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Guidelines for Hospital-acquired infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326340/rare-cause-of-pulmonary-cavitation-in-a-75-year-old-man
#1
Jaffar Al-Sheikhli, Hussein Taqi, John Drake, Ayaaz Habib
A 75-year-old man of Asian descent presented to the acute medical unit with signs and symptoms suggestive of a community-acquired pneumonia. He had multiple comorbidities and was relatively immunocompromised as a result. Initial investigations supported the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia complicated by a cavitating lung lesion, and the patient was treated as per hospital guidelines. He continued to deteriorate despite appropriate therapy and developed a hydropneumothorax, requiring the insertion of a chest drain...
January 10, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298323/implementation-of-global-antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-system-glass-in-patients-with-bacteremia
#2
Rujipas Sirijatuphat, Kantarida Sripanidkulchai, Adhiratha Boonyasiri, Pinyo Rattanaumpawan, Orawan Supapueng, Pattarachai Kiratisin, Visanu Thamlikitkul
The global antimicrobial resistance surveillance system (GLASS) was launched by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015. GLASS is a surveillance system for clinical specimens that are sent to microbiology laboratory for clinical purposes. The unique feature of GLASS is that clinical data is combined with microbiological data, and deduplication of the microbiological results is performed. The objective of the study was to determine feasibility and benefit of GLASS for surveillance of blood culture specimens...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279320/uk-role-4-military-infectious-diseases-and-tropical-medicine-cases-in-2005-2013
#3
Daniel S Burns, M R Riley, A Mason, M S Bailey
INTRODUCTION: Infectious diseases are a frequent cause of morbidity among British troops. The aim of this paper is to describe the spectrum of infectious diseases seen when UK service personnel are evacuated for definitive care to the Role 4 Medical Treatment Facility based at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of all military patients presenting with infectious diseases and treated at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital between 14 April 2005 and 31 December 2013 was undertaken...
December 25, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276241/development-of-institutional-guidelines-for-management-of-gram-negative-bloodstream-infections-incorporating-local-evidence
#4
Elizabeth B Nimmich, P Brandon Bookstaver, Joseph Kohn, Julie Ann Justo, Katie L Hammer, Helmut Albrecht, Majdi N Al-Hasan
Background: Appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy is associated with improved outcomes of patients with Gram-negative bloodstream infections (BSI). Objective: Development of evidence-based institutional management guidelines for empirical antimicrobial therapy of Gram-negative BSI. Methods: Hospitalized adults with Gram-negative BSI in 2011-2012 at Palmetto Health hospitals in Columbia, SC, USA, were identified. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between site of infection acquisition and BSI due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa or chromosomally mediated AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CAE)...
November 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258917/clostridium-difficile-classification-overestimates-hospital-acquired-infections
#5
Angus McLure, Archie C A Clements, Martyn Kirk, Kathryn Glass
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infections are common among hospitalised patients, with some infections acquired in hospital and others in the community. International guidelines classify cases as hospital-acquired if symptom onset occurs >2 days after admission. This classification informs surveillance and infection control, but has not been verified by empirical or modelling studies. AIMS: To assess current classification of C. difficile acquisition using a simulation model as a gold standard...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234216/recommendations-from-the-2016-guidelines-for-the-management-of-adults-with-hospital-acquired-or-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#6
Samir T Kumar, Arsheena Yassin, Tanaya Bhowmick, Deepali Dixit
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) continue to represent the most common nosocomial-associated infections, resulting in significant attributable mortality, increased length of hospital stay, and financial burden.1 The updated Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines provide guidance on the diagnosis and management of nonimmunocompromised hosts with HAP and VAP.
December 2017: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224205/healthcare-acquired-infections-prevention-strategies
#7
Shelanah A Fernando, Timothy J Gray, Thomas Gottlieb
Healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) impact on patient care and have cost implications for the Australian healthcare system. The management of HAI is exacerbated by rising rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Health-care workers and a contaminated hospital environment are increasingly implicated in the transmission and persistence of multi-resistant organisms (MRO), as well as other pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. This has resulted in a timely focus on a range of HAI prevention actions. Core components include antimicrobial stewardship, to reduce overuse and ensure evidence-based antimicrobial use; infection prevention strategies, to control MRO - particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp...
