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PCR malaria

Karen Kerkhof, Vincent Sluydts, Somony Heng, Saorin Kim, Myrthe Pareyn, Laura Willen, Lydie Canier, Siv Sovannaroth, Didier Ménard, Tho Sochantha, Marc Coosemans, Lies Durnez
BACKGROUND: Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous, especially in low endemic countries, such as Cambodia. This results in geographical clusters of residual transmission in the dry, low transmission season, which can fuel the transmission to wider areas or populations during the wet season. A better understanding of spatial clustering of malaria can lead to a more efficient, targeted strategy to reduce malaria transmission. This study aims to evaluate the potential of the use of serological markers to define spatial patterns in malaria exposure...
October 19, 2016: Malaria Journal
Tiengkham Pongvongsa, Daisuke Nonaka, Moritoshi Iwagami, Masami Nakatsu, Panom Phongmany, Futoshi Nishimoto, Jun Kobayashi, Bouasy Hongvanthon, Paul T Brey, Kazuhiko Moji, Toshihiro Mita, Shigeyuki Kano
BACKGROUND: In the Lao PDR, malaria morbidity and mortality have remarkably decreased over the past decade. However, asymptomatic infections in rural villages contribute to the on-going local transmission. The primary objective of this study was to explore the characteristics of infections in a malaria-endemic district of the Lao PDR. The specific objectives were to investigate the prevalence and species of malaria parasites using molecular methods and to assess individual and household parasite levels and the characteristics associated with malaria infection...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
Abel Kakuru, Paul Natureeba, Mary K Muhindo, Tamara D Clark, Diane V Havlir, Deborah Cohan, Grant Dorsey, Moses R Kamya, Theodore Ruel
BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants suffer high morbidity and mortality in the first year of life compared to HIV-unexposed, uninfected (HUU) infants, but accurate data on the contribution of malaria are limited. METHODS: The incidence of febrile illnesses and malaria were evaluated in a birth cohort of HEU infants. Infants were prescribed daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) prophylaxis from 6 weeks of age until exclusion of HIV-infection after cessation of breastfeeding...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
Praveen K Bharti, Man M Shukla, Pascal Ringwald, Sri Krishna, Pushpendra P Singh, Ajay Yadav, Sweta Mishra, Usha Gahlot, Jai P Malaiya, Amit Kumar, Shambhu Prasad, Pradeep Baghel, Mohan Singh, Jaiprakash Vadadi, Mrigendra P Singh, Maria Dorina G Bustos, Leonard I Ortega, Eva-Maria Christophel, Sher S Kashyotia, Gagan S Sonal, Neeru Singh
BACKGROUND: Anti-malarial drug resistance continues to be a leading threat to malaria control efforts and calls for continued monitoring of waning efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Artesunate + sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (AS + SP) is used for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in India. However, resistance against AS + SP is emerged in northeastern states. Therefore, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is the recommended first line treatment for falciparum malaria in north eastern states...
October 13, 2016: Malaria Journal
Rapeephan R Maude, Aniruddha Ghose, Rasheda Samad, Hanna K de Jong, Masako Fukushima, Lalith Wijedoru, Mahtab Uddin Hassan, Md Amir Hossain, Md Rezaul Karim, Abdullah Abu Sayeed, Stannie van den Ende, Sujat Pal, A S M Zahed, Wahid Rahman, Rifat Karnain, Rezina Islam, Dung Thi Ngoc Tran, Tuyen Thanh Ha, Anh Hong Pham, James I Campbell, H Rogier van Doorn, Richard J Maude, Tom van der Poll, W Joost Wiersinga, Nicholas P J Day, Stephen Baker, Arjen M Dondorp, Christopher M Parry, Md Abul Faiz
BACKGROUND: Fever is a common cause of hospital admission in Bangladesh but causative agents, other than malaria, are not routinely investigated. Enteric fever is thought to be common. METHODS: Adults and children admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital with a temperature of ≥38.0 °C were investigated using a blood smear for malaria, a blood culture, real-time PCR to detect Salmonella Typhi, S. Paratyphi A and other pathogens in blood and CSF and an NS1 antigen dengue ELISA...
