily in blood and lymph vessels, before they enter the central nervous system. During the latter stage, trypanosomes induce a deregulation of sleep-wake cycles and some additional neurological disorders. Historically, it was assumed that trypanosomes cross the blood-brain barrier and settle somewhere between the brain cells. The brain, however, is a strictly controlled and immune-privileged area that is completely surrounded by a dense barrier that covers the blood vessels: this is the blood-brain barrier...
October 14, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Yuqiao Xu, Lijuan Ye, Yingmei Wang, Wanling Ma, Qing Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Clinical Neuropathology
Jacob Joseph Moar, Lawrence Hill, Michael Stewart
Although cobra envenomation continues to pose a threat to life and therefore constitutes a major cause of death in Africa, India, and Sri Lanka, the forensic pathology reports are not always histologically well documented or illustrated. The reports in the literature, although providing graphic evidence of the macroscopic appearances of the bite and its ensuing tissue necrosis, should the victim survive, often do not illustrate the histopathological findings to a sufficient degree. We present an unusual case of fatal envenomation by a rinkhals (Hemachatus haemachatus) in which the victim had been bitten a second time after a previous rinkhals' bite...
September 21, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Rick Ignatius Meijer, Sarah Gray, Kevin Aylor, Eugene J Barrett
Insulin affects multiple important CNS functions including memory and appetite, yet the pathway(s) by which insulin reaches brain interstitial fluid (bISF) has not been clarified. Recent studies demonstrate that to reach brain interstitial fluid (bISF), subarachnoid CSF courses through the Virchow-Robin space (VRS) which sheaths penetrating pial vessels down to the capillary level. Whether insulin predominantly enters the VRS and bISF by local transport through the blood-brain barrier, or by being secreted into the CSF by the choroid plexus is unknown...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Peter Wostyn, Veva De Groot, Debby Van Dam, Kurt Audenaert, Hanspeter Esriel Killer, Peter Paul De Deyn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Acta Radiologica Open
N Vilor-Tejedor, S Alemany, J Forns, A Cáceres, M Murcia, D Macià, J Pujol, J Sunyer, J R González
OBJECTIVE: ADHD consists of a count of symptoms that often presents heterogeneity due to overdispersion and excess of zeros. Statistical inference is usually based on a dichotomous outcome that is underpowered. The main goal of this study was to determine a suited probability distribution to analyze ADHD symptoms in Imaging Genetic studies. METHOD: We used two independent population samples of children to evaluate the consistency of the standard probability distributions based on count data for describing ADHD symptoms...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Naoya Kawahara, Sosuke Ofuji, Sakae Abe, Ai Tanaka, Masami Uematsu, Yoshimi Ogata
Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces...
May 2016: Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research
Erin D Bigler, Tracy J Abildskov, Naomi J Goodrich-Hunsaker, Garrett Black, Zachary P Christensen, Trevor Huff, Dawn-Marie G Wood, John R Hesselink, Elisabeth A Wilde, Jeffrey E Max
Common neuroimaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), including sport-related concussion (SRC), are reviewed based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Common abnormalities radiologically identified on the day of injury, typically a computed tomographic scan, are in the form of contusions, small subarachnoid or intraparenchymal hemorrhages as well as subdural and epidural collections, edema, and skull fractures. Common follow-up neuroimaging findings with MRI include white matter hyperintensities, hypointense signal abnormalities that reflect prior hemorrhage, focal encephalomalacia, presence of atrophy and/or dilated Virchow-Robins perivascular space...
September 2016: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
P Roman-Pena, L Gonzalez-Gomez, J M Santin-Amo, M Arias, M Gelabert-Gonzalez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Hieab H H Adams, Saima Hilal, Petra Schwingenschuh, Katharina Wittfeld, Sven J van der Lee, Charles DeCarli, Meike W Vernooij, Petra Katschnig-Winter, Mohamad Habes, Christopher Chen, Sudha Seshadri, Cornelia M van Duijn, M Kamran Ikram, Hans J Grabe, Reinhold Schmidt, M Arfan Ikram
INTRODUCTION: Virchow-Robin spaces (VRS), or perivascular spaces, are compartments of interstitial fluid enclosing cerebral blood vessels and are potential imaging markers of various underlying brain pathologies. Despite a growing interest in the study of enlarged VRS, the heterogeneity in rating and quantification methods combined with small sample sizes have so far hampered advancement in the field. METHODS: The Uniform Neuro-Imaging of Virchow-Robin Spaces Enlargement (UNIVRSE) consortium was established with primary aims to harmonize rating and analysis (www...
December 2015: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Yasuhiro Ooi, Chizuko Inui-Yamamoto, Yoshichika Yoshioka, Akitoshi Seiyama, Junji Seki
PURPOSE: 11.7 Tesla MRI was examined to detect Virchow-Robin spaces (VRSs) smaller than 100 μm in the rat brain. The effects of maternal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were evaluated on basis of the number of dilated VRSs in the offspring rat brain. METHODS: T2-weighted MRI with an in-plane resolution up to 78 μm (repetition time = 5000 ms, echo time = 35 ms, slice thickness = 250 μm, imaging plane, coronal) was applied to identify VRSs. The dilated VRSs were counted in the rat brain at 5 and 10 weeks of age...
