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Guidelines for Hospital-acquired infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118985/acute-development-of-cushing-syndrome-in-an-hiv-infected-child-on-atazanavir-ritonavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Gueorgui Dubrocq, Andrea Estrada, Shannon Kelly, Natella Rakhmanina
An 11-year-old male with perinatally acquired human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection on antiretroviral regimen, which included abacavir plus lamivudine (Epzicom), didanosine, ritonavir and atazanavir presented with bilateral axillary striae, increased appetite, fatigue, facial swelling and acute weight gain. Two months prior to presentation, the patient had received a diagnostic and therapeutic intra-articular triamcinolone injection in the knee for pain relief and subsequently became progressively swollen in the face, developed striae bilaterally at the axillae, experienced increased appetite, fatigue and an 8 pound weight gain...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116671/screening-for-zika-virus-in-deceased-organ-donors-in-florida
#2
J Simkins, S Anjan, J A Morillas-Rodriguez, S R Greissman, L M Abbo, J F Camargo, P Ruiz, R Vianna, G Guerra, S Salama, M I Morris
Zika virus (ZIKV) cases have been detected across the United States (US) and locally acquired cases have been reported in Florida. Currently, there are no ZIKV screening guidelines and no data on the incidence among organ donors in the US. This retrospective study was conducted at Jackson Memorial-Miami Transplant Institute. Positive ZIKV tests in local deceased organ donors were investigated from 6/2016 to 1/2017. We evaluated demographics and risk factors for ZIKV infection among organ donors and transplant outcomes among recipients of donors with positive ZIKV testing...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091975/treatment-trends-and-outcomes-in-healthcare-associated-pneumonia
#3
Sarah Haessler, Tara Lagu, Peter K Lindenauer, Daniel J Skiest, Aruna Priya, Penelope S Pekow, Marya D Zilberberg, Thomas L Higgins, Michael B Rothberg
BACKGROUND: The American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for management of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP), first published in 2005, have been controversial regarding the selection of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics, whether the criteria for HCAP predicts the likelihood of infection with multidrug resistant organisms, and whether HCAP patients have improved outcomes when treated with empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study at 488 US hospitals from July 2007 to November 2011...
November 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078249/-prevention-of-surgical-site-infections-with-special-focus-on-vascular-surgery
#4
Peter Bischoff, Petra Gastmeier
Background Surgical site infections range between the most commonly and second most commonly reported health-care-associated infections worldwide, depending on the analysis. They are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Not only for the individual patient, the negative consequences of acquiring a surgical site infection affect the patient's relatives, the hospital and health systems in general. In vascular surgery, gram-positive pathogens of the normal flora of the patient's skin and mucosa (nose/throat) represent the almost half of the number of pathogens detected at the infected surgical site...
October 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067985/point-prevalence-risk-factor-assessment-for-hospital-acquired-infections-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-pune-india
#5
Velu Nair, A K Sahni, Dinesh Sharma, Naveen Grover, S Shankar, A Chakravarty, Seema Patrikar, Kailas Methe, S S Jaiswal, S S Dalal, Anupam Kapur, Rajesh Verma, Jyoti Prakash, Ashutosh Gupta, Anvita Bhansali, Deepak Batura, G Gopal Rao, D P Joshi, B K Chopra
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are a major challenge to patient safety and have serious public health implications by changing the quality of life of patients and sometimes causing disability or even death. The true burden of HAI remains unknown, particularly in developing countries. The objective of this study was to estimate point prevalence of HAI and study the associated risk factors in a tertiary care hospital in Pune, India. METHODS: A series of four cross-sectional point prevalence surveys were carried out between March and August 2014...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033034/antimicrobial-resistance-among-children-in-sub-saharan-africa
#6
REVIEW
Phoebe C M Williams, David Isaacs, James A Berkley
Antimicrobial resistance is an important threat to international health. Therapeutic guidelines for empirical treatment of common life-threatening infections depend on available information regarding microbial aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility, but sub-Saharan Africa lacks diagnostic capacity and antimicrobial resistance surveillance. We systematically reviewed studies of antimicrobial resistance among children in sub-Saharan Africa since 2005. 18 of 1075 articles reviewed met inclusion criteria, providing data from 67 451 invasive bacterial isolates from inconsistently defined populations in predominantly urban tertiary settings...
