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PCR malaria

Aleix Elizalde-Torrent, Fernando Val, Ingrid Cardoso C Azevedo, Wuelton M Monteiro, Luiz C L Ferreira, Carmen Fernández-Becerra, Hernando A Del Portillo, Marcus V G Lacerda
BACKGROUND: Splenomegaly is one of the most common features of malaria. However, spontaneous splenic rupture, although unusual, represents a severe complication often leading to death. It is mostly seen in acute infection and primary attack, and it is most commonly associated with Plasmodium vivax. Here, a case of spontaneous splenic rupture diagnosed with a portable ultrasound apparatus shortly after starting treatment and with recurrent parasitaemia after splenectomy, is reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: In November 2015, a 45-year-old Brazilian man presented to the hospital in Manaus with fever, headache and myalgia...
February 13, 2018: Malaria Journal
Justin Y A Doritchamou, Richard A Akuffo, Azizath Moussiliou, Adrian J F Luty, Achille Massougbodji, Philippe Deloron, Nicaise G Tuikue Ndam
BACKGROUND: Among the Plasmodium species that infect humans, adverse effects of P. falciparum and P. vivax have been extensively studied and reported with respect to poor outcomes particularly in first time mothers and in women living in areas with unstable malaria transmission. Although, other non-falciparum malaria infections during pregnancy have sometimes been reported, little is known about the dynamics of these infections during pregnancy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a quantitative PCR approach, blood samples collected from Beninese pregnant women during the first antenatal visit (ANV) and at delivery including placental blood were screened for Plasmodium spp...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Luzia Veletzky, Mirjam Groger, Heimo Lagler, Julia Walochnik, Herbert Auer, Hans-Peter Fuehrer, Michael Ramharter
BACKGROUND: Malaria caused by Plasmodium ovale spp. has been neglected by and large from research and has received only little scientific attention during the past decades. Ovale malaria is considered to feature relapses by liver hypnozoites although scientific evidence for this paradigm is scarce. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, the case of a 16-year-old male, who presented with fevers to the outpatient department in Vienna, Austria, after travelling to Uganda and Papua New Guinea is described...
February 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
Masatsugu Kimura, Isao Teramoto, Chim W Chan, Zulkarnain Md Idris, James Kongere, Wataru Kagaya, Fumihiko Kawamoto, Ryoko Asada, Rie Isozumi, Akira Kaneko
BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnosis of malaria using acridine orange (AO) staining and a light microscope with a halogen lamp and interference filter was deployed in some malaria-endemic countries. However, it has not been widely adopted because: (1) the lamp was weak as an excitation light and the set-up did not work well under unstable power supply; and, (2) the staining of samples was frequently inconsistent. METHODS: The halogen lamp was replaced by a low-cost, blue light-emitting diode (LED) lamp...
February 7, 2018: Malaria Journal
Vánio André Mugabe, Sadia Ali, Imelda Chelene, Vanessa Onofre Monteiro, Onélia Guiliche, Argentina Felisbela Muianga, Flora Mula, Virgílio António, Inocêncio Chongo, John Oludele, Kerstin Falk, Igor A Paploski, Mitermayer G Reis, Uriel Kitron, Beate M Kümmerer, Guilherme S Ribeiro, Eduardo Samo Gudo
BACKGROUND: In January 2016, health authorities from Zambézia province, Mozambique reported the detection of some patients presenting with fever, arthralgia, and a positive result for chikungunya in an IgM-based Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT). We initiated a study to investigate a potential chikungunya outbreak in the city of Quelimane. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From February to June 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional study enrolling febrile patients attending five outpatient health units in Quelimane...
2018: PloS One
Eric Tzyy Jiann Chong, Joveen Wan Fen Neoh, Tiek Ying Lau, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Kek Heng Chua, Ping-Chin Lee
Malaria is a notorious disease which causes major global morbidity and mortality. This study aims to investigate the genetic and haplotype differences of Plasmodium knowlesi (P. knowlesi) isolates in Malaysian Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia based on the molecular analysis of the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene. The cyt b gene of 49 P. knowlesi isolates collected from Sabah, Malaysian Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia was amplified using PCR, cloned into a commercialized vector and sequenced. In addition, 45 cyt b sequences were retrieved from humans and macaques bringing to a total of 94 cyt b gene nucleotide sequences for phylogenetic analysis...
