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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723116/integrated-magnetic-bead-quantum-dot-immunoassay-for-malaria-detection
#1
Chloe Kim, Gwendolyn Hoffmann, Peter C Searson
Malaria persists as a disease of high morbidity and mortality due to improper diagnosis, overuse of drugs, rapidly evolving drug resistant parasites, and poor disease monitoring. The two common tests used in developing countries, microscopic examination of Glemsa slides and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), have limitations associated with variability in specificity and sensitivity, and qualitative outcome. Here we report on an immunoassay using magnetic beads for capture and quantum dots for detection of histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)...
June 23, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722583/a-direct-from-blood-reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-monitoring-falciparum-malaria-parasite-transmission-in-elimination-settings
#2
Brian J Taylor, Kjerstin Lanke, Shanna L Banman, Isabelle Morlais, Merribeth J Morin, Teun Bousema, Sanna R Rijpma, Stephanie K Yanow
We describe a novel one-step reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (direct RT-PCR) for Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites that amplifies RNA targets directly from blood. We developed the assay to identify gametocyte-specific transcripts in parasites from patient blood samples, as a means of monitoring malaria parasite transmission in field settings. To perform the test, blood is added directly to a master mix in PCR tubes and analyzed by real-time PCR. The limit of detection of the assay on both conventional and portable real-time PCR instruments was 100 parasites/mL for 18S rRNA, and 1,000 parasites/mL for asexual (PFE0065W) and gametocyte (PF14_0367, PFGEXP5) mRNA targets...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719306/seasonal-variation-in-the-epidemiology-of-asymptomatic-plasmodium-falciparum-infections-across-two-catchment-areas-in-bongo-district-ghana
#3
Kathryn E Tiedje, Abraham R Oduro, Godfred Agongo, Thomas Anyorigiya, Daniel Azongo, Timothy Awine, Anita Ghansah, Mercedes Pascual, Kwadwo A Koram, Karen P Day
Understanding the epidemiology of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections is critical for countries to move toward malaria elimination. Using different methods for parasite detection, we evaluated how seasonality, spatial location, and other factors affect the age-specific epidemiology of asymptomatic malaria in Bongo District, Ghana. Asymptomatic prevalence by microscopy decreased significantly from 42.5% at the end of the wet to 27.5% at the end of the dry season (P < 0.001). Using the 18S rRNA polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), all microscopy-negative samples were screened and prevalence of submicroscopic infections also decreased significantly from the wet (55...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712360/resisting-and-tolerating-p-falciparum-in-pregnancy-under-different-malaria-transmission-intensities
#4
Nicaise Tuikue Ndam, Emmanuel Mbuba, Raquel González, Pau Cisteró, Simon Kariuki, Esperança Sevene, María Rupérez, Ana Maria Fonseca, Anifa Vala, Sonia Maculuve, Alfons Jiménez, Llorenç Quintó, Peter Ouma, Michael Ramharter, John J Aponte, Arsenio Nhacolo, Achille Massougbodji, Valerie Briand, Peter G Kremsner, Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma, Meghna Desai, Eusebio Macete, Michel Cot, Clara Menéndez, Alfredo Mayor
BACKGROUND: Resistance and tolerance to Plasmodium falciparum can determine the progression of malaria disease. However, quantitative evidence of tolerance is still limited. We investigated variations in the adverse impact of P. falciparum infections among African pregnant women under different intensities of malaria transmission. METHODS: P. falciparum at delivery was assessed by microscopy, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and placental histology in 946 HIV-uninfected and 768 HIV-infected pregnant women from Benin, Gabon, Kenya and Mozambique...
July 17, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695836/a-case-series-of-imported-malaria-caused-by-plasmodium-falciparum-in-kayseri-and-review-of-literature
#5
Necati Mumcu, Hayati Demiraslan, Ahmet Dündar, Salih Kuk, Süleyman Yazar, Mehmet Doğanay
Malaria is a major worldwide public health problem. In the last years, no domestic cases of malaria have been detected and cases of imported malaria exist only in Turkey. In this study, clinical and laboratory findings of five Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria patients who were admitted to the emergency department between January 2013 and December 2015 were retrospectively presented. One of the patients was an African student, and the other patients had a history of travelling to Africa. Ring formation was observed when Giemsa staining was performed on the blood smears of all patients, and in three patients, P...