October 9, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982611/nurse-driven-protocols-and-the-prevention-of-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-a-systematic-review
#7
Danielle J Durant
BACKGROUND: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are one of the most common hospital-acquired conditions and no longer reimbursable from Medicare as of 2008. Nurse-driven protocols (NDPs), which provide a medically approved rubric for professional nurses to make autonomous care decisions, can facilitate appropriate catheter use and timely removal, as advised in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2009 CAUTI prevention guidelines. However, little attempt has been made to systematically evaluate their effect on clinical outcomes...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969155/linezolid-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-a-therapeutic-problem
#8
Garima Yadav, Bhaskar Thakuria, Molly Madan, Vivek Agwan, Anita Pandey
INTRODUCTION: Enterococci are recognized as opportunistic pathogens, as well as commensals in both humans and animals. They are an important cause of nosocomial infections, difficult to treat, as the organism have intrinsic and acquired resistance to many antibiotics. AIM: To isolate and identify clinically relevant Enterococcus up to species level from all the clinical samples processed in the microbiology laboratory and also to study their resistance pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was carried out for a period of one year from May 2014 to April 2015 at the Department of Microbiology, Subharti Medical College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966488/changing-prevalence-and-antibiotic-drug-resistance-pattern-of-pathogens-seen-in-community-acquired-pediatric-urinary-tract-infections-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-north-india
#9
Vrushali Patwardhan, Dinesh Kumar, Varun Goel, Sarman Singh
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim and objective of this study was to assess the temporal changes in the microbiological profiles and antimicrobial resistance patterns of uropathogens in pediatric community-acquired UTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of data collected over a Scattered period of 5 years. The baseline data collected were from January to December 2009, and the second period considered for comparison was from January to December 2014...
October 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941632/professional-practice-evaluation-of-emergency-department-prescriptions-for-community-acquired-infections-in-lebanon
#10
Iqbal Fahs, Zeina Shrayteh, Rima Abdulkhalek, Pascale Salameh, Souheil Hallit, Diana Malaeb
BACKGROUND: Selecting the appropriate antibiotic regimen is extremely important in improving patient outcomes, minimizing antimicrobial resistance, and reducing costs. This study was conducted to evaluate current prescribing practices for empiric antibiotics at the time of admission to the emergency department (ED) and to assess their appropriateness in Lebanon. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted at three different Lebanese hospitals between June and December 2016...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936949/-clinical-practice-guidelines-of-hap-vap-in-2016-the-updates
#11
Meizhu Lu, Yan Kang
Hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilatorassociated pneumonia (VAP) are common hospital-acquired infections with higher mortality, longer hospital stay and more hospitalization expenses. With the latest research results and evidence-based guideline methodology, Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and American Thoracic Society (ATS) have collaborated to create updated guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of HAP and VAP in 2016. It is worth critically reading and thinking that most recommendations are supported by low-quality or very-low quality evidence and some strong recommendations is different from the actual clinical work in China...
September 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923865/an-in-vitro-comparison-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-compared-to-traditional-beta-lactams-as-an-alternative-to-combination-antimicrobial-therapy-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#12
Kellie J Goodlet, David P Nicolau, Michael D Nailor
Background: Guidelines for sepsis, febrile neutropenia, and hospital-acquired pneumonia include empiric regimens incorporating two antibiotics from different classes with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa for select at-risk patients to increase the likelihood of susceptibility to at least one agent.Objectives: The activity and cross-resistance rates of ceftolozane/tazobactam were compared to β-lactam comparators cefepime, ceftazidime, piperacillin/tazobactam, and meropenem alone and cumulatively with ciprofloxacin or tobramycin against P...