May 6, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Alan W J Morris, Matthew MacGregor Sharp, Nazira J Albargothy, Rute Fernandes, Cheryl A Hawkes, Ajay Verma, Roy O Weller, Roxana O Carare
In the absence of conventional lymphatics, drainage of interstitial fluid and solutes from the brain parenchyma to cervical lymph nodes is along basement membranes in the walls of cerebral capillaries and tunica media of arteries. Perivascular pathways are also involved in the entry of CSF into the brain by the convective influx/glymphatic system. The objective of this study is to differentiate the cerebral vascular basement membrane pathways by which fluid passes out of the brain from the pathway by which CSF enters the brain...
May 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Iype Cherian, Antonio Bernardo, Giovanni Grasso
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major challenges in health care, representing the third most frequent cause of death. Current optimal management is based on a progressive, target-driven approach combining both medical and surgical treatment strategies. Here we describe cisternostomy, an emerging surgical treatment for the treatment of TBI. METHODS: Cisternostomy is a novel technique that incorporates knowledge of skull base and microvascular surgery...
May 2016: World Neurosurgery
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Rafael Reynoso-Robles, Javier Vargas-Martínez, Aline Gómez-Maqueo-Chew, Beatriz Pérez-Guillé, Partha S Mukherjee, Ricardo Torres-Jardón, George Perry, Angélica Gónzalez-Maciel
Millions of urban children are chronically exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants, i.e., fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. Compared with children living with clear air those in Mexico City (MC) exhibit systemic, brain and intrathecal inflammation, low CSF Aβ42, breakdown of the BBB, attention and short-term memory deficits, prefrontal white matter hyperintensities, damage to epithelial and endothelial barriers, tight junction and neural autoantibodies, and Alzheimer and Parkinson's hallmarks...
April 2016: Environmental Research
Janna H Neltner, Erin L Abner, Gregory A Jicha, Frederick A Schmitt, Ela Patel, Leonard W Poon, Gearing Marla, Robert C Green, Adam Davey, Mary Ann Johnson, S Michal Jazwinski, Sangkyu Kim, Daron Davis, John L Woodard, Richard J Kryscio, Linda J Van Eldik, Peter T Nelson
With an emphasis on evolving concepts in the field, we evaluated neuropathologic data from very old research volunteers whose brain autopsies were performed at the University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center, incorporating data from the Georgia Centenarian Study (n = 49 cases included), Nun Study (n = 17), and University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center (n = 11) cohorts. Average age of death was 102.0 (range: 98-107) years overall. Alzheimer's disease pathology was not universal (62% with "moderate" or "frequent" neuritic amyloid plaque densities), whereas frontotemporal lobar degeneration was absent...
January 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Hongyan Yang, Rui Shen, Zhi Jin, Junwen Li, Ying Wu, Yu Xu, Ting Hua, Xueyuan Liu, Jing Huang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dilated Virchow-Robin spaces (dVRSs) were regarded as a phenotype of cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD). However, the clinical correlations of dVRS were still unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the topography and clinical correlations of dVRS in first-ever lacunar stroke patients. METHODS: Patients with first-ever lacunar stroke were recruited and had magnetic resonance scans to identify the presence and degree of dVRS in the basal ganglia (BG-dVRS), dVRS in the central semiovale (CSO-dVRS), leukoaraiosis, and silent brain infarction (SBI)...
February 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Takashi Sugiyama, Tsuyoshi Uchiyama, Hirotsugu Takashima, Daisuke Yamamoto, Keishiro Sato, Takako Shimizu, Yoshiro Otsuki, Toshihiko Ohashi
One explanation for cerebral infarctions that occur as a complication of pneumococcal meningitis is blood coagulation abnormalities. We investigated the clinical features, laboratory test results, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and pathological features of 10 patients with pneumococcal meningitis between 2006 and 2013 to examine the abnormal findings that may be associated with prognosis. Five patients (50%) that had Glasgow Outcome Scale scores between 1 and 4 were classified as the poor outcome group...
2015: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Thomas T van Sloten, Gary F Mitchell, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Mark A van Buchem, Palmi V Jonsson, Melissa E Garcia, Tamara B Harris, Ronald M A Henry, Andrew S Levey, Coen D A Stehouwer, Vilmundur Gudnason, Lenore J Launer
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness may contribute to depression via cerebral microvascular damage, but evidence for this is scarce. We therefore investigated whether arterial stiffness is associated with depressive symptoms and whether cerebral small vessel disease contributes to this association. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included a subset of participants from the AGES-Reykjavik study second examination round, which was conducted from 2007 to 2011. Arterial stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity [CFPWV]), depressive symptoms (15-item geriatric depression scale [GDS-15]) and cerebral small vessel disease (MRI) were determined...
April 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Piotr Czupryna, Eugeniusz Tarasow, Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska, Sławomir Pancewicz, Olga Zajkowska, Arkadiusz Targoński, Monika Chorąży, Krzysztof Rutkowski, Justyna Dunaj, Sambor Grygorczuk, Maciej Kondrusik, Joanna Zajkowska
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and planimetric computed tomography (CT) of brain lesions in patients with a history of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE); to assess the influence of steroid treatment on the brain and whether lesions were age-dependent. METHODS: A total of 19 patients with abnormal initial imaging in the acute stage of the disease had a follow-up MRI after 1 year; 34 patients hospitalized for TBE encephalitis/encephalomyelitis had planimetric CT after 10 years...
2016: Infectious Diseases
E Warner, B Jassar, G Samandouras
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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