June 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691648/use-of-a-real-time-pcr-to-explore-the-intensity-of-plasmodium-spp-infections-in-native-endemic-and-introduced-new-zealand-birds
#6
D C Sijbranda, B D Gartrell, Z L Grange, L Howe
Avian malaria, caused by Plasmodium spp., is an emerging disease in New Zealand (NZ). To detect Plasmodium spp. infection and quantify parasite load in NZ birds, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (qPCR) protocol was used and compared with a nested PCR (nPCR) assay. A total of 202 blood samples from 14 bird species with known nPCR results were tested. The qPCR prevalences for introduced, native and endemic species groups were 70, 11 and 21%, respectively, with a sensitivity and specificity of 96·7 and 98%, respectively, for the qPCR, while a sensitivity and specificity of 80·9 and 85·4% were determined for the nPCR...
July 10, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686299/rantes-levels-as-a-determinant-of-falciparum-malaria-severity-or-recovery
#7
Dipankar Bujarbaruah, Manash Pratim Kalita, Varghav Baruah, Tarun Kumar Basumatary, Saraju Hazarika, Ramie H Begum, Subhash Medhi, Sujoy Bose
The study explored the role of differential RANTES concentrations, its receptor CCR5 expression, and resulting immunomodulation in the pathogenesis and/or recovery from falciparum malaria METHODS: The study population included cases of uncomplicated malaria (UC-M, N=128, enrolled on follow-up basis), severe malaria (SM, N=25), and healthy controls (N=112). Serum RANTES and TNF-α levels were evaluated by ELISA. Monocyte levels and activation profile was studied by flowcytometry. Differential mRNA expression profile was studied by Realtime-PCR...
July 7, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683750/use-of-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-tests-by-community-health-workers-in-afghanistan-cluster-randomised-trial
#8
Toby Leslie, Mark Rowland, Amy Mikhail, Bonnie Cundill, Barbara Willey, Asif Alokozai, Ismail Mayan, Anwar Hasanzai, Sayed Habibullah Baktash, Nader Mohammed, Molly Wood, Habib-U-Rahman Rahimi, Baptiste Laurent, Cyril Buhler, Christopher J M Whitty
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends parasitological diagnosis of malaria before treatment, but use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) by community health workers (CHWs) has not been fully tested within health services in south and central Asia. mRDTs could allow CHWs to diagnose malaria accurately, improving treatment of febrile illness. METHODS: A cluster randomised trial in community health services was undertaken in Afghanistan. The primary outcome was the proportion of suspected malaria cases correctly treated for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed malaria and PCR negative cases receiving no antimalarial drugs measured at the level of the patient...
July 7, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683059/babesiosis-surveillance-wisconsin-2001-2015
#9
Elizabeth Stein, Lina I Elbadawi, James Kazmierczak, Jeffrey P Davis
Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease caused primarily by Babesia microti, an intraerythocytic protozoan. Babesia microti, like the causal agents for Lyme disease and anaplasmosis, is endemic to the northeastern and upper midwestern United States where it is usually transmitted by the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Although babesiosis is usually a mild to moderate illness, older or immunocompromised persons can develop a serious malaria-like illness that can be fatal without prompt treatment. The most common initial clinical signs and symptoms of babesiosis (fever, fatigue, chills, and diaphoresis) are nonspecific and present diagnostic challenges that can contribute to delays in diagnosis and effective treatment with atovaquone and azithromycin (1)...
July 7, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681914/2-000-year-old-%C3%AE-thalassemia-case-in-sardinia-suggests-malaria-was-endemic-by-the-roman-period
#10
Claudia Viganó, Cordula Haas, Frank J Rühli, Abigail Bouwman
OBJECTIVES: The island of Sardinia has one of the highest incidence rates of β-thalassemia in Europe due to its long history of endemic malaria, which, according to historical records, was introduced around 2,600 years ago by the Punics and only became endemic around the Middle Ages. In particular, the cod39 mutation is responsible for more than 95% of all β-thalassemia cases observed on the island. Debates surround the origin of the mutation. Some argue that its presence in the Western Mediterranean reflects the migration of people away from Sardinia, others that it reflects the colonization of the island by the Punics who might have carried the disease allele...
