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PCR malaria

Gregory J G Simpson, Vanessa Quan, John Frean, Darryn L Knobel, Jennifer Rossouw, Jacqueline Weyer, Tanguy Marcotty, Jacques Godfroid, Lucille H Blumberg
A lack of surveillance and diagnostics for zoonotic diseases in rural human clinics limits clinical awareness of these diseases. We assessed the prevalence of nine zoonotic pathogens in a pastoral, low-income, HIV-endemic community bordering wildlife reserves in South Africa. Two groups of participants were included: malaria-negative acute febrile illness (AFI) patients, called febrilers, at three clinics (n = 74) and second, farmers, herders, and veterinary staff found at five government cattle dip-tanks, called dip-tanksters (n = 64)...
April 17, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Allyson Guimarães Costa, Rajendranath Ramasawmy, Fernando Fonseca Almeida Val, Hiochelson Najibe Santos Ibiapina, Amanda Carvalho Oliveira, Andréa Monteiro Tarragô, Nadja Pinto Garcia, Maria Izabel Ovellar Heckmann, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Adriana Malheiro, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda
The efficiency of the immune system has been shaped throughout the evolutionary process allowing adaptations. In a Plasmodium vivax infection, the host attempts to develop an innate immune response to keep in check the parasite that is associated with inflammatory and regulatory processes. Production of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines simultaneously appears to be a balancing mechanism for the host to prevent the onset of severe disease. Changes in the dynamics of circulating cytokines production can influence the pathogenesis, severity of the disease and episodes of recurrent Plasmodium vivax malaria (Pv-malaria)...
April 12, 2018: Cytokine
Hamtandi Magloire Natama, Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, M Athanase Somé, Serge Henri Zango, Hermann Sorgho, Pieter Guetens, Maminata Coulibaly-Traoré, Innocent Valea, Petra F Mens, Henk D F H Schallig, Luc Kestens, Halidou Tinto, Anna Rosanas-Urgell
BACKGROUND: Infants are thought to be protected against malaria during the first months of life mainly due to passage of maternal antibodies. However, in high transmission settings, malaria in early infancy is not uncommon and susceptibility to the infections varies between individuals. This study aimed to determine malaria morbidity and infection during early childhood in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: Malariometric indices were determined over 1-year follow-up in a birth cohort of 734 infants living in Nanoro health district...
April 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
Morakot Kaewthamasorn, Mika Takeda, Tawee Saiwichai, Jesse N Gitaka, Sonthaya Tiawsirisup, Yuhei Imasato, Ehab Mossaad, Ali Sarani, Winai Kaewlamun, Manun Channumsin, Suchart Chaiworakul, Wichit Katepongpun, Surapong Teeveerapunya, Jarus Panthong, Dominic K Mureithi, Saw Bawm, Lat Lat Htun, Mar Mar Win, Ahmed Ali Ismail, Abdalla Mohamed Ibrahim, Keisuke Suganuma, Hassan Hakimi, Ryo Nakao, Ken Katakura, Masahito Asada, Osamu Kaneko
Plasmodium was first identified in a goat in Angola in 1923, and only recently characterized by DNA isolation from a goat blood sample in Zambia. Goats were first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent approximately 10,000 years ago, and are now globally distributed. It is not known if the Plasmodium identified in African goats originated from parasites circulating in the local ungulates, or if it co-evolved in the goat before its domestication. To address this question, we performed PCR-based surveillance using a total of 1,299 goat blood samples collected from Sudan and Kenya in Africa, Iran in west Asia, and Myanmar and Thailand in southeast Asia...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nerly Shirère Gampio Gueye, Francine Ntoumi, Christevy Vouvoungui, Simon Charles Kobawila, Michael N Kombo, Alain Mouanga, Julia Deibert, Felix Koukouikila-Koussounda
As in many sub-Saharan African countries, the burden of malaria has been reduced in the Republic of Congo as a result of massive deployment of insecticide treated nets and availability of artemisinin-combinations therapies (ACTs). High to moderate genetic diversity of msp-1 gene of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) has been reported from different parts of the world but limited data are available from Central Africa including the Republic of Congo. For this reason, the aim of study was to investigate the P...