December 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222105/the-emergency-medical-service-microbiome
#8
Andrew J Hudson, Graeme D Glaister, Hans-Joachim Wieden
Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are an integral component of the healthcare framework and function to transport patients from various locations to and between care facilities. In addition to physical injury, EMS personnel are expected to be at high risk to acquire and transmit healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in the workplace. However, currently little is known about EMS biosafety risk factors and the epidemiological contribution of EMS to pathogen transmission within and outside of the healthcare sector...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162493/outbreak-of-gentamicin-resistant-meticillin-susceptible-staphlococcus-aureus-on-a-neonatal-unit
#9
Sahar Eldirdiri, Jennifer Lee, Ann Jack, Alison Wright, Alison Findlay, Gabby Phillips
BACKGROUND: This report describes an outbreak of gentamicin-resistant meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (GR MSSA) which occurred on a 21-bed neonatal unit (NNU) in Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, Scotland. METHODS: An outbreak investigation was triggered by two new GR MSSA isolates from babies admitted directly to the unit who had acquired this organism during their stay. Data on MSSA cases and antibiograms of patient isolates were flagged as an alert and microbiology records trawled to detect previous cases...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118985/acute-development-of-cushing-syndrome-in-an-hiv-infected-child-on-atazanavir-ritonavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Gueorgui Dubrocq, Andrea Estrada, Shannon Kelly, Natella Rakhmanina
An 11-year-old male with perinatally acquired human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection on antiretroviral regimen, which included abacavir plus lamivudine (Epzicom), didanosine, ritonavir and atazanavir presented with bilateral axillary striae, increased appetite, fatigue, facial swelling and acute weight gain. Two months prior to presentation, the patient had received a diagnostic and therapeutic intra-articular triamcinolone injection in the knee for pain relief and subsequently became progressively swollen in the face, developed striae bilaterally at the axillae, experienced increased appetite, fatigue and an 8 pound weight gain...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116671/screening-for-zika-virus-in-deceased-organ-donors-in-florida
#11
J Simkins, S Anjan, J A Morillas-Rodriguez, S R Greissman, L M Abbo, J F Camargo, P Ruiz, R Vianna, G Guerra, S Salama, M I Morris
Zika virus (ZIKV) cases have been detected across the United States (US) and locally acquired cases have been reported in Florida. Currently, there are no ZIKV screening guidelines and no data on the incidence among organ donors in the US. This retrospective study was conducted at Jackson Memorial-Miami Transplant Institute. Positive ZIKV tests in local deceased organ donors were investigated from 6/2016 to 1/2017. We evaluated demographics and risk factors for ZIKV infection among organ donors and transplant outcomes among recipients of donors with positive ZIKV testing...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091975/treatment-trends-and-outcomes-in-healthcare-associated-pneumonia
#12
Sarah Haessler, Tara Lagu, Peter K Lindenauer, Daniel J Skiest, Aruna Priya, Penelope S Pekow, Marya D Zilberberg, Thomas L Higgins, Michael B Rothberg
BACKGROUND: The American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for management of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP), first published in 2005, have been controversial regarding the selection of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics, whether the criteria for HCAP predicts the likelihood of infection with multidrug resistant organisms, and whether HCAP patients have improved outcomes when treated with empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study at 488 US hospitals from July 2007 to November 2011...
November 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078249/-prevention-of-surgical-site-infections-with-special-focus-on-vascular-surgery
#13
Peter Bischoff, Petra Gastmeier
Background Surgical site infections range between the most commonly and second most commonly reported health-care-associated infections worldwide, depending on the analysis. They are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Not only for the individual patient, the negative consequences of acquiring a surgical site infection affect the patient's relatives, the hospital and health systems in general. In vascular surgery, gram-positive pathogens of the normal flora of the patient's skin and mucosa (nose/throat) represent the almost half of the number of pathogens detected at the infected surgical site...
