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Guidelines for Hospital-acquired infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528008/-role-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-pulmonary-infections
#1
REVIEW
C Padoin
Pulmonary infections are common and caused by a wide range of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi. They consist of lower respiratory tract infections with community and hospital acquired acute pneumonia, bronchitis, lung abscess, fungal infections and tuberculosis. The management of these infections should be based on guidelines that take into account the microorganisms most frequently involved as a basis for empirical treatment, with identification of causative microorganisms allowing targeted treatments...
May 17, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525510/zika-virus-obstetric-and-pediatric-anesthesia-considerations
#2
Jacqueline L Tutiven, Benjamin T Pruden, James S Banks, Mario Stevenson, David J Birnbach
As of November 2016, the Florida Department of Health (FDH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have confirmed more than 4000 travel-related Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in the United States with >700 of those in Florida. There have been 139 cases of locally acquired infection, all occurring in Miami, Florida. Within the US territories (eg, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands), >30,000 cases of ZIKV infection have been reported. The projected number of individuals at risk for ZIKV infection in the Caribbean and Latin America approximates 5 million...
June 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511383/study-on-mics-of-tigecycline-in-clinical-isolates-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-cre-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-north-india
#3
Vineeta Khare, Prashant Gupta, Fareya Haider, Rehana Begum
INTRODUCTION: Members of family Enterobacteriaceae are the most common Gram-negative bacteria isolated from clinical samples. Those Enterobacteriaceae which have acquired resistance to all β-lactams antibiotics including the carbapenems are considered as Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). These CRE isolates are often resistant to most other classes of antimicrobials as well, making their treatment a great challenge. Tigecycline is one of the last resort antimicrobials against such multidrug resistant bacteria...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501761/improving-the-quality-of-the-intensive-care-follow-up-of-ventilated-patients-during-a-national-registration-program
#4
P Reper, D Dicker, P Damas, W Aelvoet, L Huyghens, M Haelterman
OBJECTIVES: The Belgian Public Health Organization is concerned with rates of hospital-acquired infections like ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Implementing best practice guidelines for these nosocomial infections has variable success in the literature. This retrospective study was undertaken to see whether implementation of the evidence-based practices as a bundle was feasible, would influence compliance, and could reduce the rates of VAP. STUDY DESIGN: We utilized easily collectable data about regular care to rapidly assess whether interventions already in place were effectively successfully applied...
May 11, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479906/factors-associated-with-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infections-among-adults-attending-assessment-centre-mulago-hospital-uganda
#5
Deus Kabugo, Samuel Kizito, Dave Dhara Ashok, Kiwanuka Alexander Graham, Ronald Nabimba, Sandra Namunana, M Richard Kabaka, Beatrice Achan, Florence C Najjuka
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a common medical problem affecting the general population and thus commonly encountered in medical practice, with the global burden of UTIs at about 150 million people. Because uropathogens largely originate from colonic flora, they are easy to predict, and this is the rationale for empirical treatment in Community Acquired-UTI (CA-UTIs). With the increasing prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria among adults with CA-UTI in Uganda, it is no longer adequate to manage CA-UTIs on empiric regimen without revising the susceptibility patterns of common CA-UTI causative agents...
December 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464815/avoiding-inappropriate-urinary-catheter-use-and-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection-cauti-a-pre-post-control-intervention-study
#6
Vicki Parker, Michelle Giles, Laura Graham, Belinda Suthers, Wendy Watts, Tony O'Brien, Andrew Searles
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) as the most common healthcare-associated infection accounts for up to 36% of all healthcare-associated infections. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) accounts for up to 80% of these. In many instances indwelling urinary catheter (IDC) insertions may be unjustified or inappropriate, creating potentially avoidable and significant patient distress, embarrassment, discomfort, pain and activity restrictions, together with substantial care burden, costs and hospitalisation...
May 2, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448203/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-evaluating-prophylactic-intra-operative-wound-irrigation-for-the-prevention-of-surgical-site-infections
#7
Stijn W de Jonge, Quirine J J Boldingh, Joseph S Solomkin, Benedetta Allegranzi, Matthias Egger, E Patchen Dellinger, Marja A Boermeester
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are one of the most common hospital-acquired infections. To reduce SSIs, prophylactic intra-operative wound irrigation (pIOWI) has been advocated, although the results to date are equivocal. To develop recommendations for the new World Health Organization (WHO) SSI prevention guidelines, a systematic literature review and a meta-analysis were conducted on the effectiveness of pIOWI using different agents as a means of reducing SSI. METHODS: The PUBMED, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and WHO databases were searched...