July 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681816/clinical-and-laboratory-profile-of-dengue-viral-infections-in-and-around-mangalore-india
#11
Tina Damodar, Meena Dias, Reeta Mani, K A Shilpa, Ashwini Manoor Anand, V Ravi, Jutang Tiewsoh
BACKGROUND: Dengue (DEN) is being recognised as the world's major emerging tropical disease. Clinically, DEN may resemble other infections such as malaria, leptospirosis, and typhoid, and thus, laboratory investigations are required for definitive diagnosis. Secondary DEN infection, caused most often by dengue virus (DENV) serotypes 2 and 3, is known to present with severe disease manifestations. This study was undertaken to examine the clinical and laboratory profile of DEN viral infections and to determine the circulating serotypes in and around Mangalore, India...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680086/host-age-and-expression-of-genes-involved-in-red-blood-cell-invasion-in-plasmodium-falciparum-field-isolates
#12
Aida Valmaseda, Quique Bassat, Pedro Aide, Pau Cisteró, Alfons Jiménez, Aina Casellas, Sonia Machevo, Ruth Aguilar, Betuel Sigaúque, Virander S Chauhan, Christine Langer, James Beeson, Chetan Chitnis, Pedro L Alonso, Deepak Gaur, Alfredo Mayor
Plasmodium falciparum proteins involved in erythrocyte invasion are main targets of acquired immunity and important vaccine candidates. We hypothesized that anti-parasite immunity acquired upon exposure would limit invasion-related gene (IRG) expression and affect the clinical impact of the infection. 11 IRG transcript levels were measured in P. falciparum isolates by RT-PCR, and IgG/IgM against invasion ligands by Luminex®, in 50 Mozambican adults, 25 children with severe malaria (SM) and 25 with uncomplicated malaria (UM)...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679443/mosquitoes-in-the-danube-delta-searching-for-vectors-of-filarioid-helminths-and-avian-malaria
#13
Angela Monica Ionică, Carina Zittra, Victoria Wimmer, Natascha Leitner, Jan Votýpka, David Modrý, Andrei Daniel Mihalca, Hans-Peter Fuehrer
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes are arthropods of major importance to animal and human health because they are able to transmit pathogenic agents such as filarioids (Spirurida), vector-borne nematodes, which reside in the tissues of vertebrates. In Europe, recent research has mostly focused on mosquito-borne zoonotic species, while others remain neglected. Mosquitoes are also vectors of avian malaria, which has an almost worldwide distribution, and is caused by several Plasmodium species and lineages, the most common being P...
July 5, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678846/malaria-in-dielmo-a-senegal-village-is-its-elimination-possible-after-seven-years-of-implementation-of-long-lasting-insecticide-treated-nets
#14
Amélé Nyedzie Wotodjo, Souleymane Doucoure, Jean Gaudart, Nafissatou Diagne, Fatoumata Diene Sarr, Ngor Faye, Adama Tall, Didier Raoult, Cheikh Sokhna
BACKGROUND: The malaria burden has decreased significantly in recent years in Africa through the widespread use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). However, the occurrence of malaria resurgences, the loss of immunity of exposed populations constitute among other factors, serious concerns about the future of malaria elimination efforts. This study investigated the evolution of malaria morbidity in Dielmo (Senegal) before and after the implementation of LLINs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676097/genetic-diversity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-populations-in-southeast-and-western-myanmar
#15
Than Naing Soe, Yanrui Wu, Myo Win Tun, Xin Xu, Yue Hu, Yonghua Ruan, Aung Ye Naung Win, Myat Htut Nyunt, Nan Cho Nwe Mon, Kay Thwe Han, Khin Myo Aye, James Morris, Pincan Su, Zhaoqing Yang, Myat Phone Kyaw, Liwang Cui
BACKGROUND: The genetic diversity of malaria parasites reflects the complexity and size of the parasite populations. This study was designed to explore the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum populations collected from two southeastern areas (Shwekyin and Myawaddy bordering Thailand) and one western area (Kyauktaw bordering Bangladesh) of Myanmar. METHODS: A total of 267 blood samples collected from patients with acute P. falciparum infections during 2009 and 2010 were used for genotyping at the merozoite surface protein 1 (Msp1), Msp2 and glutamate-rich protein (Glurp) loci...