October 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067985/point-prevalence-risk-factor-assessment-for-hospital-acquired-infections-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-pune-india
#14
Velu Nair, A K Sahni, Dinesh Sharma, Naveen Grover, S Shankar, A Chakravarty, Seema Patrikar, Kailas Methe, S S Jaiswal, S S Dalal, Anupam Kapur, Rajesh Verma, Jyoti Prakash, Ashutosh Gupta, Anvita Bhansali, Deepak Batura, G Gopal Rao, D P Joshi, B K Chopra
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are a major challenge to patient safety and have serious public health implications by changing the quality of life of patients and sometimes causing disability or even death. The true burden of HAI remains unknown, particularly in developing countries. The objective of this study was to estimate point prevalence of HAI and study the associated risk factors in a tertiary care hospital in Pune, India. METHODS: A series of four cross-sectional point prevalence surveys were carried out between March and August 2014...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033034/antimicrobial-resistance-among-children-in-sub-saharan-africa
#15
REVIEW
Phoebe C M Williams, David Isaacs, James A Berkley
Antimicrobial resistance is an important threat to international health. Therapeutic guidelines for empirical treatment of common life-threatening infections depend on available information regarding microbial aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility, but sub-Saharan Africa lacks diagnostic capacity and antimicrobial resistance surveillance. We systematically reviewed studies of antimicrobial resistance among children in sub-Saharan Africa since 2005. 18 of 1075 articles reviewed met inclusion criteria, providing data from 67 451 invasive bacterial isolates from inconsistently defined populations in predominantly urban tertiary settings...
October 9, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982611/nurse-driven-protocols-and-the-prevention-of-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-a-systematic-review
#16
Danielle J Durant
BACKGROUND: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are one of the most common hospital-acquired conditions and no longer reimbursable from Medicare as of 2008. Nurse-driven protocols (NDPs), which provide a medically approved rubric for professional nurses to make autonomous care decisions, can facilitate appropriate catheter use and timely removal, as advised in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2009 CAUTI prevention guidelines. However, little attempt has been made to systematically evaluate their effect on clinical outcomes...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969155/linezolid-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-a-therapeutic-problem
#17
Garima Yadav, Bhaskar Thakuria, Molly Madan, Vivek Agwan, Anita Pandey
INTRODUCTION: Enterococci are recognized as opportunistic pathogens, as well as commensals in both humans and animals. They are an important cause of nosocomial infections, difficult to treat, as the organism have intrinsic and acquired resistance to many antibiotics. AIM: To isolate and identify clinically relevant Enterococcus up to species level from all the clinical samples processed in the microbiology laboratory and also to study their resistance pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was carried out for a period of one year from May 2014 to April 2015 at the Department of Microbiology, Subharti Medical College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966488/changing-prevalence-and-antibiotic-drug-resistance-pattern-of-pathogens-seen-in-community-acquired-pediatric-urinary-tract-infections-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-north-india
#18
Vrushali Patwardhan, Dinesh Kumar, Varun Goel, Sarman Singh
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim and objective of this study was to assess the temporal changes in the microbiological profiles and antimicrobial resistance patterns of uropathogens in pediatric community-acquired UTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of data collected over a Scattered period of 5 years. The baseline data collected were from January to December 2009, and the second period considered for comparison was from January to December 2014...
October 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941632/professional-practice-evaluation-of-emergency-department-prescriptions-for-community-acquired-infections-in-lebanon
#19
Iqbal Fahs, Zeina Shrayteh, Rima Abdulkhalek, Pascale Salameh, Souheil Hallit, Diana Malaeb
BACKGROUND: Selecting the appropriate antibiotic regimen is extremely important in improving patient outcomes, minimizing antimicrobial resistance, and reducing costs. This study was conducted to evaluate current prescribing practices for empiric antibiotics at the time of admission to the emergency department (ED) and to assess their appropriateness in Lebanon. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted at three different Lebanese hospitals between June and December 2016...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936949/-clinical-practice-guidelines-of-hap-vap-in-2016-the-updates
#20
Meizhu Lu, Yan Kang
Hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilatorassociated pneumonia (VAP) are common hospital-acquired infections with higher mortality, longer hospital stay and more hospitalization expenses. With the latest research results and evidence-based guideline methodology, Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and American Thoracic Society (ATS) have collaborated to create updated guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of HAP and VAP in 2016. It is worth critically reading and thinking that most recommendations are supported by low-quality or very-low quality evidence and some strong recommendations is different from the actual clinical work in China...
September 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
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