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Guidelines for Hospital-acquired infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638594/high-burden-of-antimicrobial-resistance-among-gram-negative-bacteria-causing-healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-critical-care-unit-of-nepal
#1
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Subhash Prasad Acharya, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Keshab Parajuli, Basista Prasad Rijal, Bharat Mani Pokhrel
BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections (HCAI) and antimicrobial resistance are principal threats to the patients of intensive care units and are the major determining factors for patient outcome. They are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, excess hospitalization and financial costs. The present study is an attempt to investigate the spectrum and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates involved in healthcare associated infections (HCAI) in the patients of a critical care unit at a tertiary care university hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608664/trend-of-cd4-cell-counts-at-diagnosis-and-initiation-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-haart-korea-hiv-aids-cohort-study-1992-2015
#2
Min Jung Kim, Hyun Ha Chang, Sang Il Kim, Youn Jeong Kim, Dae Won Park, Chun Kang, Mee Kyung Kee, Ju Yeon Choi, Soo Min Kim, Bo Youl Choi, Woo Joo Kim, June Myung Kim, Jun Yong Choi, Young Hwa Choi, Jin Soo Lee, Shin Woo Kim
BACKGROUND: CD4+ cell counts reflect immunologic status of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. Recommended CD4+ cell counts for the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has increased over the past several years in various HIV treatment guidelines. We investigated the trend of CD4+ cell counts at diagnosis and treatment start using data from the Korea HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Cohort Study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study started in 2006 and enrolled HIV patients from 21 tertiary and secondary hospitals in South Korea...
June 1, 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606066/treatment-outcome-of-children-with-persistent-diarrhoea-admitted-to-an-urban-hospital-dhaka-during-2012-2013
#3
Mustafa Mahfuz, Mohammed Ashraful Alam, Shoeb Bin Islam, Nurun Nahar Naila, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Nur Haque Alam, Shafiqul Alam Sarker, Tahmeed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Despite availability of treatment guidelines, persistent diarrhoea (PD) has been a major contributor of diarrhoeal deaths in low and middle income countries. We evaluated the outcome of children under the age of 5 years who were treated for PD using management algorithm with locally available foods in a diarrhoeal disease hospital in Dhaka. METHODS: We extracted retrospective data from electronic database for all the under-five children admitted for PD in the Longer Stay Ward and Intensive Care Unit of the Dhaka hospital at icddr,b between 2012 and 2013...
June 12, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603717/assessment-of-the-risk-to-public-health-due-to-use-of-antimicrobials-in-pigs-an-example-of-pleuromutilins-in-denmark
#4
Lis Alban, Johanne Ellis-Iversen, Margit Andreasen, Jan Dahl, Ute W Sönksen
Antibiotic consumption in pigs can be optimized by developing treatment guidelines, which encourage veterinarians to use effective drugs with low probability of developing resistance of importance for human health. In Denmark, treatment guidelines for use in swine production are currently under review at the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration. Use of pleuromutilins in swine has previously been associated with a very low risk for human health. However, recent international data and sporadic findings of novel resistance genes suggest a change of risk...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580894/hospital-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bloodstream-infections-in-qu%C3%A3-bec-impact-of-guidelines
#5
Lynne Li, Elise Fortin, Claude Tremblay, Muleka Ngenda-Muadi, Christophe Garenc, Danielle Moisan, Jasmin Villeneuve, Caroline Quach
OBJECTIVE We examined the impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) guidelines in Québec adult hospitals from January 1, 2006, to March 31, 2015, by examining the incidence rate reduction (IRR) in healthcare-associated MRSA bloodstream infections (HA-MRSA), using central-line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) as a comparator. METHODS In this study, we utilized a quasi-experimental design with Poisson segmented regression to model HA-MRSA and CLABSI incidence for successive 4-week surveillance segments, stratified by teaching status...
June 5, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566116/adherence-to-local-antimicrobial-guidelines-for-initial-treatment-of-community-acquired-infections
#6
Trine Langfeldt Hagen, Mathias Amdi Hertz, Gábor Balázs Uhrin, Michael Dalager-Pedersen, Henrik Carl Schønheyder, Henrik Nielsen
INTRODUCTION: Adherence to antimicrobial guidelines is key to ensuring a correct treatment of severe infections and to lessening misuse of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study at the Emergency Department of Aalborg University Hospital, North Denmark Region. Our aim was to examine adherence to local antimicrobial guidelines in the empirical treatment of community-acquired infections and to identity any predictors of guideline non-adherence. METHODS: We identified 1,555 patients who had blood cultures performed and were admitted to the medical emergency department in 2016...