February 1, 2018: Acta Tropica
Adriana Calderaro, Giovanna Piccolo, Sara Montecchini, Mirko Buttrini, Sabina Rossi, Maria Loretana Dell'Anna, Valeria De Remigis, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Carlo Chezzi, Flora De Conto
BACKGROUND: Malaria is no longer endemic in Italy since 1970 when the World Health Organization declared Italy malaria-free, but it is now the most commonly imported disease. The aim of the study was to analyse the trend of imported malaria cases in Parma, Italy, during January 2013-June 2017, reporting also the treatment and the outcome of cases, exploring the comparison of the three diagnostic tests used for malaria diagnosis: microscopy, immunochromatographic assay (ICT) (BinaxNOW®) and Real-time PCR assays detecting Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale curtisi, Plasmodium ovale wallikeri, and Plasmodium knowlesi...
February 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ousmane Sy, El Hadji Amadou Niang, Magatte Ndiaye, Lassana Konaté, Abdoulaye Diallo, Elhadji Conco Ciré Ba, Fassiath Tairou, Elhadji Diouf, Badara Cissé, Oumar Gaye, Ousmane Faye
BACKGROUND: Scaling-up of effective anti-malarial control strategies in Central-West region of Senegal has resulted in the sharp decline in malaria prevalence in this area. However, despite these strategies, residual malaria transmission has been observed in some villages (hot spots). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of indoor residual spraying (IRS) with pirimiphos-methyl on malaria transmission in hot spot areas. METHODS: The malaria vector population dynamics were monitored in each of the six selected villages (4 of which used IRS, 2 were unsprayed control areas) using overnight human landing catches (HLC) and pyrethrum spray catches (PSC)...
February 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Sitang Maknitikul, Natthanej Luplertlop, Urai Chaisri, Yaowapa Maneerat, Sumate Ampawong
Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent malaria parasite species, causes severe symptoms especially acute lung injury (ALI), of which characterized by alveolar epithelium and endothelium destruction and accelerated to blood-gas-barrier breakdown. Parasitized erythrocytes, endothelial cells, monocytes, and cytokines are all involved in this mechanism, but hemozoin (HZ), the parasitic waste from heme detoxification, also mainly contributes. In addition, it is not clear why type II pneumocyte proliferation, alveolar restorative stage, is rare in malaria-associated ALI...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Thuy-Nhien Nguyen, Lorenz von Seidlein, Tuong-Vy Nguyen, Phuc-Nhi Truong, Son Do Hung, Huong-Thu Pham, Tam-Uyen Nguyen, Thanh Dong Le, Van Hue Dao, Mavuto Mukaka, Nicholas Pj Day, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp, Guy E Thwaites, Tran Tinh Hien
BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of Plasmodium species infections are asymptomatic with densities too low to be detectable with standard diagnostic techniques. The importance of such asymptomatic plasmodium infections in malaria transmission is probably related to their duration and density. To explore the duration of asymptomatic plasmodium infections and changes in parasite densities over time, a cohort of participants who were infected with Plasmodium parasites was observed over a 2-year follow-up period...
February 1, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Stephen J Rogerson, Meghna Desai, Alfredo Mayor, Elisa Sicuri, Steve M Taylor, Anna M van Eijk
Over the past 10 years, knowledge of the burden, economic costs, and consequences of malaria in pregnancy has improved, and the prevalence of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum has declined substantially in some geographical areas. In particular, studies outside of Africa have increased the evidence base of Plasmodium vivax in pregnancy. Rapid diagnostic tests have been poor at detecting malaria in pregnant women, while PCR has shown a high prevalence of low density infection, the clinical importance of which is unknown...
January 30, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Amélie Vantaux, Reingsey Samreth, Eak Por Piv, Nimol Khim, Saorin Kim, Laura Berne, Sophy Chy, Dysoley Lek, Sovannaroth Siv, Walter R Taylor, Didier Ménard
Background: Eliminating falciparum malaria in Cambodia is a top priority, requiring the implementation of novel tools and strategies to interrupt its transmission. To date, few data are available regarding the contributions to malaria transmission of symptomatic and asymptomatic carriers. Methods: Direct-membrane and skin feeding assays (DMFA, SFA) were performed, using Anopheles minimus and An. dirus, to determine infectivity of symptomatic falciparum-infected patients and malaria asymptomatic carriers; a subset of the latter were followed for two months to assess their transmission potential...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Patricia M Graves, Leslie Choi, Hellen Gelband, Paul Garner
BACKGROUND: The 8-aminoquinoline (8AQ) drugs act on Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes, which transmit malaria from infected people to mosquitoes. In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended a single dose of 0.25 mg/kg primaquine (PQ) be added to malaria treatment schedules in low-transmission areas or those with artemisinin resistance. This replaced the previous recommendation of 0.75 mg/kg, aiming to reduce haemolysis risk in people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, common in people living in malarious areas...