April 27, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446379/group-a-rotavirus-genotypes-in-hospital-acquired-gastroenteritis-in-italy-2012-14
#8
G Ianiro, R Delogu, L Fiore, M Monini, F M Ruggeri
BACKGROUND: Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young (aged <5 years) children, causing ∼250,000 deaths worldwide, mostly in developing countries. Differences on nucleotide sequences of VP7 (G-type) and VP4 (P-type) genes are the basis for the binary RVA nomenclature. Although at least 32 G-types and 47 P-types of rotavirus are presently known, most RVA infections in humans worldwide are related to five major G/P combinations: G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], and G9P[8]...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437470/respiratory-syncytial-virus-neutralizing-serum-antibody-titers-in-infants-following-palivizumab-prophylaxis-with-an-abbreviated-dosing-regimen
#9
Jennifer Claydon, Amitava Sur, Allison Callejas, Mihoko Ladd, Eddie Kwan, Richard Taylor, Stuart E Turvey, Alfonso Solimano, Pascal M Lavoie, Nico Marr
BACKGROUND: Monthly injections of palivizumab during the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) season in at-risk infants reduces RSV-associated hospitalizations. However, the additive effect of naturally acquired immunity remains unclear. The objective of this study was to assess total neutralizing serum antibodies (NAb) against RSV in at-risk infants who had received an abbreviated course of palivizumab prophylaxis. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from infants enrolled in the RSV Immunoprophylaxis Program in British Columbia, Canada over 2 consecutive RSV seasons (2013 to 2015)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428667/training-as-an-effective-tool-to-increase-the-knowledge-about-hand-hygiene-actions-an-evaluation-study-of-training-effectiveness-in-kosovo
#10
Idriz Sopjani, Patrick Jahn, Johann Behrens
INTRODUCTION: Hand hygiene (HH) compliance with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines is essential to prevent bacterial transmission and infections acquired from hospital settings. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of training tool of World Health Organization's (WHOs) Hand Hygiene multi modal campaign at all public hospitals and at the University Clinical Center in Kosovo (UCCK). METHOD: During February 2016, 691 questionnaires were distributed to health care workers...
February 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427381/penicillin-treatment-for-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-denmark-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Gertrud Baunbæk Egelund, Andreas Vestergaard Jensen, Stine Bang Andersen, Pelle Trier Petersen, Bjarne Ørskov Lindhardt, Christian von Plessen, Gernot Rohde, Pernille Ravn
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a severe infection, with high mortality. Antibiotic strategies for CAP differ across Europe. The objective of the study was to describe the epidemiology of CAP in Denmark and evaluate the prognosis of patients empirically treated with penicillin-G/V monotherapy. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study including hospitalized patients with x-ray confirmed CAP. We calculated the population-based incidence, reviewed types of empiric antibiotics and duration of antibiotic treatment...
April 20, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416961/predictive-factors-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-in-elderly-patients-with-community-onset-pneumonia
#12
Hyeyoung Jwa, Jong Wook Beom, Jong Hoo Lee
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is a severe and life-threatening disease in patients with community-onset (CO) pneumonia. However, the current guidelines lack specificity for a screening test for MRSA infection. METHODS: This study was retrospectively conducted in elderly patients aged ≥65 years, who had contracted CO-pneumonia during hospitalization at the Jeju National University Hospital, between January 2012 and December 2014...
April 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407054/procalcitonin-as-a-marker-of-etiology-in-adults-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#13
Wesley H Self, Robert A Balk, Carlos G Grijalva, Derek J Williams, Yuwei Zhu, Evan J Anderson, Grant W Waterer, D Mark Courtney, Anna M Bramley, Christopher Trabue, Sherene Fakhran, Anne J Blaschke, Seema Jain, Kathryn M Edwards, Richard G Wunderink
Background: Recent trials suggest procalcitonin-based guidelines can reduce antibiotic use for respiratory infections. However, the accuracy of procalcitonin to discriminate between viral and bacterial pneumonia requires further dissection. Methods: We evaluated the association between serum procalcitonin concentration at hospital admission with pathogens detected in a multicenter prospective surveillance study of adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401448/the-changing-epidemiology-of-infective-endocarditis-in-the-twenty-first-century
#14
REVIEW
J Ambrosioni, M Hernandez-Meneses, A Téllez, J Pericàs, C Falces, J M Tolosana, B Vidal, M Almela, E Quintana, J Llopis, A Moreno, José M Miro
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a relatively infrequent infectious disease. It does, however, causes serious morbidity, and its mortality rate has remained unchanged at approximately 25%. Changes in IE risk factors have deeply impacted its epidemiology during recent decades but literature from low-income countries is very scarce. Moreover, prophylaxis guidelines have recently changed and the impact on IE incidence is still unknown. RECENT FINDINGS: In high-income countries, the proportion of IE related to prior rheumatic disease has decreased significantly and has been replaced proportionally by cases related to degenerative valvulopathies, prosthetic valves, and cardiovascular implantable electronic devices...