September 18, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892896/detection-of-cytomegalovirus-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-from-hiv-positive-individuals-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#13
Arati Mane, Pankaj Gujar, Shraddha Gaikwad, Tilak Dhamgaye, Arun Risbud
INTRODUCTION: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is one of the frequent viral pneumonia reported in persons with HIV infection. Knowledge of pulmonary CMV infection is important for deciding appropriate diagnostic strategies. However, there is scanty literature addressing the role of CMV aetiology among HIV positive individuals presenting with Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) using Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) samples from India. AIM: To detect CMV in BAL fluid from HIV-positive individuals presenting with CAP...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882012/empirical-treatment-of-adults-with-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-lights-and-shadows-of-the-2016-clinical-practice-ats-idsa-guidelines
#14
REVIEW
M Vacas-Córdoba, C Cardozo-Espinola, P Puerta-Alcalde, C Cilloniz, A Torres, C García-Vidal
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is a common cause of nosocomial infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. New clinical practice guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired pneumonia have been published in 2016 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Thoracic Society (ATS). This review focuses on the recent recommendations and their limitations. We also focus on new therapeutic options that might improve the treatment and outcomes of these patients...
September 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859497/first-report-of-coexistence-of-ampc-beta-lactamase-genes-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-burn-patients
#15
Roya Ghanavati, Davood Darban-Sarokhalil, Fateme Navab-Moghadam, Hossein Kazemian, Gholamreza Irajian, Shabnam Razavi
Klebsiella spp. are among the most frequently isolated bacteria from burn wounds. These organisms are among the most important opportunistic pathogens, causing hospital-acquired and healthcare-associated infections worldwide. Limited information is available about prevalence of AmpC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from burn patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the characterization of AmpC beta-lactamase among K. pneumoniae isolated from burn patients. Samples were collected from wound specimens of patients with burn injury from a burn hospital in Tehran during 18 months (March 2015 to August 2016)...
September 1, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842261/an-updated-meta-analysis-of-controlled-observational-studies-proton-pump-inhibitors-and-risk-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#16
REVIEW
Fei Cao, Chunxiang Chen, Min Wang, Hairong Liao, Meixiang Wang, Shuizhen Hua, Bin Huang, Yan Xiong, Jieyu Zhang, Yanliang Xu
BACKGROUND: Attention has recently been directed toward a plausible link between Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). However, the results of studies on the association between CDI and PPI remain controversial. METHODS: We searched the literature from their inception to December 2016 without restriction of language. We included all controlled observational studies examining the association between acid suppressive therapy and CDI...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814443/antibiotic-use-by-pediatric-residents-identifying-opportunities-and-strategies-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#17
Prateek J Shukla, Maria Behnam-Terneus, Beatriz Cunill-De Sautu, Geovanny F Perez
OBJECTIVES: To determine the antibiotic prescribing practices of pediatric residents and assess how they acquire knowledge leading to prescribing behaviors. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional electronic survey of all pediatric residents at the Children's National Medical Center and Nicklaus Children's Hospital, assessing antibiotic prescribing patterns for common pediatric infections, use of antibiograms, and factors influencing antibiotic choice. RESULTS: Eighty-five surveys (45%) were returned complete and included in the analysis...
September 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776523/screening-of-health-care-workers-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#18
Anand Bimari Janagond, Vithiya Ganesan, G S Vijay Kumar, Arunagiri Ramesh, Prem Anand, M Mariappan
BACKGROUND: Health-care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of acquiring tuberculosis (TB) than the general population. While national-level data on the burden of TB in general population is available from reliable sources, nationally representative data on latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) burden in HCWs in the high burden countries is lacking. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out to assess the risk of TB infection among HCWs who directly engage in medical duties...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704006/-urinary-catheter-comply-with-guidelines-to-avoid-infections
#19
Elodie Miranda, Céline Boillat, Omar Kherad
Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most frequent hospital acquired infection, associated with significant morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Up to 50 % of urinary catheter use in hospital are for incontinence or convenience without proper indication. In addition, urinary catheters are not removed when no longer necessary, due to a lack of vigilance of the health care team. The duration of catheterization is the most important risk factor for the development of CAUTI. Simple measures to prevent CAUTI include appropriate use, maintaining awareness of catheters in place and use of different alternatives...
January 25, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697267/back-to-the-basics-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children
#20
Kathleen Boyd
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common childhood infection and often a reason for inpatient admission, especially when a child is hypoxic or in respiratory distress. Despite advances in technology and diagnostics, it remains difficult to accurately differentiate bacterial CAP from a viral process. Most of the laboratory tests routinely done in inpatient medicine, such as complete blood counts and acute phase reactants, do little to differentiate a viral pneumonia from a bacterial pneumonia. Clinicians must rely heavily on the clinical presentation and decide whether to treat empirically with antibiotics...
July 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
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