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Guidelines for Hospital-acquired infection

K Rietberg, J Lloyd, B Melius, P Wyman, R Treadwell, G Olson, M-G Kang, J S Duchin
Two cases of hospital-acquired listeriosis were linked to a commercially produced, pasteurized ice cream mix. Manufacturers should implement safety measures from the Food Safety Modernization Act to minimize the risk of Listeria contamination. Dietary guidelines for persons at high risk of listeriosis may need revision to recognize the potential risk from pasteurized products.
October 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Frank van Someren Gréve, David S Y Ong, Olaf L Cremer, Marc J M Bonten, Lieuwe D J Bos, Menno D de Jong, Marcus J Schultz, Nicole P Juffermans
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines suggest testing for respiratory viruses during the influenza season, but are unclear which categories of patients on the intensive care unit (ICU) should be tested. OBJECTIVE: We described the clinical practice of diagnostic testing for respiratory virus infections in patients presenting to ICU with suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) or hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study in consecutive CAP and HAP patients with an ICU stay of more than 24h in two tertiary care hospitals in The Netherlands, from 2011 to December 2013...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Karl J Madaras-Kelly, Muriel Burk, Christina Caplinger, Jefferson G Bohan, Melinda M Neuhauser, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Rongping Zhang, Francesca E Cunningham
OBJECTIVE: Practice guidelines recommend the shortest duration of antimicrobial therapy appropriate to treat uncomplicated pneumonia be prescribed to reduce the emergence of resistant pathogens. A national evaluation was conducted to assess the duration of therapy for pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective medication utilization evaluation. SETTING: Thirty Veterans Affairs medical centers. PATIENTS: Inpatients discharged with a diagnosis of pneumonia...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Xiaoying Xie, Yunwen Bao, Nengyong Ouyang, Xinlu Dai, Kunyi Pan, Baiji Chen, Yawen Deng, Xiquan Wu, Fengqin Xu, Hongyu Li, Songyin Huang
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of both hospital and community infections globally. It's important to illuminate the differences between community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) and hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA), but there have been confusions on the definition, especially for the MRSA isolates identified within 48 h of admission. This study aimed to determine the molecular characteristics and virulence genes profile of CA and HA-MRSA isolates identified less than 48 h after hospital admission in our region...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yaakov Dickstein, Ran Nir-Paz, Celine Pulcini, Barry Cookson, Bojana Beović, Evelina Tacconelli, Dilip Nathwani, Rossitza Vatcheva-Dobrevska, Jesus Rodríguez-Baño, Markus Hell, Henri Saenz, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the current status of infectious diseases (ID), clinical microbiology (CM) and infection control (IC) staffing in hospitals and to analyze modifiers of staffing levels. METHODS: We conducted an internet-based survey of European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases members and affiliates, collecting data on hospital characteristics, ID management infrastructure, ID/IC-related activities and the ratio of physicians/100 hospital beds...
June 29, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Gunilla Skoog, Johan Struwe, Otto Cars, Håkan Hanberger, Inga Odenholt, Mårten Prag, Katarina Skärlund, Peter Ulleryd, Mats Erntell
This study sought to analyse antimicrobial pressure, indications for treatment, and compliance with treatment recommendations and to identify possible problem areas where inappropriate use could be improved through interventions by the network of the local Swedish Strategic Programme Against Antibiotic Resistance (Strama) groups. Five point-prevalence surveys were performed in between 49 and 72 participating hospitals from 2003 to 2010. Treatments were recorded for 19 predefined diagnosis groups and whether they were for community-acquired infection, hospital-acquired infection, or prophylaxis...
June 23, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Bernhard Jahn, Trudy M Wassenaar, Annemarie Stroh
BACKGROUND: Guidelines for the control of hospital-acquired MRSA include decolonization measures to end MRSA carrier status in colonized and infected patients. Successful decolonization typically requires up to 22 days of treatment, which is longer than the average hospital length of stay (LOS). Incomplete decolonization is therefore common, with long-term MRSA carriage as a consequence. To overcome this, we developed an integrated MRSA Management (IMM) by extending MRSA decolonization to the outpatient and domestic setting...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Lyubov Lytvyn, Dominik Mertz, Behnam Sadeghirad, Faisal Alaklobi, Anna Selva, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Bradley C Johnston
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of hospital-acquired infectious diarrhea. OBJECTIVE To analyze the methodological quality, content, and supporting evidence among clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) on CDI prevention. DESIGN AND SETTING We searched medical databases and gray literature for CPGs on CDI prevention published January 2004-January 2015. Three reviewers independently screened articles and rated CPG quality using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument, composed of 23 items, rated 1-7, within 6 domains...
August 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Fateh Rahimi, Leili Shokoohizadeh
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of a variety of infections ranging from wound infections to urinary tract infections (UTI) in hospital and community. In this study during 3 years we characterized the antibiotic resistance patterns of 491 hospital acquired MRSA and community associated MRSA strains by the guidelines of clinical and laboratory standard institute. A combination of high resolution PhP typing method and SCCmec typing were used for clonal dissemination of isolates...