July 4, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673292/effect-of-pharmacogenetics-on-plasma-lumefantrine-pharmacokinetics-and-malaria-treatment-outcome-in-pregnant-women
#16
Ritah F Mutagonda, Appolinary A R Kamuhabwa, Omary M S Minzi, Siriel N Massawe, Muhammad Asghar, Manijeh V Homann, Anna Färnert, Eleni Aklillu
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy has considerable effects on the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs used to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The role of pharmacogenetic variation on anti-malarial drug disposition and efficacy during pregnancy is not well investigated. The study aimed to examine the effect of pharmacogenetics on lumefantrine (LF) pharmacokinetics and treatment outcome in pregnant women. METHODS: Pregnant women with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled and treated with artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) at Mkuranga and Kisarawe district hospitals in Coast Region of Tanzania...
July 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671944/predominance-of-asymptomatic-and-sub-microscopic-infections-characterizes-the-plasmodium-gametocyte-reservoir-in-the-peruvian-amazon
#17
Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, Juan José Contreras-Mancilla, Roberson Ramirez, Mitchel Guzmán-Guzmán, Gabriel Carrasco-Escobar, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Joseph M Vinetz, Dionicia Gamboa, Anna Rosanas-Urgell
Malaria transmission requires that Anopheles mosquitoes ingest Plasmodium gametocyte stages circulating in the human bloodstream. In the context of malaria elimination, understanding the epidemiology of gametocytes relative to all Plasmodium infections and the contribution of asymptomatic and sub-microscopic parasite carriers to the gametocyte reservoir is necessary, especially in low endemic settings with predominance of P.vivax. A 13-month longitudinal study was conducted in two communities (n = 1935 individuals) of Loreto Department, Peru, with five active screenings for Plasmodium infections and gametocyte stages by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR, respectively...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671630/prevalence-of-inherited-hemoglobin-disorders-and-relationships-with-anemia-and-micronutrient-status-among-children-in-yaound%C3%A3-and-douala-cameroon
#18
Reina Engle-Stone, Thomas N Williams, Martin Nankap, Alex Ndjebayi, Marie-Madeleine Gimou, Yannick Oyono, Ann Tarini, Kenneth H Brown, Ralph Green
Information on the etiology of anemia is necessary to design effective anemia control programs. Our objective was to measure the prevalence of inherited hemoglobin disorders (IHD) in a representative sample of children in urban Cameroon, and examine the relationships between IHD and anemia. In a cluster survey of children 12-59 months of age (n = 291) in Yaoundé and Douala, we assessed hemoglobin (Hb), malaria infection, and plasma indicators of inflammation and micronutrient status. Hb S was detected by HPLC, and α⁺thalassemia (3...
July 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670638/a-comparison-of-rapid-diagnostic-testing-by-plasmodium-lactate-dehydrogenase-and-quantitative-buffy-coat-technique-in-malaria-diagnosis-in-children
#19
Ifeanyi Kanayo Ifeorah, Biobele J Brown, Olugbemiro O Sodeinde
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) considers early and rapid diagnosis as one of the strategies to control malaria. This study compared the performance of Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) test and the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with microscopy as the gold standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved children ages 0-5 years who presented with a history of fever at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665230/documentation-of-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-spp-infection-and-associated-mortality-in-a-common-loon-gavia-immer
#20
Ellen S Martinsen, Inga F Sidor, Sean Flint, John Cooley, Mark A Pokras
We report malaria parasite infection ( Plasmodium spp.) and associated mortality in a Common Loon (Gavia immer) found dead on Lake Umbagog in New Hampshire, US. Necropsy findings showed the bird to be in good body condition but with pericardial edema and splenomegaly. Histopathological examination of brain and heart revealed intraendothelial and intrahistiocytic proliferation of Plasmodium merozoites with myocarditis. By PCR, the presence of Plasmodium parasites was confirmed from all tissues screened including spleen, muscle, and kidney...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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