June 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528008/-role-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-pulmonary-infections
#7
REVIEW
C Padoin
Pulmonary infections are common and caused by a wide range of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi. They consist of lower respiratory tract infections with community and hospital acquired acute pneumonia, bronchitis, lung abscess, fungal infections and tuberculosis. The management of these infections should be based on guidelines that take into account the microorganisms most frequently involved as a basis for empirical treatment, with identification of causative microorganisms allowing targeted treatments...
May 17, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525510/zika-virus-obstetric-and-pediatric-anesthesia-considerations
#8
Jacqueline L Tutiven, Benjamin T Pruden, James S Banks, Mario Stevenson, David J Birnbach
As of November 2016, the Florida Department of Health (FDH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have confirmed more than 4000 travel-related Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in the United States with >700 of those in Florida. There have been 139 cases of locally acquired infection, all occurring in Miami, Florida. Within the US territories (eg, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands), >30,000 cases of ZIKV infection have been reported. The projected number of individuals at risk for ZIKV infection in the Caribbean and Latin America approximates 5 million...
June 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511383/study-on-mics-of-tigecycline-in-clinical-isolates-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-cre-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-north-india
#9
Vineeta Khare, Prashant Gupta, Fareya Haider, Rehana Begum
INTRODUCTION: Members of family Enterobacteriaceae are the most common Gram-negative bacteria isolated from clinical samples. Those Enterobacteriaceae which have acquired resistance to all β-lactams antibiotics including the carbapenems are considered as Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). These CRE isolates are often resistant to most other classes of antimicrobials as well, making their treatment a great challenge. Tigecycline is one of the last resort antimicrobials against such multidrug resistant bacteria...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501761/improving-the-quality-of-the-intensive-care-follow-up-of-ventilated-patients-during-a-national-registration-program
#10
P Reper, D Dicker, P Damas, L Huyghens, M Haelterman
OBJECTIVES: The Belgian Public Health Organization is concerned with rates of hospital-acquired infections like ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Implementing best practice guidelines for these nosocomial infections has variable success in the literature. This retrospective study was undertaken to see whether implementation of the evidence-based practices as a bundle was feasible, would influence compliance, and could reduce the rates of VAP. STUDY DESIGN: We utilized easily collectable data about regular care to rapidly assess whether interventions already in place were effectively successfully applied...
July 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479906/factors-associated-with-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infections-among-adults-attending-assessment-centre-mulago-hospital-uganda
#11
Deus Kabugo, Samuel Kizito, Dave Dhara Ashok, Kiwanuka Alexander Graham, Ronald Nabimba, Sandra Namunana, M Richard Kabaka, Beatrice Achan, Florence C Najjuka
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a common medical problem affecting the general population and thus commonly encountered in medical practice, with the global burden of UTIs at about 150 million people. Because uropathogens largely originate from colonic flora, they are easy to predict, and this is the rationale for empirical treatment in Community Acquired-UTI (CA-UTIs). With the increasing prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria among adults with CA-UTI in Uganda, it is no longer adequate to manage CA-UTIs on empiric regimen without revising the susceptibility patterns of common CA-UTI causative agents...
December 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464815/avoiding-inappropriate-urinary-catheter-use-and-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection-cauti-a-pre-post-control-intervention-study
#12
Vicki Parker, Michelle Giles, Laura Graham, Belinda Suthers, Wendy Watts, Tony O'Brien, Andrew Searles
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) as the most common healthcare-associated infection accounts for up to 36% of all healthcare-associated infections. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) accounts for up to 80% of these. In many instances indwelling urinary catheter (IDC) insertions may be unjustified or inappropriate, creating potentially avoidable and significant patient distress, embarrassment, discomfort, pain and activity restrictions, together with substantial care burden, costs and hospitalisation...
May 2, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448203/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-evaluating-prophylactic-intra-operative-wound-irrigation-for-the-prevention-of-surgical-site-infections
#13
Stijn W de Jonge, Quirine J J Boldingh, Joseph S Solomkin, Benedetta Allegranzi, Matthias Egger, E Patchen Dellinger, Marja A Boermeester
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are one of the most common hospital-acquired infections. To reduce SSIs, prophylactic intra-operative wound irrigation (pIOWI) has been advocated, although the results to date are equivocal. To develop recommendations for the new World Health Organization (WHO) SSI prevention guidelines, a systematic literature review and a meta-analysis were conducted on the effectiveness of pIOWI using different agents as a means of reducing SSI. METHODS: The PUBMED, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and WHO databases were searched...