October 13, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Vikram Londhey, Sachee Agrawal, Nilima Vaidya, Seema Kini, J S Shastri, Sujatha Sunil
INTRODUCTION: There have been various studies from India describing the acute presentation and the long-term sequalae of Chikungunya (CHIKV) infection. However, there are very few studies discussing the Chikungunya-Dengue (DENV) co-infection from Western India. The present project was undertaken to study the clinical features of Dengue and Chikungunya co-infection and compare with Chikungunya mono-infection; correlate the clinical findings with seroprevalence and molecular identification of Dengue and Chikungunya using IgM ELISA and RTPCR...
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Sandeep K Shrivastava, Esther Dalko, Delphine Delcroix-Genete, Fabien Herbert, Pierre-André Cazenave, Sylviane Pied
Astrocytes and microglia are activated during cerebral malaria (CM) and contribute to the production and release of several mediators during neuroinflammatory processes. Whether these changes are the consequence of a direct crosstalk between glial cells and the malarial parasite and how these cells participate in the pathogenesis of CM is not yet clear. We therefore examined the interaction of astrocytes and microglia with Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected red blood cells using primary cell cultures derived from newborn C57BL/6 mice...
October 3, 2016: Glia
Bhavna Gupta, Daniel M Parker, Qi Fan, B P Niranjan Reddy, Guiyun Yan, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Liwang Cui
Malaria transmission along international borders of the Greater Mekong Subregion is a big challenge for regional malaria elimination. At the Thai-Myanmar border, Plasmodium falciparum cases have dropped dramatically; however, increasing P. vivax prevalence and the emerging reports on hidden malaria burden due to asymptomatic infections demand attention. We conducted cross-sectional surveys to detect asymptomatic malaria infections in a small village located at Thai-Myanmar border and genotyped P. vivax infections in order to understand the level of genetic diversity on such a microgeographic scale...
September 28, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Thato Motshoge, Grace K Ababio, Larysa Aleksenko, John Read, Elias Peloewetse, Mazhani Loeto, Tjantilili Mosweunyane, Kentse Moakofhi, Davies S Ntebele, Simon Chihanga, Mpho Motlaleng, Anderson Chinorumba, Moses Vurayai, Jeffrey M Pernica, Giacomo M Paganotti, Isaac K Quaye
BACKGROUND: Botswana is one of eight SADC countries targeting malaria elimination by 2018. Through spirited upscaling of control activities and passive surveillance, significant reductions in case incidence of Plasmodium falciparum (0.96 - 0.01) was achieved between 2008 and 2012. As part of the elimination campaign, active detection of asymptomatic Plasmodium species by a highly sensitive method was deemed necessary. This study was carried out to determine asymptomatic Plasmodium species carriage by nested PCR in the country, in 2012...
September 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Nasreen Akhtar, B N Nagpal, Neera Kapoor, Aruna Srivastava, Neena Valecha
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Malaria has become endemic and subject of concern in most part of the India especially Northeastern states of India. Surveys before 2000 revealed that Anopheles minimus was major vector responsible for transmission of malaria in this region followed by An. dirus and An. fluviatilis. However, recent studies indicate replacement of An. minimus vector by An. culicifacies due to different ecological changes and change in landuse pattern etc. The objective of present study was to explore the vectorial role of An...
July 2016: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Margarete do Socorro Mendonça Gomes, José Luiz Fernandes Vieira, Gustavo Capatti Cassiano, Lise Musset, Eric Legrand, Mathieu Nacher, Vanja Suely Calvosa D'Almeida Couto, Ricardo Luiz Dantas Machado, Álvaro Augusto Ribeiro D'Almeida Couto
Malaria is a major health problem for people who live on the border between Brazil and French Guiana. Here we discuss Plasmodium vivax distribution pattern in the town of Oiapoque, Amapá State using the circumsporozoite (CS) gene as a marker. Ninety-one peripheral blood samples from P. vivax patients have been studied. Of these, 64 individuals were from the municipality of Oiapoque (Amapá State, Brazil) and 27 patients from French Guiana (August to December 2011). DNA extraction was performed, and a fragment of the P...