August 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Xin Fan, Yue Wu, Meng Xiao, Zhi-Peng Xu, Timothy Kudinha, Alda Bazaj, Fanrong Kong, Ying-Chun Xu
For a better understanding of the multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA) epidemiology in mainland China, a nationwide surveillance network of 27 tertiary hospitals was established. Non-duplicate MDR-PA isolates from 254 cases of nosocomial infections, were collected during the period August 2011 to July 2012. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of nine antimicrobial agents were determined by broth micro-dilution method according to the CLSI guidelines [M7-A10]. Genotyping analysis was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Javier Sánchez-Rubio Ferrández, José Manuel Martínez Sesmero
Pre-exposure prophylaxis" (PrEP) has been recently developed as a prevention strategy which involves the administration of drugs to non-infected individuals who present high exposure or susceptibility to HIV. Although this use is not approved in our country, several guidelines recommend PrEP as a prevention option in adult MSM, heterosexual men and women, and users of parenteral drugs at risk of acquiring the infection. This article presents the characteristics that an ideal agent to be used as PrEP should meet, recent efficacy published data and barriers for the implementation of this new strategy...
May 2016: Farmacia Hospitalaria
Abdel Latif Marini, Raymond Khan, Shihab Mundekkadan
Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) remains a worldwide harm associated with hospital acquired infection. Our VAP rate at King Abdulaziz Medical City was 4.0 per 1 000 patient days at baseline. All regulatory bodies continue to emphasize the importance of reducing these infections and include a guideline of practice recommendations to address them, notably the VAP bundle by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Our baseline compliance was low and measured to be 83%; this was perceived as an opportunity to work on revising our interventions in the ICUs...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
P Borella, A Bargellini, P Marchegiano, E Vecchi, I Marchesi
The waterborne healthcare-associated infections are mainly sustained by Legionella and Pseudomonas spp. Various water factors and plumbing characteristics, and the interaction with other water microorganisms are considered to be predictive of Legionella contamination. It is therefore mandatory to organize plans of surveillance, prevention and control in order to avoid disease appearance in immunosuppressed patients, with higher risk of death. Guidelines for the prevention of Legionnaires' disease have been published, benefiting those who face this problem, but definitive standardized solutions do not exist yet...
March 2016: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Emil Lesho, Uzo Chukwuma, Michael Sparks, Charlotte Neumann, Douglas Richesson, Robert Clifford, Sarah Gierhart, Paige Waterman, Mary Hinkle
Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., and Enterobacteriaceae pose urgent public health threats. The differential burden, relative risks, associations with antimicrobial consumption, and temporal trends of those taxa in large, geographically diverse U.S. health systems remain under reported. Electronic records of all patients in a geographically dispersed 280-hospital managed-care system from 2005 to 2014 were reviewed. Carbapenem-resistant strains were identified based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines and breakpoints...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a major pathogen for diarrhea in hospitalized patients and because of outbreak of highly virulent strain in EU and US, increased length of hospital stay and increased numbers of severe patients and deaths have become major challenges. In recent years, transmissions through community-acquired or food-borne infections are reported. National surveillance has been already performed overseas. Guidelines for preventing C. difficile infection (CDI) is available, and education activities are promoted for preventing the infection spread...
December 2015: Japanese Journal of Antibiotics
Yusuke Sasabuchi, Hiroki Matsui, Alan K Lefor, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hideo Yasunaga
OBJECTIVES: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines recommend stress ulcer prophylaxis for patients with severe sepsis who have bleeding risks. Although sepsis has been considered as a risk factor for gastrointestinal bleeding, the effect of stress ulcer prophylaxis has not been studied in patients with severe sepsis. Furthermore, stress ulcer prophylaxis may be associated with an increased risk of hospital-acquired pneumonia or Clostridium difficile infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the risks and benefits of stress ulcer prophylaxis for patients with severe sepsis...
July 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Vicenç Falcó, Joaquin Burgos, Elisabeth Papiol, Ricard Ferrer, Benito Almirante
INTRODUCTION: Hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) is one of the main infections acquired by patients during a stay in hospital. The main issue when dealing with patients with HAP and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is the increasing role of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs). AREAS COVERED: In this review the authors summarize the actual situation of MDROs as a cause of HAP and VAP. They also review the current treatment options stated in the most important international guidelines...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Huang-Pin Wu, Chien-Ming Chu, Chun-Yao Lin, Chung-Chieh Yu, Chung-Ching Hua, Teng-Jen Yu, Yu-Chih Liu
BACKGROUND: The risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) pneumonia are not fully identified. The aim of this work was to find out the clinical characteristics associated with S. aureus infection in patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), which may be applicable for more appropriate selection of empiric antibiotic therapy. METHODS: From July 2007 to June 2010, patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit with severe HCAP/HAP and severe sepsis were enrolled in this study...
2016: Pulmonary Medicine
Sanwar M Mitharwal, Sandhya Yaddanapudi, Neerja Bhardwaj, Vikas Gautam, Manisha Biswal, Lakshminarayana Yaddanapudi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nosocomial infections are common in intensive care units (ICUs), but the pattern of infections and the distribution of microorganisms vary. We studied the ICU-acquired infections and their effect on patient outcomes in our ICU. METHODS: Patients admitted to our ICU for >48 hours were studied prospectively over a year. Infections were diagnosed based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Antibiotics were administered based on culture and sensitivity...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
June Utnes Høgli, Beate Hennie Garcia, Frode Skjold, Vegard Skogen, Lars Småbrekke
BACKGROUND: Appropriate antibiotic prescribing is associated with favourable levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and clinical outcomes. Most intervention studies on antibiotic prescribing originate from settings with high level of AMR. In a Norwegian hospital setting with low level of AMR, the literature on interventions for promoting guideline-recommended antibiotic prescribing in hospital is scarce and requested. Preliminary studies have shown improvement potentials regarding antibiotic prescribing according to guidelines...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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