May 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446379/group-a-rotavirus-genotypes-in-hospital-acquired-gastroenteritis-in-italy-2012-14
#14
G Ianiro, R Delogu, L Fiore, M Monini, F M Ruggeri
BACKGROUND: Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young (aged <5 years) children, causing ∼250,000 deaths worldwide, mostly in developing countries. Differences on nucleotide sequences of VP7 (G-type) and VP4 (P-type) genes are the basis for the binary RVA nomenclature. Although at least 32 G-types and 47 P-types of rotavirus are presently known, most RVA infections in humans worldwide are related to five major G/P combinations: G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], and G9P[8]...
July 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437470/respiratory-syncytial-virus-neutralizing-serum-antibody-titers-in-infants-following-palivizumab-prophylaxis-with-an-abbreviated-dosing-regimen
#15
Jennifer Claydon, Amitava Sur, Allison Callejas, Mihoko Ladd, Eddie Kwan, Richard Taylor, Stuart E Turvey, Alfonso Solimano, Pascal M Lavoie, Nico Marr
BACKGROUND: Monthly injections of palivizumab during the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) season in at-risk infants reduces RSV-associated hospitalizations. However, the additive effect of naturally acquired immunity remains unclear. The objective of this study was to assess total neutralizing serum antibodies (NAb) against RSV in at-risk infants who had received an abbreviated course of palivizumab prophylaxis. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from infants enrolled in the RSV Immunoprophylaxis Program in British Columbia, Canada over 2 consecutive RSV seasons (2013 to 2015)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428667/training-as-an-effective-tool-to-increase-the-knowledge-about-hand-hygiene-actions-an-evaluation-study-of-training-effectiveness-in-kosovo
#16
Idriz Sopjani, Patrick Jahn, Johann Behrens
INTRODUCTION: Hand hygiene (HH) compliance with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines is essential to prevent bacterial transmission and infections acquired from hospital settings. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of training tool of World Health Organization's (WHOs) Hand Hygiene multi modal campaign at all public hospitals and at the University Clinical Center in Kosovo (UCCK). METHOD: During February 2016, 691 questionnaires were distributed to health care workers...
February 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427381/penicillin-treatment-for-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-denmark-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#17
Gertrud Baunbæk Egelund, Andreas Vestergaard Jensen, Stine Bang Andersen, Pelle Trier Petersen, Bjarne Ørskov Lindhardt, Christian von Plessen, Gernot Rohde, Pernille Ravn
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a severe infection, with high mortality. Antibiotic strategies for CAP differ across Europe. The objective of the study was to describe the epidemiology of CAP in Denmark and evaluate the prognosis of patients empirically treated with penicillin-G/V monotherapy. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study including hospitalized patients with x-ray confirmed CAP. We calculated the population-based incidence, reviewed types of empiric antibiotics and duration of antibiotic treatment...
April 20, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416961/predictive-factors-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-in-elderly-patients-with-community-onset-pneumonia
#18
Hyeyoung Jwa, Jong Wook Beom, Jong Hoo Lee
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is a severe and life-threatening disease in patients with community-onset (CO) pneumonia. However, the current guidelines lack specificity for a screening test for MRSA infection. METHODS: This study was retrospectively conducted in elderly patients aged ≥65 years, who had contracted CO-pneumonia during hospitalization at the Jeju National University Hospital, between January 2012 and December 2014...
April 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407054/procalcitonin-as-a-marker-of-etiology-in-adults-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#19
Wesley H Self, Robert A Balk, Carlos G Grijalva, Derek J Williams, Yuwei Zhu, Evan J Anderson, Grant W Waterer, D Mark Courtney, Anna M Bramley, Christopher Trabue, Sherene Fakhran, Anne J Blaschke, Seema Jain, Kathryn M Edwards, Richard G Wunderink
Background: Recent trials suggest procalcitonin-based guidelines can reduce antibiotic use for respiratory infections. However, the accuracy of procalcitonin to discriminate between viral and bacterial pneumonia requires further dissection. Methods: We evaluated the association between serum procalcitonin concentration at hospital admission with pathogens detected in a multicenter prospective surveillance study of adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401448/the-changing-epidemiology-of-infective-endocarditis-in-the-twenty-first-century
#20
REVIEW
J Ambrosioni, M Hernandez-Meneses, A Téllez, J Pericàs, C Falces, J M Tolosana, B Vidal, M Almela, E Quintana, J Llopis, A Moreno, José M Miro
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a relatively infrequent infectious disease. It does, however, causes serious morbidity, and its mortality rate has remained unchanged at approximately 25%. Changes in IE risk factors have deeply impacted its epidemiology during recent decades but literature from low-income countries is very scarce. Moreover, prophylaxis guidelines have recently changed and the impact on IE incidence is still unknown. RECENT FINDINGS: In high-income countries, the proportion of IE related to prior rheumatic disease has decreased significantly and has been replaced proportionally by cases related to degenerative valvulopathies, prosthetic valves, and cardiovascular implantable electronic devices...
May 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
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