2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Mandingha Kosso Etoka-Beka, Francine Ntoumi, Michael Kombo, Julia Deibert, Pierre Poulain, Christevy Vouvoungui, Simon Charles Kobawila, Felix Koukouikila-Koussounda
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the proportion of malaria infection in febrile children consulting a paediatric hospital in Brazzaville, to determine the prevalence of submicroscopic malaria infection, to characterise Plasmodium falciparum infection and compare the prevalence of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria according to haemoglobin profiles. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from children aged <10 years with an axillary temperature ≥37.5 °C consulting the paediatric ward of Marien Ngouabi Hospital in Brazzaville...
September 27, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Hamma Maiga, Estrella Lasry, Modibo Diarra, Issaka Sagara, Amadou Bamadio, Aliou Traore, Samba Coumare, Soma Bahonan, Boubou Sangare, Yeyia Dicko, Nouhoum Diallo, Aly Tembely, Djibril Traore, Hamidou Niangaly, François Dao, Aboubecrine Haidara, Alassane Dicko, Ogobara K Doumbo, Abdoulaye A Djimde
BACKGROUND: Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus amodiaquine (AQ) is being scaled up in Sahelian countries of West Africa. However, the potential development of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to the respective component drugs is a major concern. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted before (August 2012) and after (June 2014) a pilot implementation of SMC in Koutiala, Mali. Children aged 3-59 months received 7 rounds of curative doses of SP plus AQ over two malaria seasons...
2016: PloS One
Mingyue Duan, Jinfeng Xiong, Dandan Lu, Guoxiu Wang, Hui Ai
Mosquito-transmitted diseases like malaria and dengue fever are global problem and an estimated 50-100 million of dengue or dengue hemorrhagic fever cases are reported worldwide every year. The mermithid nematode Romanomermis wuchangensis has been successfully used as an ecosystem-friendly biocontrol agent for mosquito prevention in laboratory studies. However, this nematode can not undergo sex differentiation in vitro culture, which has seriously affected their application of biocontrol in the field. In this study, based on transcriptome sequencing analysis of R...
2016: PloS One
Chao Xu, Qing-Kuan Wei, Jin Li, Ting Xiao, Kun Yin, Chang-Lei Zhao, Yong-Bin Wang, Xiang-Li Kong, Gui-Hua Zhao, Hui Sun, Xin Liu, Bing-Cheng Huang
Malaria remains a serious public health problem in Shandong Province, China; therefore, it is important to explore the characteristics of the current malaria prevalence situation in the province. In this study, data of malaria cases reported in Shandong during 2012-2014 were analyzed, and Plasmodium species were confirmed by smear microscopy and nested-PCR. A total of 374 malaria cases were reported, 80.8% of which were reported from 6 prefectures. Of all cases, P. falciparum was dominant (81.3%), followed by P...
August 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Sarita Mohapatra, Arnab Ghosh, Ruchi Singh, Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Bhawna Sharma, Jyotish Chandra Samantaray, Manorama Deb, Rajni Gaind
Low parasitemic condition in malaria remains a diagnostic challenge; as the available diagnostic methods failed to detect. Currently, hemozoin (Hz) pigment is gaining attention in the diagnosis of malaria. The major drawback is ease of detection of Hz in routine practice. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the role of Hz pigment and to compare the performance of quantitative buffy coat assay (QBC) and PCR in such conditions. Clinically suspected cases of malaria were examined by both Giemsa stain and immunochromatographic test (ICT)...
August 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Johan Ursing, Lars Rombo, Amabelia Rodrigues, Poul-Erik Kofoed
BACKGROUND: Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was introduced for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. Malaria then resurged and recurrent malaria after treatment with AL and stock-outs of AL were common. This study therefore aimed to assess the efficacy of AL and identify an alternative second line antimalarial. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) was chosen as it has been shown to be safe and efficacious and to reduce the incidence of recurrent malaria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a multicentre randomised open-label non-inferiority clinical trial, AL or DP were given over 3 days to children aged 6 months-15 years with uncomplicated P...