February 2, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Vito Baraka, Hypolite Muhindo Mavoko, Carolyn Nabasumba, Filbert Francis, Pascal Lutumba, Michael Alifrangis, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden
BACKGROUND: The emergence of resistance against artemisinin combination treatment is a major concern for malaria control. ACTs are recommended as the rescue treatment, however, there is limited evidence as to whether treatment and re-treatment with ACTs select for drug-resistant P. falciparum parasites. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of (re-)treatment using artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) on the selection of P. falciparum multidrug resistance-1 (Pfmdr1) alleles in clinical settings...
2018: PloS One
Takahiro Saito, Aoi Kikuchi, Akira Kaneko, Rie Isozumi, Isao Teramoto, Masatsugu Kimura, Noriyasu Hirasawa, Masahiro Hiratsuka
Malaria is caused by five species of Plasmodium in humans. Microscopy is currently used for pathogen detection, requiring considerable training and technical expertise as the parasites are often difficult to differentiate morphologically. Rapid diagnostic tests are as reliable as microscopy and offer faster diagnoses but possess lower detection limits and are incapable of distinguishing among the parasitic species. To improve global health efforts towards malaria control, a rapid, sensitive, species-specific, and economically viable diagnostic method is needed...
January 25, 2018: Parasitology International
Francesco Grandesso, Ousmane Guindo, Lynda Woi Messe, Rockyath Makarimi, Aliou Traore, Souleymane Dama, Ibrahim Maman Laminou, Jean Rigal, Martin de Smet, Odile Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Ogobara K Doumbo, Abdoulaye Djimdé, Jean-François Etard
BACKGROUND: Malaria endemic countries need to assess efficacy of anti-malarial treatments on a regular basis. Moreover, resistance to artemisinin that is established across mainland South-East Asia represents today a major threat to global health. Monitoring the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies is of paramount importance to detect as early as possible the emergence of resistance in African countries that toll the highest burden of malaria morbidity and mortality. METHODS: A WHO standard protocol was used to assess efficacy of the combinations artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ Winthrop®), dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ, Eurartesim®) and artemether-lumefantrine (AM-LM, Coartem®) taken under supervision and respecting pharmaceutical recommendations...
January 25, 2018: Malaria Journal
Jacek W Zawada, Yael L Dahan-Moss, Mbanga Muleba, Roch K Dabire, Hamid Maïga, Nelius Venter, Craig Davies, Richard H Hunt, Maureen Coetzee, Lizette L Koekemoer
BACKGROUND: Anopheles funestus has been recognized as a major malaria vector in Africa for over 100 years, but knowledge on many aspects of the biology of this species is still lacking. Anopheles funestus, as with most other anophelines, mate through swarming. A key event that is crucial for the An. funestus male to mate is genitalia rotation. This involves the 135° to 180° rotation of claspers, which are tipped with claws. This physical change then enables the male to grasp the female during copulation...
January 25, 2018: Malaria Journal
Kanako Komaki-Yasuda, Jeanne Perpétue Vincent, Masami Nakatsu, Yasuyuki Kato, Norio Ohmagari, Shigeyuki Kano
A microscopy-based diagnosis is the gold standard for the detection and identification of malaria parasites in a patient's blood. However, the detection of cases involving a low number of parasites and the differentiation of species sometimes requires a skilled microscopist. Although PCR-based diagnostic methods are already known to be very powerful tools, the time required to apply such methods is still much longer in comparison to traditional microscopic observation. Thus, improvements to PCR systems are sought to facilitate the more rapid and accurate detection of human malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum, P...
2018: PloS One
Prin Phunngam, Umarin Boonkue, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap, Michael J Bangs, Uraiwan Arunyawat
Precise mosquito species identification is an essential step for proper management and control of malaria vectors. Misidentification of members in the Anopheles dirus complex, some which are primary malaria vectors in Thailand and mainland Southeast Asia, remains problematic because of indistinguishable or overlapping morphological characters between sibling species. Moreover, there is a need for alternative methods, since the existing molecular techniques in the literature are not entirely satisfactory in differentiating all members in the An...
December 2017: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
Mary Kefi, Konstantinos Mavridis, Maria L Simões, George Dimopoulos, Inga Siden-Kiamos, John Vontas
An essential component of malaria vector control programmes is the detection of Plasmodium falciparum within its mosquito vectors, particularly in the salivary glands where the infective sporozoites reside. Several protocols have been developed for this purpose; however they require dissection of mosquito specimens prior to analysis. Here, a novel one-step RT-qPCR TaqMan diagnostic assay was developed for mosquitoes with infective Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites in the salivary glands. It is based on detection of the sporozoite-specific Pfslarp and Pfplp1 gene transcripts...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
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