April 4, 2018: Acta Tropica
Dilip R Karnad, Guy A Richards, Gisele Sampaio Silva, Pravin Amin
Tropical infections form 20-30% of ICU admissions in tropical countries. Diarrheal diseases, malaria, dengue, typhoid, rickettsial diseases and leptospirosis are common causes of critical illness. Overlapping clinical features makes initial diagnosis challenging. A systematic approach involving (1) history of specific continent or country of travel, (2) exposure to specific environments (forests or farms, water sports, consumption of exotic foods), (3) incubation period, and (4) pattern of organ involvement and subtle differences in manifestations help in differential diagnosis and choice of initial empiric therapy...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Milena Camargo, Sara C Soto-De León, Luisa Del Río-Ospina, Astrid C Páez, Zanony González, Edgardo González, Juan R Cubides, Paola A Camargo-Ayala, Manuel E Patarroyo, Manuel A Patarroyo
Malaria outbreaks have been reported in recent years in the Colombian Amazon region, malaria has been re-emerging in areas where it was previously controlled. Information from malaria transmission networks and knowledge about the population characteristics influencing the dispersal of parasite species is limited. This study aimed to determine the distribution patterns of Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae and P. falciparum single and mixed infections, as well as the significant socio-spatial groupings relating to the appearance of such infections...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jonathan B Parr, Olivia Anderson, Jonathan J Juliano, Steven R Meshnick
BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) that detect histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) are used throughout Africa for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, recent reports indicate that parasites lacking the pfhrp2 and/or histidine-rich protein 3 (pfhrp3) genes, which produce antigens detected by these RDTs, are common in select regions of South America, Asia, and Africa. Proving the absence of a gene is challenging, and multiple PCR assays targeting these genes have been described...
April 2, 2018: Malaria Journal
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine are used as first-line artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in west Africa. Pyronaridine-artesunate and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine are potentially useful for diversification of ACTs in this region, but further safety and efficacy data are required on malaria retreatment. METHODS: We did a randomised, multicentre, open-label, longitudinal, controlled phase 3b/4 clinical trial at seven tertiary centres in Burkina Faso, Guinea, and Mali...
March 29, 2018: Lancet
Guenter Froeschl, Marcus Beissner, Kristina Huber, Gisela Bretzel, Michael Hoelscher, Camilla Rothe
BACKGROUND: Thailand is a major destination for German travellers with more than 760,000 arrivals in 2015. At the same time, malaria is a concern in travel recommendations with regard to this destination. The World Malaria Report of 2016 mentions only P. falciparum and P. vivax as prevalent species for Thailand, however, P. knowlesi infections have been occasionally reported in Thailand. In German travellers, only five cases of P. knowlesi infections have been reported to date. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old German male tourist travelled to Thailand from 25 December 2016 to 13 January 2017...
April 2, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Krishn Pratap Singh, Shayan Shakeel, Namrata Naskar, Aakanksha Bharti, Asha Kaul, Shadab Anwar, Shweta Kumari, Amod Kumar, Jiv Kant Singh, Nutan Kumari, Birendra Kumar Gupta, Purwa Manna, Vishwaprakash Roy, Sneh Lata, Om P Singh, Manoranjan Prasad Sinha, Ajay Kumar Sharma, Mohammad Sohail
BACKGROUND: The combinatorial effects of Plasmodium infection, perturbation of inflammatory responses and the dichotomic role of TNF promoter polymorphism has potential clinical and physiological relevance during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: This coordinated orchestration instigated us to investigate the circulating level of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) employing ELISA in a stratified group of samples and the plausible genetic association of TNF-α -308 G/A using PCR-RFLP/sequencing during Plasmodium vivax infection in pregnancy...
March 27, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Gleb N Artemov, Mikhail I Gordeev, Alina A Kokhanenko, Anton V Moskaev, Alena I Velichevskaya, Vladimir N Stegniy, Igor V Sharakhov, Maria V Sharakhova
BACKGROUND: Anopheles beklemishevi is a member of the Maculipennis group of malaria mosquitoes that has the most northern distribution among other members of the group. Although a cytogenetic map for the larval salivary gland chromosomes of this species has been developed, a high-quality standard cytogenetic photomap that enables genomics and population genetics studies of this mosquito at the adult stage is still lacking. METHODS: In this study, a cytogenetic map for the polytene chromosomes of An...
March 27, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Alison T Isaacs, Henry D Mawejje, Sean Tomlinson, Daniel J Rigden, Martin J Donnelly
BACKGROUND: To combat malaria transmission, the Ugandan government has embarked upon an ambitious programme of indoor residual spraying (IRS) with a carbamate class insecticide, bendiocarb. In preparation for this campaign, we characterized bendiocarb resistance and associated transcriptional variation among Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes from two sites in Uganda. RESULTS: Gene expression in two mosquito populations displaying some resistance to bendiocarb (95% and 79% An...
March 27, 2018: BMC Genomics
Juan Ricardo Cubides, Paola Andrea Camargo-Ayala, Carlos Hernando Niño, Diego Garzón-Ospina, Anggie Ortega-Ortegón, Estefany Ospina-Cantillo, María Fernanda Orduz-Durán, Manuel Elkin Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo
BACKGROUND: Malaria continues being a public health problem worldwide. Plasmodium vivax is the species causing the largest number of cases of malaria in Asia and South America. Due to the lack of a completely effective anti-malarial vaccine, controlling this disease has been based on transmission vector management, rapid diagnosis and suitable treatment. However, parasite resistance to anti-malarial drugs has become a major yet-to-be-overcome challenge. This study was thus aimed at determining pvmdr1, pvdhfr, pvdhps and pvcrt-o gene mutations and haplotypes from field samples obtained from an endemic area in the Colombian Amazonian region...