2016: PloS One
Fredrick Kateera, Sam L Nsobya, Steven Tukwasibwe, Emmanuel Hakizimana, Leon Mutesa, Petra F Mens, Martin P Grobusch, Michèle van Vugt, Nirbhay Kumar
Faced with intense levels of chloroquine (CQ) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Rwanda replaced CQ with amodiaquine (AQ)+sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in 2001, and subsequently with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in 2006, as first-line treatments for uncomplicated malaria. Following years of discontinuation of CQ use, re-emergence of CQ-susceptible parasites has been reported in countries including Malawi, Kenya and Tanzania. In contrast, high levels of SP resistant mutant parasites continue to be reported even in countries of presumed reduced SP drug selection pressure...
September 17, 2016: Acta Tropica
Romy Kerber, Ralf Krumkamp, Boubacar Diallo, Anna Jaeger, Martin Rudolf, Simone Lanini, Joseph Akoi Bore, Fara Raymond Koundouno, Beate Becker-Ziaja, Erna Fleischmann, Kilian Stoecker, Silvia Meschi, Stéphane Mély, Edmund N C Newman, Fabrizio Carletti, Jasmine Portmann, Misa Korva, Svenja Wolff, Peter Molkenthin, Zoltan Kis, Anne Kelterbaum, Anne Bocquin, Thomas Strecker, Alexandra Fizet, Concetta Castilletti, Gordian Schudt, Lisa Ottowell, Andreas Kurth, Barry Atkinson, Marlis Badusche, Angela Cannas, Elisa Pallasch, Andrew Bosworth, Constanze Yue, Bernadett Pályi, Heinz Ellerbrok, Claudia Kohl, Lisa Oestereich, Christopher H Logue, Anja Lüdtke, Martin Richter, Didier Ngabo, Benny Borremans, Dirk Becker, Sophie Gryseels, Saïd Abdellati, Tine Vermoesen, Eeva Kuisma, Annette Kraus, Britta Liedigk, Piet Maes, Ruth Thom, Sophie Duraffour, Sandra Diederich, Julia Hinzmann, Babak Afrough, Johanna Repits, Marc Mertens, Inês Vitoriano, Amadou Bah, Andreas Sachse, Jan Peter Boettcher, Stephanie Wurr, Sabrina Bockholt, Andreas Nitsche, Tatjana Avšič Županc, Marc Strasser, Giuseppe Ippolito, Stephan Becker, Herve Raoul, Miles W Carroll, Hilde De Clerck, Michel Van Herp, Armand Sprecher, Lamine Koivogui, N'Faly Magassouba, Sakoba Keïta, Patrick Drury, Cèline Gurry, Pierre Formenty, Jürgen May, Martin Gabriel, Roman Wölfel, Stephan Günther, Antonino Di Caro
BACKGROUND:  A unit of the European Mobile Laboratory (EMLab) consortium was deployed to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) treatment unit in Guéckédou, Guinea, from March 2014 through March 2015. METHODS:  The unit diagnosed EVD and malaria, using the RealStar Filovirus Screen reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit and a malaria rapid diagnostic test, respectively. RESULTS:  The cleaned EMLab database comprised 4719 samples from 2741 cases of suspected EVD from Guinea...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
James S McCarthy, Thomas Rückle, Elhadj Djeriou, Cathy Cantalloube, Daniel Ter-Minassian, Mark Baker, Peter O'Rourke, Paul Griffin, Louise Marquart, Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Jörg J Möhrle
BACKGROUND: Ferroquine (SSR97193) is a candidate anti-malarial currently undergoing clinical trials for malaria. To better understand its pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters the compound was tested in the experimentally induced blood stage malaria infection model in volunteers. METHODS: Male and non-pregnant female aged 18-50 years were screened for this phase II, controlled, single-centre clinical trial. Subjects were inoculated with ~1800 viable Plasmodium falciparum 3D7A-infected human erythrocytes, and treated with a single-dose of 800 mg ferroquine...
2016: Malaria Journal
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