May 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362030/effect-of-universal-chlorhexidine-decolonisation-on-the-infection-rate-in-intensive-care-patients
#15
Wiesława Duszyńska, Barbara Adamik, Karolina Lentka-Bera, Katarzyna Kulpa, Agata Nieckula-Schwarz, Agnieszka Litwin, Łukasz Stróżecki, Andrzej Kübler
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), particularly intensive care unit-acquired infections (HAI-ICU), are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitals. Most of these infections are caused by multidrugresistant organisms. The results of recent studies have suggested that daily bathing with chlorhexidine (CHX)-universal decolonisation can prevent ICU infections. The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of CHX bathing on the rate and type of HAI-ICU in critically ill patients...
2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330460/sepsis-recognition-in-the-emergency-department-impact-on-quality-of-care-and-outcome
#16
Marius Morr, Alexander Lukasz, Eva Rübig, Hermann Pavenstädt, Philipp Kümpers
BACKGROUND: Appropriate and timely recognition of sepsis is a prerequisite for starting goal-directed therapy bundles. We analyzed the appropriateness of sepsis recognition and documentation with regard to adequacy of therapy and outcome in an internal medicine emergency department (ED). METHODS: This study included 487 consecutive patients ≥18 years of age who presented to a university hospital ED during a 4-week period. Clinical, laboratory, and follow-up data were acquired independently from documentation by ED physicians...
March 23, 2017: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257317/pulmonary-infections-in-critical-intensive-care-rapid-diagnosis-and-optimizing-antimicrobial-usage
#17
Ivor S Douglas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diagnosis of pulmonary infection, including hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in the critically ill patient remains a common and therapeutically challenging diagnosis with significant attributable morbidity, mortality, and cost. Current clinical approaches to surveillance, early detection and, conventional culture-based microbiology are inadequate for optimal targeted antibiotic treatment and stewardship. Efforts to enhance diagnosis of HAP and VAP and the impact of these novel approaches on rational antimicrobial selection and stewardship are the focus of recent studies reviewed here...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250479/consensus-statement-on-anaesthesia-for-day-care-surgeries
#18
REVIEW
Satish Kulkarni, S S Harsoor, M Chandrasekar, S Bala Bhaskar, Jitendra Bapat, Edakeparavan Keloth Ramdas, Umesh Kumar Valecha, Amol Shashikumar Pradhan, Adarsh Chandra Swami
The primary aim of day-care surgery units is to allow for early recovery of the patients so that they can return to their familiar 'home' environment; the management hence should be focused towards achieving these ends. The benefits could include a possible reduction in the risk of thromboembolism and hospital-acquired infections. Furthermore, day-care surgery is believed to reduce the average unit cost of treatment by up to 70% as compared to inpatient surgery. With more than 20% of the world's disease burden, India only has 6% of the world's hospital beds...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216179/the-17th-international-congress-on-infectious-diseases-workshop-on-developing-infection-prevention-and-control-resources-for-low-and-middle-income-countries
#19
Sangeeta Sastry, Nadia Masroor, Gonzalo Bearman, Rana Hajjeh, Alison Holmes, Ziad Memish, Britta Lassmann, Didier Pittet, Fiona Macnab, Rachel Kamau, Evelyn Wesangula, Paras Pokharel, Paul Brown, Frances Daily, Fatma Amer, Jaime Torres, Miguel O'Ryan, Revathi Gunturu, Andre Bulabula, Shaheen Mehtar
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are a major concern to healthcare systems around the world. They are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, in addition to increased hospitalization costs. Recent outbreaks, including those caused by the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola virus, have highlighted the importance of infection control. Moreover, HAIs, especially those caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative rods, have become a top global priority. Although adequate approaches and guidelines have been in existence for many years and have often proven effective in some countries, the implementation of such approaches in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is often restricted due to limited resources and underdeveloped infrastructure...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187754/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-organisms-causing-urinary-tract-infections-in-sri-lanka-and-their-antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-a-hospital-based-cross-sectional-study
#20
M M P S C Fernando, W A N V Luke, J K N D Miththinda, R D S S Wickramasinghe, B S Sebastiampillai, M P M L Gunathilake, F H D S Silva, R Premaratna
BACKGROUND: Extended Spectrum Beta- Lactamase producing organisms causing urinary tract infections (ESBL-UTI) are increasing in incidence and pose a major burden to health care. While ESBL producing Klebsiella species seem to account for most nosocomial outbreaks, ESBL-producing E. coli have been isolated from both hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. Although 95-100% ESBL organisms are still considered sensitive to meropenem, rapid emergence of carbapenem resistance has been documented in many countries...
February 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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