March 27, 2018: Malaria Journal
Inge Sutanto, Ayleen Kosasih, Iqbal R F Elyazar, Deddy R Simanjuntak, Tri A Larasati, M Sopiyudin Dahlan, Isra Wahid, Ivo Mueller, Cristian Koepfli, Rita Kusriastuti, Asik Surya, Ferdinand J Laihad, William A Hawley, Frank H Collins, J Kevin Baird, Neil F Lobo
Background: Mass screening and treatment (MST) aims to reduce malaria risk in communities by identifying and treating infected without regard to illness. Methods: A cluster-randomized trial evaluated malaria incidence with and without MST. Clusters were randomized to three, two, or no MST interventions: MST3=6 clusters (156 households/670 individuals); MST2=5 clusters (89 households/423 individuals); and MST0=5 clusters (174 households/777 individuals). All clusters completed the study with 15 residents withdrawing...
March 22, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Petra Emmerich, Angela Mika, Ronald von Possel, Anne Rackow, Yang Liu, Herbert Schmitz, Stephan Günther, Kurtesh Sherifi, Barie Halili, Xhevat Jakupi, Lindita Berisha, Salih Ahmeti, Christina Deschermeier
As the most widespread tick-borne arbovirus causing infections in numerous countries in Asia, Africa and Europe, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV, family Nairoviridae) was included in the WHO priority list of emerging pathogens needing urgent Research & Development attention. To ensure preparedness for potential future outbreak scenarios, reliable diagnostic tools for identification of acute cases as well as for performance of seroprevalence studies are necessary. Here, the CCHFV ortholog of the major bunyavirus antigen, the nucleoprotein (NP), was recombinantly expressed in E...
March 26, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Saloua Ladeb, Nour Ben Abdejlil, Najla Fakhfakh, Amel Lakhal, Dorra Belloumi, Leila Ben Hamed, Aicha Kallel, Lamia Torjman, Rym El Fatimi, Slama Hmida, Kalthoum Kallel, Tarek Ben Othman
A 27-year-old man with severe aplastic anemia underwent bone marrow transplantation from his HLA identical brother in July 2016. Conditioning included ATGAM 30 mg/kg for 3 days and Cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg for 4 days. The patient received several platelet and red blood cell transfusions before and after the conditioning. The patient received broad spectrum antibiotics and caspofungin because persistant febrile neutropenia without bacteriological or mycological documentation. Hemophagocytic syndrome was diagnosed on day +12...
March 23, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Ruimin Zhou, Ying Liu, Suhua Li, Yuling Zhao, Fang Huang, Chengyun Yang, Dan Qian, Deling Lu, Yan Deng, Hongwei Zhang, Bianli Xu
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium ovale has two different subspecies: P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri, which may be distinguished by the gene potra encoding P. ovale tryptophan-rich antigen. The sequence and size of potra gene was variable between the two P. ovale spp., and more fragment sizes were found compared to previous studies. Further information about the diversity of potra genes in these two P. ovale spp. will be needed. METHODS: A total of 110 dried blood samples were collected from the clinical patients infected with P...
March 23, 2018: Malaria Journal
Omar Thiaw, Souleymane Doucouré, Seynabou Sougoufara, Charles Bouganali, Lassana Konaté, Nafissatou Diagne, Ousmane Faye, Cheikh Sokhna
BACKGROUND: The use of insecticides, through indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs), is essential to control malaria vectors. However, the sustainability of these tools is challenged by the spread of insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes. This study was conducted to assess the susceptibility to insecticides and to determine the resistance mechanisms in malaria vectors in Dielmo, a rural area of western Senegal where LLINs were introduced a decade ago...
March 22, 2018: Malaria Journal
Nisha Siwal, Upasana Shyamsunder Singh, Manoswini Dash, Sonalika Kar, Swati Rani, Charu Rawal, Rajkumar Singh, Anupkumar R Anvikar, Veena Pande, Aparup Das
Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease, caused by five different species of the genus Plasmodium, and is endemic to many tropical and sub-tropical countries of the globe. At present, malaria diagnosis at the primary health care level in India is conducted by either microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT). In recent years, molecular diagnosis (by PCR assay), has emerged as the most sensitive method for malaria diagnosis. India is highly endemic to malaria and shoulders the burden of two major malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and P...
2018: PloS One
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